فهرست مطالب

Global Journal of Animal Scientific Research
Volume:12 Issue: 1, Winter 2024

  • تاریخ انتشار: 1403/02/16
  • تعداد عناوین: 6
  • Idris Ibrahim Adamu* Pages 1-10

    The possibility of using natural growth promoters or non-anti-biotic growth promoters as feed additives derived from herbs and spices or other plants in poultry nutrition to maximize their potential output has been extensively researched for the past three decades. Black pepper is one of such potential spices with a wide range of medicinal effects. In poultry birds, this spice has been used in different forms, dosages as well as period of time. This review, documented potentials application of black pepper in poultry nutrition on feed intake and efficiency, growth performance, body weight gain, carcass yield, egg production and quality, gut function, antioxidants and blood biochemistry with their possible mechanism of actions is discussed.

    Keywords: Black pepper, King of spices, Gut micro-biota, Herbs, medicinal plant, Metabolism
  • Zemedkun Diffe* Pages 11-18

    Goats are an integral part of the livestock sub sector in Ethiopia. Rearing of the Goats plays a crucial role in lives of the agrarian and some pastoral communities. husbandry practice/management of the goats include but not limited to housing, herding, feeding, watering and castration. The basic requirement of good goat housing is that it should alter or modify the environment for the benefit of goats and protect them from the vagaries of nature, predation and theft. A good understanding of the community’s herding practices is crucial to bring sustainable improvement to the smallholder’s flock through community-based strategies. Feed resource of goats in Ethiopia varies from natural shrubs and bushes, to conserved hay and crop residues. The variations in feed resources are observed across the seasons as well as the production systems where they are raised. This may be because type and quantity of feed resources in any area depends on environmental conditions and other associated factors. Drinking water is an absolute requirement for goats and an absence of a sufficient supply of water can be a critically limiting factor in animal/goat physiology and productivity. Insufficient water supply causes physiological disturbances and thereby the overall digestibility of the feed consumed. Castration is the blocking of buck’s sperm from testicles to avoid sperm in their ejaculation, which is one of the most important farm activities to prevent unwanted pregnancies in the flock, control aggression, and improve the quality of meat. Goat production in Ethiopia is constrained by several biotic and abiotic causes. Generally, the major constraints facing goat production throughout the country are mostly similar except their importance which varies across different areas.

    Keywords: Constraints, Ethiopia, Husbandry Practice
  • Mohammed Yousuf, Abdi Yusuf, Ibsadin Mohammed Pages 19-36

    This comprehensive review delves into the intricate landscape of contemporary animal breeding and genetic technologies, with a specific focus on enhancing cattle production and productivity. The analysis encompasses critical issues such as management challenges, animal welfare considerations, environmental impacts, and socio-cultural nuances associated with genetic engineering in agriculture. The document offers insights into the economic hurdles faced by developing nations in adopting biotechnology and explores the ethical and cultural dimensions surrounding these advancements. Emphasizing the delicate balance required for leveraging the potential of genetic technologies, this review provides valuable perspectives on navigating challenges while harnessing the benefits of cutting-edge biotechnological approaches in the realm of animal agriculture.

    Keywords: Breeding, Genetics, Technologies, Cattle, Production, Ethiopia
  • Alhassan Mohammed*, Rufina Nindow Pages 37-57

    An experiment was conducted to assess the nutritive value of Cassia siamea flower meal. The flowers were harvested around Nyankpala Campus by hand plugging. The flowers were shade-dried to a moisture content of about 10%. The dried flowers were milled to pass through a 2mm sieve using a hummer mill and bagged. The Cassia siamea flower meal was labeled CSFM. Samples of the dried flowers were repackaged for laboratory investigations. Varying levels (0, 20, 40, and 60g/kg) were also included in broiler chicken diets for digestibility and growth performance tests. The proximate composition of the CSFM revealed that the material contained high levels of dry matter (96.5%) and nitrogen-free extractive (73.06%). However, the material contained a relatively low level of crude protein (8. 2%). Other components include crude fiber (11.5%), ether extract (2.83%), and ash (4.40%). Interestingly, the CSFM contained an appreciable quantity of metabolizable energy (3092 Kcal/kg). Fiber fraction determination from the CSFM revealed that the material contained neutral detergent fiber (32.95 g/kg), acid detergent fiber (21.95 g/kg) and hemi-cellulose (11.00 g/kg). Screening for mineral content of CSFM revealed the presence of the following minerals; calcium (0.64%), phosphorus (0.26%), potassium (1.28%), magnesium (0.13%), manganese (26.5 mg/kg), zinc (mg/kg) and iron (100 mg/kg). The inclusion of CSFM at varying levels (0, 20, 40, and 60 g/kg) in broiler chicken diets did not affect (p>0.05) dry matter, organic matter, crude fiber, and nitrogen-free extractives digestibility in broiler chickens. However, crude protein digestibility was significantly reduced (p<0.001) between birds fed the control diet and those fed diets containing CSFM. Crude protein digestibility was reduced by almost 26% when CSFM was included in the diets. More so, diets containing CSFM at 20, 40, and 60 g/kg had similar (p>0.05) crude protein digestibility. The inclusion of CSFM in the diets of broiler chickens improved (p<0.05) ether extract digestibility by an average of 24%. However, the birds fed diets containing CSFM at 20, 40, and 60 g/kg had similar (p>0.05) ether extract digestibility. There was a significant (p<0.001) difference among the treatment groups in terms of weight gain. Birds fed the control diet had the highest (p<0.001) weight gain among the treatment groups. However, birds fed diets containing 20 and 40 g/kg of CSFM had similar (p>0.05) weight gain and higher (p<0.001) than those birds fed diets containing 60 g/kg of CSFM. There were significant (p<0.001) differences among the treatment groups in terms of carcass dress weight. Birds fed diets containing 0 and 20 g/kg of CSFM had similar (p>0.05) carcass dress weights. More so, those birds fed diets containing 0 and 4 g/kg of CSFM also had similar (p>0.05) carcass dress weights. However, birds fed diets containing 60 g/kg of CSFM had the lowest (p<0.001) carcass dress weight. Carcass dressing percentage did not (p>0.05) vary among the treatment groups. It was concluded that CSFM contained high DM, NFE, and ME contents but low CP content. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of anti-nutritional factors and its inclusion in broiler chicken diets significantly reduced CP digestibility and improved EE digestibility. Growth performance was also adversely affected.

