فهرست مطالب

Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine - Volume:1 Issue:1, 2011
  • Volume:1 Issue:1, 2011
  • 56 صفحه،
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1390/05/01
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Mahmoud Hosseini, Mina Kamkar Asl, Hassan Rakhshandeh Page 1
    Objective
    Results obtained from literature reviews and human studies have shown the analgesic effects of clove plant in toothache. The present work was undertaken in order to investigate the possible analgesic effect of clove oil in mice.
    Materials And Methods
    Fifty mice were divided into 5 groups: 1) Saline; 2) Essential oil (Ess) 2%, 3) Ess 5%, 4) Ess10% and 5) Ess 20%. The hot plate test (55±0.2 °C; Cut-off 60 sec) was performed as a base record 15 min before injection of drugs (Saline or 2, 5, 10 and 20% concentrations of Essential oil) and consequently repeated every 15 minutes after injection.
    Results
    Repeated measures ANOVA test showed that maximal percent effect (MPE) in animal groups treated by 5, 10 and 20% essential oil was significantly higher than saline group. Comparison between 4 treated groups showed that MPE in 10% essential group was higher than 2 and 5% groups however; there was no significant difference between 10% and 20% groups.
    Conclusion
    The result of present study showed that clove essential oil has analgesic effect inmice using hot plate test. More investigations are needed to elucidate the exact mechanism (s).
  • Zahra Jafari, Mohammad Hossein Boskabady, Iran Pouraboli, Beheshteh Babazade Page 7
    Objective(s)
    In the present study, the effect of tissue incubation with propranolol on functional antagonism of Zataria multiflora Boiss (Z. multiflora) at muscarinic receptors of tracheal smooth muscle was examined.
    Materials And Methods
    The effects of three concentrations of aqueous-ethanolic extract, 10 nM atropine, and saline on muscarinic receptors were tested on incubated tracheal smooth muscle with propranolol (n=5).
    Results
    The EC50 of all concentration of the extract and atropine was significantly higher than that of saline. There was parallel right ward shift in concentration response curves obtained in the presence of all concentrations of the extract. There was not any significant difference in the maximum response and slope obtained in the presence of different concentrations of extract compared to saline. There was significant positive correlation between the concentrations and the values of EC50 (p<0.001). The value of (CR-1) obtained in the presence of highest concentration of the extract was significantly higher than that of atropine (p<0.05).
    Conclusion
    These results indicated that functional antagonism of Z. multiflora at muscarinic receptors of tracheal smooth muscle was mainly due to -adrenoceptor stimulatory effect of plant.
  • Abolfazl Khajavi Rad, Mousa-Al-Reza Hajzadeh, Ziba Rajaei, Mohammad- Hadi Sadeghian, Nooshin Hashemi, Zakieh Keshavarzi Page 14
    Objective
    This study was carried out to investigate the preventive effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Cynodon dactylon (C.dactylon) roots on calcium oxalate calculi in rat.
    Materials And Methods
    24 Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: group A received tap drinking water while, Groups B, C, and D received 1% ethylene glycol daily for 28 days. Rats in groups C and D received ethanolic extract of C.dactylon at doses equivalent to 3.2 mg/kg and 12.6 mg/kg of root powder, respectively in drinking water from day 0 to day 28. Urine and blood were collected on days 0 and 28 and analyzed for biochemical elements. After 28 days, the kidneys were removed and prepared for histological evaluation of calcium oxalate deposits (CaOx).
    Results
    The number of CaOx deposits in 10 microscopic fields of kidney slices in group B was 24.5 ± 4.40 which was significantly higher than group A (p<0.001). In group C, the number of deposits was significantly lower than group B. The weight of the kidneys was increased in group B vs group A (p<0.05). However, C.dactylon was able to decrease the weight of kidneys in group C (p<0.05). Urine oxalate level decreased in nephrolithiatic rats treated with the extract.
    Conclusion
    This study showed that C. dactylon extract was able to reduce the growth of urinary stones in the rat. Therefore, the beneficial action of C.dactylon extract on human kidney stones may be suggested. However, further studies must clarify the mechanism.
  • Mohammad Ramezani, Hossein Hosseinzadeh, M. Moradi, E.Taghiabadi Page 24
    Objective
    Phototoxicity is a kind of dermatitis that is activated by exposure to ultraviolet light following the administration of some drugs or natural products. Artemia salina (A. salina) (brine shrimp) has been effectively applied for toxicity testing and is perfect for biological screening of many chemicals for simultaneous evaluation of toxicity and phototoxicity. The objective of this study was to investigate the phototoxic activitiy of the methanolic extract and chloroform and CH3OH/H2O2 fraction of Psoralea drupacea (P. drupacea).
    Materials And Methods
    The phototoxic effect of the methanolic extract, chloroform and CH3OH/H2O2 fractions of P. drupacea was evaluated using A. salina bioassay system. Different concentrations of methanolic extract and fractions of P. drupacea were added to the plate of one-day old larvae followed by exposure to UV radiation at 366 nm in three different exposure times (0, 4 and 20 h). Mortality was determined 24h after the start of the irradiation.
