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Agricultural Science and Technology - Volume:25 Issue: 5, Sep 2023

Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology
Volume:25 Issue: 5, Sep 2023

  • تاریخ انتشار: 1402/06/10
  • تعداد عناوین: 16
  • A. Fatahi Ardakani*, M. Rezvani, Y. Bostan, F. Sakhi Pages 1015-1031

    Bread is a basic and essential good that has a special importance in the consumer basket of households and constitutes the main food of many people in the world. The main objective of this study was to investigate the consumption behavior of household bread basket using demand systems during 1998-2018. Therefore, estimates of various demand systems including generalized ordinary demand, Almost Ideal Differential Demand, Rotterdam, Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS) and National Bureau of Research (NBR) were used to select the appropriate demand system to calculate the price and income elasticities of bread demand. Based on statistical tests and econometric criteria, the results showed that the generalized ordinary demand system was the most appropriate model for estimating the consumption demand of the bread basket in urban households. The income elasticities of all types of bread were positive, and, for urban consumers, Barbari and industrial bread were essential and Lavash, Sangak, and Taftoon were luxury types. Also, according to the negative expectations and cross elasticities of Sangak with Barbari, self-price elasticities of different types of bread were positive, meaning that Sangak was replaced by Barbari. In addition, the variable effect of subsidy targeting was positive for Taftoon and Lavash breads, negative for Barbari, and meaningless for Sangak. According to the study results, it is suggested that government officials pay special attention to the importance of bread consumption basket and preferences of its consumers in economic policies regarding food and household consumption basket (such as targeted subsidies).

    Keywords: Almost Ideal Differential Demand System, Bread basket, Price Elasticity of Demand, Self-Price Elasticity of Demand
  • S. Ansari, A. Mousavi, M. R. Safarnejad, N. Farrokhi*, S. M. Alavi Pages 1033-1044

    Aspergillus flavus is a major fungal phytopathogen and an opportunistic pathogen to humans and livestock. The fungus produces immunosuppressive and carcinogenic aflatoxins that acts as a burden in food and feed industries. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the cell wall protein, A. flavus mannoprotein 1 (AFLMP1), is exclusively present in Aspergillus section Flavi such as A. flavus and A. parasiticus. This makes AFLMP1 an excellent candidate for siRNA-based control of aflatoxigenic fungi in farms and processing units, and fungal therapy in hospitals. Here and for the first time, mode of action of a chemically synthesized RNA interference (siRNA) was investigated for the control of AFLMP1 synthesis. The efficacy of direct uptake of different concentration of siRNA on spore germination of A. flavus was monitored via Opera High Content Screening confocal microscope. siRNA caused growth inhibition at lower concentrations (0.65 nM) and germination failure (more than 90%) at higher concentrations (5 nM), most likely by interfering in mannoprotein biosynthesis. It is assumed that siRNA technology can be implemented as a promising suppressive agent in treatment of target genes for inactivation. It can be considered as an intervention in food/feed industries to control the development and reproduction of fungi to keep the fungal population below hazard critical points.

    Keywords: Aflatoxin, Aspergillus flavus, Inhibition assay, Opera system
  • Z. Tang, H. Wang, S. Liu*, D. Lu, Y. Tang Pages 1045-1058

    In order to improve the intelligent mechanized harvesting ability of small green vegetables, a self-propelled small green vegetables intelligent combine harvester was designed according to its planting mode and agronomic requirements. It can simultaneously meet the requirements of mechanized harvesting operations for cutting, clamping and conveying, and collecting of small green vegetables. Additionally, this model adopts the electric drive chassis of the pure electric drive intelligent battery management system based on BMS technology, which realizes the intelligent balance matching of power. The harvester adopts the intelligent control system controlled by PLC to automatically detect the walking speed of the machine, the height of the cutter and the transmission speed, etc., so as to realize the rapid matching of each working part. It was found that the proportion of electricity consumption of the harvester in two hours was 23%, with an average harvesting efficiency of 0.16 hm²/h. Besides, the average loss rate was 4.22% during the normal operation of the harvester. This study provides a reference basis for the intelligent mechanized harvesting of small green vegetables.

