فهرست مطالب

پژوهشنامه ایران باستان - پیاپی 8 (Winter 2023)

Ancient Iranian Studies
پیاپی 8 (Winter 2023)

  • تاریخ انتشار: 1402/10/11
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Ali Nourallahi * Pages 3-14
    In the north of Ilam province, there are vast plains surrounded by rugged and forested mountains. Until many years ago, other than the Hollailan Plain that was examined by a Danish archaeological team, other regions of Ilam province remain unknown in terms of Paleolithic research. However, several sites from this period have been identified and introduced in recent years thanks to new studies and researches. In 2003, the author conducted a survey of the mountainous and forested areas of the Intermountain Plain of Aseman Abad for the first time. During the course of that survey, sites, and settlements from different periods were identified and studied. The results showed that the slopes and caves of this region have evidence from the Lower Paleolithic to the Upper Paleolithic periods and even later periods. In the current article, the author examines a cave and an open site located in the vicinity of the aforementioned plain, which, considering the presence of chert and flint rock formations on its surface level, as well as scattered remains near these rocks, appears to have been a place for obtaining stone and making tools during the Paleolithic era.
    Keywords: Aseman Abad, Eshkaft (Cave), Open Site of Pal Hesseinali
  • Reza Mehrafarin * Pages 15-27
    The Sistan region has played a prominent role in establishing and expanding civilization in the eastern region of Iran in different historical periods. The region’s favorable environmental conditions, including abundant water, fertile soil, and diverse flora and fauna, attracted various ethnic groups to settle and achieve significant advancements by constructing numerous cities and settlements. Over its documented existence, Sistan with a rich collection of historic buildings and archeological sites has experienced three periods of extensive settlement and three periods of non-settlement, commonly referred to as gap periods. Multiple factors have contributed to the development of Sistan socially and settlement wise. This article aims to identify the influential factors in the cycle of formation and collapse of civilizations in Sistan by examining geographical, historical, and archaeological factors. Among these, water availability, political considerations, and other natural and human-related aspects stand out as the main contributors to this cyclic pattern.
    Keywords: Sistan, Civilization, archaeological investigations, Geographical Phenomena
  • Zahra Rajabioun * Pages 29-42
    The customs surrounding burials hold significant importance as they shed light on the social and religious aspects of any given society. Shahr-i Sokhta is an ancient site of a sizable Bronze Age urban settlement, associated with the Helmand culture that dates back to the 3rd millennium BC. This is of great importance considering the fact that the information gathered from cemetery there proves instrumental in reconstructing the customs prevalent in this settlement. This article focuses on the changes observed in burial practices of Shahr-i Sokhta, specifically from period one to period four, and examines their correlation with the gender of the deceased. The study utilizes data obtained from excavations carried out during seven seasons between 1997 and 2003. A total of 213 burials with identifiable settlement periods were selected for the analysis. The study employed the SPSS statistical software and considered four factors: settlement periods, the number of burial objects, objects of significance, and gender. The settlement periods were treated as independent variables, while the remaining factors were dependent variables. The findings indicate a gradual increase in social class distinctions from the first period to the fourth period. Notably, these class differences are comparatively less pronounced during periods one and two.
    Keywords: Shahr-i Sokhta, Customs, Burial
  • Georgios Kakouris * Pages 43-56
    The paper at hand deals with Zoroastrian eschatology. Frashokereti, as it is called, is the term which is used in Zoroastrianism in order to express the end of times. This being the main focus of the current paper, the topics that will be unfolded are the arrival of the Saoshyant, who is the central Zoroastrian salvific figure and Zarathustra’s biological descendant who has been miraculously born of a virgin, the resurrection of the dead, their last judgement and the final battle between the forces of good and evil. The general clash between good and evil acquires a more precise character and becomes personified in the deities of Ahura Mazda and Ahriman respectively, the fundamental sources of morality and immorality. Regarding the above, the interrelated themes of man’s salvation and the restoration of the universe to its primary undefiled state are presented as results of the victory of good over evil. It will also be displayed how the concept of universal renewal is viewed not merely as a countdown, but moreover as a stepping-backwards to the conditions of the first state of creation, Frashokereti becoming thus a mirror of the first things in terms of Zoroastrian cosmogony. At the same time, other aspects, namely the Zoroastrian story of creation, its corresponding cosmology, the dichotomization of the world into two opposite spheres and the dualism that penetrates the universe in relation to the free will of man are introduced to the reader, so that a deeper understanding may be acquired in regard to the ways, the quality and the content of universal purification and renovation.
    Keywords: dualism, eschatology, mirror, Renovation, resurrection, salvation
  • Mehdi Rahbar * Pages 57-83
    A dakhma, also known as Tower of Silence is a place where Zoroastrian people used to put the dead bodies of their loved ones. A similar structure from the Sasanian period was discovered in Bandian Dargaz, along with excavations conducted at Gelālak of Shushtar, Saleh Davood of Shush, and Shoghab of Bushehr, as well as other researches and excavations across various regions of Iran. It provides evidence that Zoroastrians practiced a burial ritual involving the removal of flesh from the body of the deceased and subsequent collection of bones, which were then placed in a container known as an ossuary. This intriguing method served as a motivation for the author to undertake more extensive studies on Zoroastrian burial rituals. This article focuses on the archaeological excavations conducted in the Torkabad’s Dakhma of Ardakan, Yazd, shedding light on this particular aspect.
    Keywords: Zoroastrian, Torkabad’s Dakhma, Ardakan, Yazd
  • Esmail Yaghmaei * Pages 85-88
    The study tries to discuss a Golden Bowl which is kept at the Mostazafan Foundation’s Cultural Institution of Museum. Such bowls and vessels were primarily produced along the southern shores of the Caspian Sea, particularly in the Rudbar region, and later in Azerbaijan. In this article, the author studies this bowl based on iconography and argues that this was related to the first millennium BC.
    Keywords: Golden Bowl, Caspian Region, Cultural Institution of Museum
  • Morteza Arabzadeh Sarbanani * Pages 89-93
    The subject of incestuous marriage has been one of the most controversial issues and debates in Iranian history. Not many historians have paid attention to this matter and it seems that even studying this topic is taboo, especially among Iranian scholars. On the other hand, the problem has gotten more complicated since the Islamic revolution, as some zealous islamists use this to humiliate the pre-Islamic history of Iran. Subsequently, Iranian nationalists and patriots have denied the existence of any incest in ancient Persia. In such a political environment, very few Iranian scholars have come up with valuable historical research, free of any prejudices. Yet their research is still scant compared to their Western colleagues. That is why Paul John Frandsen’s Incestuous and Close-Kin Marriage in Ancient Egypt and Persia should be taken seriously, as it evaluates many previous opinions about incest in ancient Iran with a critical approach, highlights their flaws, adopts a new method, and proposes new hypotheses.  As the name of the book suggests, this work is about ancient Persia (Iran) and Egypt and explains that no direct link can be seen between incestuous marriage in these two ancient civilizations. This review concerns the part of the book dealing with Persia.
    Keywords: Persia, incest, Close-kin Marriage, Zoroastrianism
  • Manuchar Gugushvili * Pages 95-99
    The Sasanian Empire was one of the ancient superpowers, and for four centuries ruled over a vast region stretching from Syria and the Caucasus to Transoxiana (Central Asia) and the Persian Gulf. Sasanian Archaeology: Settlements, Environment and Material Culture, is a new book that also includes articles in this regard, edited by St. John Simpson and published by Archaeopress.
    Keywords: Sasanian Archaeology, archaeological findings, Persian Gulf