    Results
    The value of LC50 of P. drupacea methanolic extract and methoxalen as positive control were 0.64 and 3.5´10-4 mg/ml, respectively. P. drupacea methanolic extract and chloroform fraction demonstrated phototoxic activity after 4 h radiation.
    Conclusion
    The result showed that P. drupacea methanolic extract and chloroform fraction have phototoxicity in A. salina bioassay system and their toxic effect is related to phototoxic constituents such as psoralen.
  • Hassan Rakhshandeh, Nassser Vahdati-Mashhadian, Mehrangiz Khajekaramadini Page 29
    Objective
    Nigella Sativa (N. Sativa) seeds were used in traditional medicine for the treatment of a variety of diseases. The seed extracts and oil of this plant have shown various pharmacological properties including antimicrobial actions. In this study, the in vitro and in vivo antibacterial effects of methanol extract of the seeds against pathogenic bacteria causing mastitis in cows have been investigated.
    Materials And Methods
    in in vivo experiments, 10 cows with mastitis were treated by local injection of different concentrations of methanol extract of the seeds into the infected breasts. In in vitro experiments, the microorganisms were collected from the same infected breasts and used for the assessment of the antimicrobial effects of the extract by means of agar dilution and disk diffusion methods. Results and
    Conclusion
    The extract showed significant in vitro and in vivo inhibitory effects on causative organisms compared to standard drugs and also induced healing of the disease. This is the first veterinary experiment, to our knowledge, that investigated the antibacterial effects of Nigella sativa.
  • Saeed Samarghandian, Mosa-Al-Reza Hadjzadeh, Atiyeh Sadat Davari, Marziyeh Abachi Page 36
    Objective
    Several diseases are reported to be uncommon in those parts of the world where dietary fiber intakes are high, therefore, in this study; we evaluated the hypocholesterolemic effects of a dietary fiber (guar gum) in hypercholesteromic rats.
    Materials And Methods
    Rats were fed high-fat or a normal fed diet for 12-week then treated with 5% guar gum in their regime during a 28 days period.
    Results
    Total cholesterol was significantly increased in high-fat diet rats, while administration of guar gum significantly lowered it. Body weight was significantly increased in high-fat diet rats while, at the end of 4-weeks treatment of guar gum, body weight of treated rats was significantly decreased.
    Conclusion
    These results suggested that guar gum may be effective as hypocholesterolemic agent and may prevent hypercholesteromia in hypercholesteromic rats. The results also suggested that guar gum may be important for reducing body weight in hyperlipidemic rats.
  • Mohamad Reza Parizadeh, Fahime Ghafoori Gharib, Ali Reza Abbaspour, Jalil Tavakol Afshar, Majid Ghayour - Mobarhan Page 43
    Objective
    A number of studies have demonstrated the potential antitumor effects of saffron and its constituents on different malignant cells in vitro. It has been reported that a novel glycoconjugate isolated from corms and callus of saffron possesses cytotoxic activity against different tumor cellswith nitric oxide (NO) production. These data suggest that the cytotoxic effect of saffron extract may be related to an effect on nitric oxide production. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of whole saffron extract on NO production by the hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG-2) and laryngeal carcinoma cell line (Hep-2).
    Materials And Methods
    The cell lines were treated with a saffron extract. The morphologic changes were observed and recorded after 24, 48 and 72 of incubation. The MTT test was used to assess cell viability and the quantitative changes in NO production was evaluated using Griess test in the aforementioned time intervals.
    Results
    The morphologic images showed qualitative changes in both cell lines. The MTT assay results indicated that there was an increase in cytotoxic effect by adding the extract at concentrations of 0, 200, 400 and 800 µg/ml. However, the NO concentration decreased significantly after 6, 12, 18, 24, 48 and 72 hours of incubation, respectively. IC50 of 400 µg/ml was obtained for HepG2 cells; however, Hep2 and L929 cells did not respond to any extract concentrations.
    Conclusion
    This study suggested that the saffron extract had a cytotoxic effect on HepG-2 and Hep-2 cell lines. The cytotoxic effect was probably related to a decrease in the NO concentration.
  • Saeed Niazmand, M. Esparham, S. A. Rezaee, F. Harandizadeh Page 51
    Objective
    For many years in herbal medicine the antihypertensive and lowering blood lipid properties of Achillea wilhelmsii (A. wilhelmsii) have been suggested. In the present study the impacts of the plant extract on rabbit’s blood pressure and heart rate have been investigated.
    Materials And Methods
    Twelve NWZ rabbits weighed 2-3 kg were randomly divided into two groups of 6 rabbits. The test group received A. wilhelmsii extract (20, 40 and 80 mg/kg) and the control group received normal saline by jugular vein cannula. Blood pressure and heart rate were measured via carotid cannula using pressure transducer connected to a power lab system.
    Results
    The blood pressure was significantly decreased (16.7± 1.4 mmHg) in 80 mg/kg dose of the extract (p<0.05). However, there were not any significant effects on heart rate in the other doses of the extract or normal saline.
    Conclusion
    the aqueous-ethanolic extract has blood pressure lowering property which may due to cardiac depressant and/or vasorelaxant effects.