فهرست مطالب

Addiction & Health - Volume:3 Issue: 1, Winter-Spring 2011
  • Volume:3 Issue: 1, Winter-Spring 2011
  • 76 صفحه،
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1390/11/01
  • تعداد عناوین: 10
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  • Manzumeh Shamsi Meymandi, Hossein Safizadeh, Kouros Divsalar, Ramin Rastegariyanzadeh, Gioia Heravi, Majid Mahmoodi, Ali Kheradmand Page 1
    Background
    Addiction is one of the complicated problems in Iranian young population. The social and cultural dimensions of this social disease are less considered. So considering socio-cultural and environmental resources، this study investigated the substructures of addiction according to the viewpoints of high-school students of Kerman in 2007-2008.
    Methods
    This qualitative study accomplished in ten high schools through a one-day problem finding workshop and continued until data saturation. The resulted terms and phrases were analyzed by content analysis. To assure about the validity and reliability، the outputs reviewed by workshops participants، and classification and codification of the data were executed separately by two experts.
    Findings
    A total of 212 students، (45. 3% girls and 54. 7% boys) participated in the study. The students introduced the followings as the addiction substantial fundaments: lack of knowledge، positive attitude and interpretation of addiction as a value، family or friends'' habit، economy status، psycho-personality problems and availability. Rules infirmity or non-implementation of the current rules enforcement، geographical status and addiction as a conspiracy were also observed in students’ statements.
    Conclusion
    The positive attitudes and historical roots of addiction along with the process of changing the values caused the growth of drug addiction in young population which could neutralize the security measures، legislations policy and even the knowledge. Therefore، intensification of personal protective factors and culturalization addressed for improving inner layers of values are recommended.
  • Abdol-Reza Sabahy, Kouros Divsalar, Nouzar Nakhaee Page 9
    Background

    Tobacco is consumed in various forms, and there has been an increasing trend worldwide in the use of waterpipe. This study aimed to assess the university students’ attitudes towards waterpipe.

    Methods

    This was a cross-sectional study; 1130 students randomly were selected from universities of Kerman. They were provided with a researcher-made questionnaire after obtaining the informed consent. The anonymous questionnaires were completed with ensuring about information confidentiality. In addition to the underlying questions, the questionnaires consisted of 10 attitude survey questions. Higher scores indicated more positive attitudes.

    Findings

    The obtained results indicated a significant difference of attitude of the students who were current or occasional smokers of waterpipe in comparison with the students who never smoked it towards addictiveness, social acceptance or rejection and its harmfulness; so that their attitudes were more positive (P < 0.05). Mean ± SD of attitude score of the students who never consumed waterpipe before, those who had the history of consuming it at least once and those who were current smokers were 1.40 ± 0.40, 1.50 ± 0.41 and 1.70 ± 0.43, respectively (P < 0.001).

    Conclusion

    Waterpipe smoking was associated with false beliefs and positive attitudes among the students; therefore, the necessity of education and attitude changing is required in this regard.

  • Farzaneh Moslemi-Haghighi, Iman Rezaei, Farahnaz Ghaffarinejad, Reza Lari, Fatemeh Pouya Page 15
    Background
    It is well documented that cigarette smoking has negative impacts on body health, as well as social health, economy, culture, etc. Nowadays, there is a large body of evidence that smoking is the cause of numerous life-threatening diseases like cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases along with different kinds of cancer. The aim of this study was to compare the physical fitness of smokers and non smokers.
    Methods
    This cross-sectional study was conducted on 64 non-sportsmen (34 non-smokers and 30 smokers) aging 19–27 years. Both groups were matched for age, weight, height and body mass index (BMI). The smokers used cigarettes at least 5 cigarettes a day for 2 years. None of them had a musculoskeletal disease. We used a questionnaire and physical fitness tests for data gathering. The tests were used to measure muscle strength, endurance, speed, agility and flexibility in both groups.
    Findings
    The muscle strength was significantly different in smokers and non-smokers (P = 0.012). Moreover, smokers had less agility (P = 0.004) and speed (P = 0.008) than non-smokers. However, although smokers were weaker than non- smokers, the differences in muscle endurance (P = 0.066) and flexibility (P = 0.095) were not the statistically significant.
    Conclusion
    According to these results, the smokers were less powerful than nonsmokers. In addition, physical activity skills in young smokers were decreased. Therefore, smoking will cause a gradual loss of physical strength and active personal and social power.
  • Davod Mirzaei, Bibi Eshrat Zamani, Sayyed Hojat Mousavi Page 20
    Background

