فهرست مطالب

ذهن - سال هشتم شماره 3 (پیاپی 31، پائیز 1386)
  • سال هشتم شماره 3 (پیاپی 31، پائیز 1386)
  • 195 صفحه، بهای روی جلد: 16,500ريال
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1386/08/15
  • تعداد عناوین: 11
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  • Alireza Ghaeminia Page 3
    Muslim scholars are various opinions concerning miracle of the Holy Quran. The present article concerns the question “Can one adopt a new approach to this subject based on modern linguistics?”. According to the author, the Holy Quran contains a sort of fundamental miracle which may be called “cognitive miracle”. This kind of miracle can be explained based on cognitive linguistic analyses. In the first step, the author will introduce some examples of the Holy Quran’s conceptualizations. Then, he will mention some of its various aspects.
    Keywords: Cognitive linguistics, cognitive, conceptualization, conceptual synthesis, window of notice, illusive motion
  • Mahdi Ghawamsafari Page 33
    As the first step of the dialectic of knowledge, sense perception is of paramount importance for Plato. But if one stops in this stage, no knowledge will be produced. According to him, when one leaves this stage and two other stages (i.e. opinion and reasoning) behind, truth will be illuminated for him, and it is this Illumination which forms real knowledge. Thus, truth is illuminated in the process of epistemological dialectical motion in a certain moment. For Suhrawardi, on the other hand, if there will be no veil between man’s soul and a thing, he will acquire knowledge of that thing, since Suhrawardi regards man’s soul as immaterial light. According to him, world and what is in it is lightened by Illumination of the Light of lights, and if the soul notices something, knowledge will be produced (of course, as regards to material things, if man’s eyes are sound; and as transcendent truths, if his soul is purified). In other words, unlike Plato, Suhrawardi thinks that even sense perception is a product of Illumination, and thus it is knowledge. In the present article, the author has tried to explain the two opinions concerning Illumination (while the latter is more general than the former).
    Keywords: Illumination, Vision, Observation, light, darkness
  • Mahdi Abbaszadeh Page 51
    The notions of intuition (as a source of knowledge) and time have been, since olden times, noticed by thinkers and philosophers. The notion of time may be traced back to the ancient Greece, and it still continues to be discussed in the present century. This notion finds a key place in some philosophies such as that of Bergson in the Western world and Mulla Sadra's philosophy in the Islamic world. Bergson thought begins through a new glance on this key and pivotal notion. In Mulla Sadra's thought, "existence"- and not "time"- is the main notion; but the notions of substantial motion and principiality of existence are intertwined with that of "time", and evidently time finds an important role. In this writing, at first, the author discusses Bergson's intuitive approach to the notion of time and results of such approach in other philosophical subjects such as nature of matter, free will, religion and ethics, relation between the soul and body, life, and God. Then, he will discusses substantial motion and principiality of existence in Mulla Sadra's thinking in brief and as much as the scope of this writing allows, and introduces Mulla Sadra's three understandings of the notion of time. In the conclusion, he will make a comparison between the ideas of Bergson and Mulla Sadra taking into account similarities and differences between ideas of the two philosophers concerning intuition and essence of time.
    Keywords: intuition, time, place, lasting, matter, life, free will, God, existence, quiddity, motion, substantial motion
  • Hadi Vakili Page 77
    The Kantian term “rational illumination” which has become popular mostly in post-Kantian philosophy, barely corresponds to Kant’s intention. Based on active or passive role played by the subject, Kant puts rational Illumination oppose to sense Illumination (Anschaung). Thus, when beings are subject to a sense (passive) illumination, they will be created by a rational (active) illumination. For Kant, this means that Only God enjoys rational illumination. Kant, of course, was not interested in mysticism, and for the same reason he went to betray the Swedish cleric, Emanuel Swedenborg, in a striking way. But it should be noted that in Kantian philosophy, one may find mysticism. It seems that there is no illuminative knowledge which is, like knowledge, selfsubsistence. An illuminative knowledge, of the kind which is not knowledge, is a universal and essential experience of Illumination which is called customarily (and not technically) “Illumination”. Such Illumination does not lead to anything; in other words, it does not prove something; and it is only justifiable when it is analyzed and reduced to demonstrative knowledge, and as a result it is taken as the basis of perception and as the basic perception. For Kant, if ordinary Illuminations lead to something, in other words, if they are pieces of knowledge, Illuminationism, i.e. a theory suggesting that knowledge is founded through such illuminations will appear. Though mysticism is a form of Illuminationism, not all kinds of Illuminationism are mysticism. Mysticism is illuminative knowledge of immaterial things i.e. things which are not covered by ordinary sense or material perception. Mystics see things which are not a part of ordinary perceptual experience. If mystical knowledge is allowed in a Kantian theory, that knowledge cannot be analyzed; in other words, it cannot be interpret through a system of demonstrative knowledge of immaterial things.
    Keywords: Illumination, illuminative knowledge, sense Illumination, rational Illumination
  • Dr. Mahdi Hairi Yazdi, Trans: Dr. Seyyed Mohsen Miri Page 95
    In this part, the author seeks to prove that mystical knowledge is a referent of the knowledge by presence and not acquired knowledge. To explain this, at first he mentions fundamental differences between knowledge by presence and acquired knowledge; and then he goes to make distinction between mystical knowledge on the one hand and interpretation and conceptualization of this knowledge on the other. In what follows, he makes a comparison between Plato's intellectual "vision" and mystical knowledge, and then between mystical knowledge and religious knowledge.
    Keywords: Knowledge by presence, mystical knowledge, Plato's intellectual vision, religious knowledge
  • Morteza Karbalailoo Page 111
    Unification of the intellecter and the intelligible which has been demonstrated in Mulla Sadra's philosophy concerns mostly conceptual knowledge. In this article, the author has tried to study the possibility of application of this rule to knowledge by assent (tasdiq). He has come to the conclusion that the copulative existence contained in propositions makes a structure for the reason, and the latter is somehow unified with the intelligible through such structure.
    Keywords: intuition, proposition, union of the intelligent, intelligible, factual world, tadiq, copulative existence
  • Muhammad Taqi Faali Page 125
    One of the important points in epistemology is "possibility of [acquisition of] knowledge". According to the Holy Quran it is possible to acquire knowledge, and skepticism is denied; and even the Holy Quran deems all principles of knowledge and certainty as being necessary. In the noble verses of the Holy Quran one may find arguments for this, and here the author mentions five of such arguments as examples. Thus, we may say that knowledge is accessible for all human beings; and each and every one acquires knowledge of reality as much as he tries and as much as his capability allows.
    Keywords: knowledge, Names, certainty, God, fearing, skepticism
  • Michael Detlefsen, Trans By. Abolfazl Haghiri Qazvini Page 157
    In the philosophy of mathematics, there are three important schools: intuitionism, formalism and logicism. Founded by Brouwer, intuitionism puts importance on mathematician's intuition, takes it as the basis, and try to free mathematics of the pure logical relations. Intuitionism takes mental processes as the basis of mathematics. In this part of his article, the author discusses intuitionism and its history.
    Keywords: intuitionism, intuition, mathematical intuition, Frege, Gauss, Kronecker, Non, Euclidean Geometries, Logicism, Principle of Creation