    Keywords: Electric walking chassis, Human-machine interface, Intelligent control system, Vegetable harvesting, Self-propelled harvester
  • L. Baghazadeh Daryaii, D. Samsampour*, A. Bagheri, J. Sohrabipour Pages 1059-1071

    Bacterial endophytes associated with algae represent a rich source of bioactive metabolites and biostimulants that can be used practically in agriculture as biofertilizer. We carried out a series of experiments to study the diversity of bacterial endophytes associated with seaweed species of the Persian Gulf (PG) and Oman Sea (OS) and their capability in nourishing Mexican lime seedlings. We collected samples of brown, red, and green seaweed species (62 samples of brown, 79 of red and 49 of green) from intertidal zones of PG and OS in southern coastlines of Iran. The isolated bacteria were identified molecularly, morphologically and physiologically. Among 12 bacterial genera identified, the genus Bacillus had the highest frequency (51.51%). In addition to identification, results showed that all bacterial endophytes isolates were negative oxidase, most isolates (81.25 %) were positive catalase and could produce HCN, and all isolates produced IAA, from 0.897 μg mL- 1 in Empedobacter falsenii to 0.085 μg mL-1 in Bacillus zhangzhouensis. Most isolates (96.77%) were able to grow on medium incorporated with different NaCl concentrations. Results of inoculation showed that lime seedlings colonized by B. aquimaris (MT278260), B. megaterium (MN626631) and B. zhangzhouensis (MN611359) had more growth and intended morphological characteristics than those lacking endophytes.

    Keywords: Endophytic bacteria, HCN test, IAA test, Microbial biofertilizer
  • N. Fallahi, S. M. Hosseini, B. Shokri, M. R. Khani* Pages 1073-1087

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of Vacuum Non-thermal Plasma (VNP) on surface decontamination of pistachios. Food safety is considered as a critical issue in food industry, and detoxification is an essential step during food processing. VNP is an effective method on decontamination of food and food processing. In this experiment, the ability of VNP to inactivate highly resistant indicator bacteria Geobacillus stearothermophilus and pistachio contaminating microorganisms was investigated. Firstly, the effect of Vacuum Non-thermal Air Plasma (VNAP) on G. stearothermophilus was investigated at power of 30, 50, 70, and 90W for 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 minutes. The results indicate that the minimum dose of VNAP to completely inactivate G. stearothermophilus was 30 minutes and 50W. So, it can be considered as an Optimum Dose (OD) for VNAP treatment. Thereafter, OD was used to investigate the effects of VNAP and then Nacuum Non-thermal Oxygen Plasma (VNOP) on pistachio contaminating microorganisms. The pistachios samples exposed to VNAP in OD (50W for 30 minutes) showed 1.0 log microbial reduction, while the samples exposed to VNOP in OD showed 2.0 log reduction. Both VNAP and VNOP applied significantly decreased microbial load of pistachios, however, VNOP was more effective than VNAP. Therefore, VNOP in 50W for 30 minutes can be chosen as an OD. Pistachio samples were also analyzed by physicochemical properties in OD. In conclusion, VNP was found to be effective on decontamination of pistachios, with no significant effects on its properties.

    Keywords: Geobacillus stearothermophilus, Optimum Dose (OD), Vacuum Non-thermal Air Plasma (VNAP), Vacuum Non-thermal Plasma (VNP), Vacuum Non-thermal Oxygen Plasma (VNOP)
  • D. Turkmen, A. Dursun, Oguzhan Caliskan, M. Koksal Kavrak, Z. Guler* Pages 1089-1099

    Nowadays, there is considerable interest in plants such as hawthorn that have a rich source of secondary metabolites (volatile and phenolic compounds) in their leaves, with beneficial effects on health. This study investigated the Volatile Compounds (VCs), total phenolic content, and antioxidant activities of Sultan hawthorn leaves collected at three different times based on fruit maturity stages (immature, mature, and over-mature). Our main goal was to determine whether the volatile profile, total phenolic content, and antioxidant activity would change depending on the leaf collection time. A total of 78 VCs were identified in the leaves, 11 of which were for the first time. With the progress in fruit maturity, the levels of most VCs varied, the phenolic content and antioxidant activity increased, and acidity decreased. Benzaldehyde and α-farnesene were the principal VCs accounting for 61% of total VCs identified in leaf at the overmature stage. The principal component analysis successfully separated volatile compounds in hawthorn leaves along the fruit maturity stages. For the first time, the present study provided a general overview of the secondary metabolites in leaves from Sultan hawthorn cultivar along fruit maturity stages. The hawthorn leaf collected at the overmature fruit stage proved to have high potential in secondary metabolites and antioxidant capacity.