    In recent decades, drug abuse has been one of the most important problems of human societies and has been imposing enormous charges to them. Exposing addicts to infectious diseases, social and economic harmful impacts, expensive and reversibility of treatment methods have caused that drug abuse prevention programs be more inexpensive and more effective than treatment. One of the most important methods of drug abuse prevention is identification and prioritization of them according to scientific methods. The purpose of this study was to investigate addiction prevention methods among adolescents and teenagers from the viewpoints of addicts, their parents, authorities and prioritizing the prevention methods based on analytical hierarchy process (AHP) model in Delfan city.

    Methods

    Statistical samples included 17 authorities, 42 addicts, and 23 parents that have been selected through purposive sampling. Data collection instruments involved structured and semi-structured interviews. Data were analyzed based on quantitative and qualitative methods, encoding and categorization. In this study, AHP model was used for prioritizing the prevention methods. This model is one of the most efficient and comprehensive designed techniques for multi-criteria decision making; it formulates the possibility of natural complex problems as hierarchy.

    Findings

    The results indicated that the most important methods of drug abuse prevention were using media, case studies, planning for leisure times, educating social skills, integrating drug prevention methods in religious customs and respect to teenagers. Among these factors, the media and respect to adolescents with weights 0.3321 and 0.2389 had the highest preferences for the prevention of drug addiction, respectively. Planning for leisure time with weight of 0.1349 had the lowest importance than media and teenager respectful factor and higher priority than religion customs, dating and learning lessons factors. On the contrary, integrating in religion customs, using case studies with weights 0.1145, 0.1114 and 0.0680 had the lowest preferences, respectively, and can be considered in later settings.

    Conclusion

    The interviewees mentioned the most important addiction prevention methods in respect to teenagers, religious customs, media, dating skills, learning lessons from examples and attention to the leisure times among which the media has been the most efficient method. Because, publicity of the media as a national media is available to the public and it is not dedicated for a special group or class of people and everyone can use it regardless of his literacy and knowledge level.