    Keywords: Broilers, Flower Meal, Digestibility, Growth, Chemical Components
  • Bainesagn Wolelie, Million Tadesse Pages 58-74

    This study evaluated the effect of single and double-dose injections of prostaglandin hormone in the Adaberga, Ejere, and Metarobi districts. 130 cows or heifers were injected with single and double doses of prostaglandin to evaluate the effectiveness based on estrus induction, conception rate, and number of services per conception. Cow/heifers that did not respond by a single injection were reinjected with another single dose of prostaglandin. Descriptive statistics, Frequency distribution procedures, and Chi-Square test were used. Among cows or heifers treated with a single dose of prostaglandin 43.68%, 29.23%, and 27.69% open heat, silent heat, and no response respectively. There was a significant difference between breeds in silent-responded cows/heifers and local silent-responded cows /heifers were greater than the crossed-responded cows/heifers. Estrus rate was estimated to be 61.36%, 81.82%, and 73.81% in Adaberga, Ejere, and Metarobi for a single dose of prostaglandin injection respectively. There was a significant difference between AITS on the estrus rate. The conception rate for a single dose of prostaglandin was 40.7%, 72.22%, and 64.52% in Adaberga, Ejere, and Metarobi whereas the number of services per conception was 2.46, 1.56 and 1.55 in Adaberga, Ejere and Metarobi respectively. The overall conception rate and number of services per conception for a single dose of prostaglandin injection was 57.44 % and 1.74 respectively. The overall estrus rate, conception rate, and number of services per conception for both single and double doses of prostaglandin injection were 83.85%, 52.29%, and 1. 91 respectively. Improvements in facilities and management should be necessary before implementing effective estrous synchronization and mass artificial insemination programs. The skill and knowledge-based training for enhancement estrus synchronization must be given to both the farmers and implementers to enhance perception and adoption of the technology. The AITS must update recent skills and knowledge. Finally, evaluating the effect of single and double doses of prostaglandin injection serves as a basis for improvement of the fertility of dairy cows in turn it will help in designing appropriate breeding strategies for dairy cattle.

    Keywords: Prostaglandin, Estrus, Dairy
  • Nibo Beneberu* Pages 75-91

    The data collected from 1986 to 2019 at Adea-Berga Jersey herd improvement farm was used to estimate genetic parameters for reproductive traits (age at first service (AFS), age at first calving (AFC), calving interval (CI), days open (DO) and the number of services per conception (NSPC)). The traits were estimated by using WOMBAT software. Univariate analysis was undertaken for each trait for the estimation of parameters (heritability, repeatability, and breeding values) and genetic and phenotypic correlations were estimated with bivariate analysis. The direct heritability estimates for AFS, AFC, CI, DO and NSPC were 0.05±0.08, 0.05±0.05, 0.03±0.02, 0.04±0.02 and 0.001±0.02, respectively. Low direct heritability estimates for the reproductive trait in this study indicate that improvements of the traits are possible through management rather than through genetic selection. The repeatability of CI, DO and NSPC were 0.09±0.02, 0.08±0.02, and 0.05±0.02, respectively. The genetic correlations between reproductive traits varied from -0.10±00 to 1.00±0.11 while the values of phenotypic correlation were found ranging from 0.03±0.04 to 0.98±0.00. The positive direct genetic correlations among traits in the present study indicated that the selection of one trait might improve the other trait. The average breeding values for AFS, AFC, CI, DO and NSPC were -0.00948 months, 0.02269 months, -1.13339 days, -3.00389 days, and -0.00021, respectively. The negative breeding values for reproductive traits tend to be associated with below-average performance. In conclusion, improvement of management (feeding, disease climate control, etc.) should be implemented to improve the reproductive traits of the pure Jersey cattle population. Selection and breeding using worldwide sire semen in the farm also creates genetic variability within the herd and improves heritability, genetic correlations among reproductive traits, and breeding values.

    Keywords: Breeding value, genetic parameters, genetic trend, pure Jersey cows, reproductive traits