    Keywords: Overmature fruit stage, Secondary metabolites
  • K. Eyidozehi, S. Ravan*, M. Soufbaf, M. R. Razvan, A. Khani Pages 1101-1114

    Biological parameters and life tables are the most appropriate criteria for measuring a population’s adaptation to environmental and dietary circumstances. The effects of temperatures 10, 14, 20, 25, 27, 30, 33, and 35℃ on biological and life table parameters of the carob moth Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Zeller) [a 10:14 hour (D: L cycle) and 65±5% RH] were experimentally studied. Based on the age-stage, two-sex life table theory, data were analyzed at different temperatures. The findings indicated that by increasing temperature, the mean incubation period of eggs, larvae, pupae, total immature development time, and adult longevity change significantly. The Adult Pre-Oviposition Periods (APOP) were 1.75, 1.93, 1.14, 1.06, 1.06, 1.09, 0.68, and 0.68 days, with Total Pre-Oviposition Period of (TPOP), 110.56, 93.82, 81.59, 42.8, 39.3, 33.96, 30, and 27.96 days at the experimental temperatures of 10, 14, 20, 25, 27, 30, 33, and 35℃, respectively. At the study temperature, the total life span was 121.22, 101.15, 88.82, 48.02, 44.55, 39.53, 34.83, and 32.73 days, respectively. The intrinsic rates of increase (r) were -0.0016 d-1 at 10℃ and 0.0085 d-1 at 30℃. The highest finite rate of population increase (λ) was 1.0086 at 30℃, and the minimum finite rate was 0.9915, at 35℃. At 35℃, the minimum mean generation Time (T) was 28.87 days. The net Reproductive rates (R0) were 0.83, 1.08, 1.1, 1.03, 1.03, 1.35, 1.02, and 0.78, at the experimental temperatures.

    Keywords: Cohort-based life tables, Pomegranate, Rate of population increase
  • M. A. M. Moustafa*, D. E. El-Hefny, R. N. Abdel-Kerim, M. A. Kandil Pages 1115-1128

    Tomatoes are an important vegetable crop in different parts of the world, where they are grown year-round. Currently, the most important problem facing tomato growers in the world is the devastating damage caused by the invasive tomato leaf miner, Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Gelechiidae: Lepidoptera). In this study, the efficacy of three bioinsecticides (Bacillus thuringiensis formulations, spinosad and emamectin benzoate, and two chemical insecticides (indoxacarb and chlorpyrifos) against T. absoluta and their adverse effects on predators were conducted in two different governorates in Egypt, based on recommended doses of the tested insecticides. In addition, the residue dissipation of the tested insecticides was determined in tomato fruits. Results indicated that emamectin benzoate was the most effective insecticide, exhibiting the highest reduction in T. absoluta density of 78.05 and 87.11% in Giza and Qualybia governorates, respectively, followed by indoxacarb (77.01%) in Giza and spinosad (80.44%) in Qualybia. In addition, our finding proved that the tested biopesticide formulations, especially Bt formulations, are environmentally friendly to two of the most important predators in tomato cultivation: Nesidiocoris tenuis and Macrolophus pygmaeus Reuter. Moreover, the analysis of insecticide residues on tomato fruits revealed that bioinsecticide residues dissipated faster than conventional insecticide (chlorpyrifos). The results of this research suggested that bioinsecticides could be used for the management of T. absoluta under field conditions.

    Keywords: Bioinsecticides, Macrolophus pygmaeus, Nesidiocoris tenuis, Residue, Tuta absoluta
  • A. Kabas*, I. Celik, I. Sonmez, O. Kabas, H. Ilbi Pages 1129-1142

    Tomato is one of the worldwide major foods consumed fresh, cooked, or processed. Mineral elements, vitamins, and antioxidant content of tomatoes are of interest because of their nutritional value and beneficial health effects. The present study was performed to evaluate the macro- and micro-elements contents of leaves and fruits of seven wild tomato species, in addition to morphological traits. Wild tomato species had variations for all elements in fruits. Coefficient of variation was calculated for elements as 18.50 to 94.32% for potassium and phosphor, respectively. Most of the wild tomato species had higher content of all mineral elements than cultivated tomato. Resistance genes (Frl, I-2, I-3, Mi-3, Pto Ty-1, Ty-3 and Sw-5) of wild tomato species were screened using molecular markers. LA1971, with six resistant genes, and LA1393 and LA1777, with five resistant genes, were considered the most promising parental candidates for breeding. The results of the analysis of mineral elements of seven wild tomatoes species are useful for future tomato breeding.

    Keywords: Mineral elements, Parental selection, Marker assisted selection, Molecular markers
  • M. Zare, M. Rahemi*, S. Eshghi Pages 1143-1154

    Alternate bearing is one of the most important problems in olive production around the world. This experiment was performed on 25-year-old olive trees of Tokhme Kabki cultivar in an olive orchard located in Shiraz, in 2018-2019. In this experiment, the role of normal fruits, shot berries, fruit removal, and Gibberellic Acid (GA3) application on the amount and type of return flower were determined. We demonstrated that seed has a significant role in flower induction in olive. Shot berry fruits actually induced return bloom and removing the fruit before pit hardening stimulates induction of flower bud in ʻTokhme Kabkiʼ olive cultivar. GA3 application before pit hardening significantly inhibited flower formation. Endogenous GA3-like substances was also determined in fruit flesh and seed tissues support the idea that, high concentration of GA3-like during pit hardening is responsible for the inhibition of flowering. According to the rapid increase in GA3-like substances in the fruit tissues, it appears that this compound may be transferred to the buds and then directed toward vegetative growth. Data suggest that GA3-like level in the fruit flesh and seed tissues is one of the main factors in alternate bearing of olive tree. Therefore, thinning the seeded fruit till 6 weeks after full bloom or before pit hardening would be effective in reducing the concentration of GA3 in the olive tree and reducing the severity of alternate bearing.

    Keywords: Alternate bearing, Full bloom, GA3 application, Seeded fruit, Shotberry fruit
  • S. Paunovic*, P. Maskovic, M. Milinkovic, Z. Karaklajic-Stajic, J. Tomic, B. Rilak Pages 1155-1166

    An experiment was conducted during eight years (2012–2019) to examine the effect of climatic variations (air temperature and precipitation) on the nutritional quality of berries of three black currant cultivars (‘Ben Lomond’, ‘Titania’ and ‘Čačanska Crna’). HPLC was used for the determination of sugars and organic acids extracted from berries, while ascorbic acid and minerals were evaluated by spectrophotometry. Results indicated that the chemical profile of black currants varied among cultivars. ‘Ben Lomond’ and ‘Čačanska Crna’ exhibited excellent chemical characteristics of the berries, primarily in terms of their high sugars and organic acids content, but ‘Čačanska Crna’ stood out for its highest values of ascorbic acid. Also, seasonal variations caused by temperatures and precipitation affected the biosynthesis of primary metabolites in berries. The heavier precipitation and lower temperatures during berry formation and ripening promoted the accumulation of organic acids and ascorbic acid, as well as minerals P and Fe. Conversely, moderate temperatures and rainfall amounts promoted the synthesis of soluble solids, sugars and proteins, whereas higher temperatures and lower precipitation amount enhanced accumulation of the other tested minerals. PCA analysis showed the correlations among the cultivar/year interactions and identified group patterns. The results showed that the chemical properties of black currant not only depend on the genetic predisposition of the cultivar but also on climatic conditions like air temperature and precipitation, which have an important effect on nutrient metabolism in plants and promote biosynthesis and accumulation of primary metabolites in berries.

    Keywords: Climatic variations, Primary metabolites, Ribes nigrum L
  • O. Akat Saracoglu* Pages 1167-1177

    This study aimed to contribute to the reduction of environmental pollution through the reuse of the Hoagland solution drained from lettuce by soilless growth system in ornamental kale. The study was set up in two greenhouses using lettuce and ornamental kale in soilless culture. The lettuce cultivation was conducted to supply the waste drainage solution; therefore, the lettuce analyses were not included in the study. Both plants were set up with 3 replicates random blocks trial design in solid media culture and open feeding system. In the study, 3 salinity levels (S0: Control, S1: Waste drainage solution salinity concentration, S2: S1+1 dS m-1 NaCI) were used. The greatest plant height and leaf width were obtained in the control and in the S1, in which a drainage solution was used in ornamental kale cultivation. The plant diameter, leaf height and visual value decreased with increasing salinity. It was concluded that appropriate management of recycled drainage water could be an alternative for ornamental kale production in soilless culture.

    Keywords: Ornamental cabbage, Recycled drainage solution, Salinity, Soilless culture
  • N. Razazi, A. A. Jafari, Z. Khodarahmpour*, S. Sadat Pages 1179-1191

    The genus Stachys L., (Lamiaceae family) has several spicy and aromatic species. In order to investigate the diversity of aerial biomass, morphological traits, and essential oil yield, 47 populations out of five species including S. lavandulifolia, S. laxa, S. inflata, S. germanica and S. byzantina were evaluated during two years, at a research farm in Khorramabad, Iran. The traits such as plant height, leaf length, leaf width, stem number, stem diameter, vegetation cover, 1,000 seed weight, and aerial dry (DM) yield in all 47 populations were measured. The essential oil was extracted using the hydrodistillation method with a Clevenger-type apparatus. The essential oil compounds were detected using GC and GC/MS. Data were analyzed using nested ANOVA with Minitab16 software. The results showed that both S. germanica and S. byzantina had higher aerial biomass than the other species. The Saveh and Tehran populations of S. inflata, the populations of Qazvin and Qorveh in S. lavandulifolia, and the populations of Ardebil and Semirom in S. Byzantine were superior to the others for the measured traits. For essential oil yields (w/w), the highest and lowest values were 2.0 and 0.8%, obtained in S. byzantina and S. lavandulifolia, respectively. Phytochemical analyses of S. lavandulifolia identified 43 compounds. The main compounds were β-eudesmol (3.48%), germacrene-D (4.59%), δ-cadinol (4.69%), bicyclogermacrene (6.85%), δ-cadinene (9.69%), spathulenol (10.08%) and α-cadinol (12.86%). S. lavandulifolia, with early maturity and higher essential oil, was recommended for domestication and breeding of improved varieties.

    Keywords: Phytochemical trait, S. byzantine, S. germanica, S. inflata, S. lavandulifolia, S. laxa
  • R. Dastjerdi*, D. Hassani, S. Nadi, A. Soleimani Pages 1193-1207

    Anthracnose, caused by Ophiognomonia leptostyl Fr., is one of the most destructive walnut (Juglans regia L.) foliar diseases in the world. To facilitate development of cultivars in new growing areas, four recently released cultivars in Iran (‘Alvand’, ‘Chaldoran’, ‘Caspian’, and ‘Persia’), a local promising genotype (C25), ‘Hartley’, ‘Ronde de Montignac’, and K72 were examined for their response to the anthracnose attack. Fully expanded leaflets of grafted plants were inoculated by fungal conidia in two consecutive years. The number and size of necrotic spots were recorded at 15-day intervals until 45 days after inoculation. According to the data of 30th day, the maximum number of necrotic lesions belonged to ‘Alvand’ while the largest spots developed on K72 and ‘Chaldoran’. Cultivars were categorized into six susceptibility classes depending on Necrotic Leaflet Area (NLA). The average of NLA ranged from 0.61% (‘Ronde de Montignac’) to 99.94% (in K72). All tested cultivars, except ‘Ronde de Montignac’ and ‘Hartley’, were susceptible, but symptoms development and disease severity varied among the cultivars. ‘Persia’ exhibited a low level of infection and was relatively resistant. ‘Caspian’ with an average NLA of 20% was slightly susceptible. ‘Alvand’ and C25 grouped as susceptible and moderately susceptible, respectively. K72 and ‘Chaldoran’ showed the maximum level of infection. The amount of disease was intensified in ‘Caspian’, C25 and ‘Alvand’ between the days of 30-45 after inoculation, while ‘Ronde de Montignac’, ‘Hartley’ and ‘Persia’ appeared consistently more resistant even 45 days after inoculation. These three cultivars could be used in integrated management approaches to control anthracnose in walnut orchards.

    Keywords: Disease resistance, Foliar diseases, Juglans regia, Integrated disease Management
  • J. V. O. Borges, V. Andaló*, L. E. Temporim, L. P. M. Arriero, L. M. R. Lima, L. S. De Faria Pages 1209-1220

    The Neotropical brown stink bug, Euschistus heros (Fabricius), is considered a pest in soybean that is difficult to control and leads to deterioration of grains and reduced production. Entomopathogenic nematodes can be used to control insect pests and can also be a complementary tool in the management of the Neotropical brown stink bug. They also exhibit significant compatibility with chemical phytosanitary products. Thus, this study aimed to determine the virulence, production, and concentration of entomopathogenic nematodes in the Neotropical brown stink bug, as well as their compatibility with chemical phytosanitary products. Six nematode isolates, administered in the concentration of 100 Infective Juveniles (IJs) adult-1, were evaluated. Subsequently, Heterorhabditis amazonensis MC01 was evaluated at concentrations of 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 IJs adult-1. The evaluations were carried out by determining Neotropical brown stink bug mortality and the production of IJs. The compatibility tests consisted of evaluating the viability and infectivity of two nematode isolates incubated in contact with 11 phytosanitary products for 48 hours. The virulence test showed up to 48% Neotropical brown stink bug mortality after 7 days. A greater concentration of IJs was produced for H. amazonensis MC01, compared to Steinernema feltiae, reaching 101,000 and 97,800 IJs adult-1, respectively. The application of 150 IJs adult-1 was associated with the highest mortality of E. heros and the highest production of IJs. Methomyl and profenofos were incompatible with both tested nematodes and chlorpyrifos was incompatible with H. amazonensis MC01. The compatibility of the chemical products with nematodes highlights the possibility of application in association with entomopathogenic nematodes to control E. heros. Products considered incompatible should be avoided, and further tests should be performed to confirm the results in field conditions.

    Keywords: Biological control, Glycine max, Heterorhabditis, Steinernema, Soybean
  • M. Saraei, M. Moballeghi, M. Nasiri*, M. Neshaee-Moghaddam Pages 1221-1236

    Leaves are the most important photosynthetic sources in rice plant. In order to analyze growth indices and determine the contribution of leaves to grain filling, a study was carried out with nine genotypes and six levels of source limitations at grain filling stage in 2017-2018, at the Rice Research Institute of Iran, Mazandaran. The experiment was carried out as a split plot in the form of a randomized complete block design with three replications and placing the genotypes in the main plot and leaf cutting treatments in the sub- plots. The results showed that genotype 959 had the highest Leaf Area Index (LAI) at the flowering stage. The highest Crop Growth Rate (CGR) with 23.3 g m-2 and Net Assimilating Rate (NAR) with 7.5 g m-2 belonged to the genotype 952. Genotypes 957 and 959 had the highest number of tillers and genotype 952 had the highest yield. The results of combined analysis of variance revealed that leaf removal treatments had significant effects on 1000-grain weight, percent of filled grains and paddy yield per hill (P< 1% ). The comparison of means between two years showed that leaf removal treatment caused significant decrease in panicle length, grain length and number of filled and total number of grains per hill. The highest yield reduction of 47.7 and 46.5% occurred in treatment of complete leaf removal for genotypes 953 and 954, respectively. The most destructive level of leaf removal treatments was the removal of all leaves, two top leaves, all leaves except flag leaf, flag leaf and all leaves except upper two leaves which caused paddy yield losses of, respectively, 37.4, 20.2, 16.5, 14.1, and 9.4%, compared to the control (no removal of leaves) with 6133 kg ha-1. According to the results, about 90% of the carbohydrates needed by rice in the grain filling stage are provided by the upper two leaves in each rice plant.

    Keywords: Grain filling, Growth indices, Leaf removal, Physiological indicators, Source-Sink relation