  • Saeideh Garrusi, Ahmad Amirkafi, Behshid Garrusi Page 29
    Background
    The effects of substance abusing on children of all ages has been considered. The major problem of these children is the inability of their parents to implement their parental tasks and duties. In Iran, addressing the issue of substance abuse has a history of several decades. Identifying the experiences of these individuals about relating to their children is important in effective therapeutic planning to help drug dependent people continue their treatment.
    Methods
    This qualitative study was conducted using phenomenological approach. Subjects were selected from among the referrals to the substance abuse treatment centers in Kerman. This study lasted for 11 months from October 2008 to August 2009 and tried to use purposive sampling to select the subjects with as much diversity as possible from the drug-dependent males who had at least one child. All those who had history of addiction less than two years were excluded. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the findings.
    Findings
    Participants were 35 opiate-dependent males. The mean age of subjects was 43.18 ± 8.25. Five themes were extracted from analyzing the interviews including emotional relations, economical problems, experiences of communicating with children, the effects of substance abuse on children, and the role of children on the quitting process.
    Conclusion
    To promote the quality of services offered to drug-dependents who have decided to quit, family therapy and psychotherapy are recommended to help addicted individuals reduce the problems they have with their children.
  • Alireza Ghaffari Nejad, Ali Kheradmand, Mahdieh Mirzaiee Page 39
    Background
    The incidence of suicide is higher in individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) than the general population. This prevalence rate is related to many factors including drug dependence. This study was conducted in people wounded during the Iran-Iraq war with PTSD, in order to compare the risk of suicide in those with and without drug and nicotine dependence.
    Methods
    This cross-sectional study, conducted in 2007–2008, comprised 104 male individuals who had participated in the Iran-Iraq war and had a current diagnosis of PTSD. They had been referred to a psychiatry hospital and the psychiatrists'' offices in Kerman, Iran. Three questionnaires were used including Davidson Trauma Scale, California Risk Estimator for Suicide and the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence to assess the severity of PTSD, the risk of suicide, and nicotine dependence, respectively. Data were analyzed by descriptive and analytical statistics using Chi square, regression, analysis of variance (ANOVA), student-t and correlation tests.
    Findings
    The sseverity of PTSD was significantly different in individuals with low to moderate dependence on cigarette smoking than in those with heavy dependence on smoking (P = 0.002). However, the corresponding figures were not significantly different in individuals with and without substance abuse. Although the risk of suicide had no significant difference among individuals with low to moderate dependence on cigarettes compared to those with high nicotine dependence, it was higher in subjects with substance abuse than in those without it (P = 0.0001).
    Conclusion
    Our findings suggest that dependence on cigarettes may not play a role in increasing the risk of suicide, whereas the dependence on opium and its derivatives may increase this risk. Therefore, prevention and treatment of drug abuse may be effective on the incidence of suicide in patients with war injuries and PTSD.
  • Farhad Shaghaghy, Majid Saffarinia, Mohadeseh Iranpoor, Ali Soltanynejad Page 45
    Background
    Addiction is considered as one of the major problems in family and community in the world. According to cognitive view, organizing the experiences determines how to behave. Due to their importance in interpretation of special situations, cognitive schemas and attributional styles have a significant role in cognitive theories. The aim of this study was to compare early maladaptive schemas and attributional styles in addicts and non-addicts to recognize their role in addiction.
    Methods
    In this causal-comparative study, 200 addicted and non-addicted men were randomly selected. Young early maladaptive schema and attributional styles questionnaires were used. Data analysis was performed by independent t-test, Pearson correlation and regression.
    Findings
    The study population included 81 addicted and 90 non-addicted men. There were significant differences between early maladaptive schemas and attributional styles in the two groups of addicted and non-addicted men (P < 0.001). In addition. addicts had higher levels of learned helplessness. A direct relationship was found between learned helplessness and frequency of addiction treatments (r ═ 0.234, P < 0.05).
    Conclusion
    Our study showed that addicts suffer from high levels of early maladaptive schemas. They had a more pessimistic attributional style. Moreover, addicts who developed higher levels of learned helplessness were less successful in addiction treatment and more likely to use drugs again after treatment. These issues show that addiction institutions and therapists have to pay attention to cognitive factors for addiction prevention.
  • Mahin Eslami Shahrbabaki, Hassan Ziaaddini, Ali Akbar Hagh Doost, Mahdi Ghasemi, Parvin Eslami Shahrbabaki, Roghayeh Alizadeh Nouri, Nasrin Eslami Shahrbabaki Page 53
    Background
    This study aimed to investigate the initial dosage of methadone and factors affecting it in maintenance therapy.
    Methods
    This cross-sectional، descriptive-analytic study was conducted on 157 individuals referring to a methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) clinic. The initial dosage of methadone was 20-45 mg which was adjusted during the treatment based on each patient''s evaluation. Three groups were formed according to methadone dosage (less than 30 mg، between 30-50 mg، and more than 50 mg).
    Findings
    Significant relations were observed between increased methadone dosage in the initial phase and marital status (P = 0. 03)، injection (P = 0. 03)، medical comorbidity (P = 0. 009)، and borderline personality disorder (P < 0. 001).
    Conclusion
    Further studies with larger sample size and including the history of previous detoxification، substance abuse، omission of self-recording، evaluation of women’s addiction and MMT program performance with counseling support should be performed.
  • Esmat Rahi, Mohammad Reza Baneshi, Ehsan Mirkamandar, Saiedeh Haji Maghsoudi, Azam Rastegari Page 61
    Background
    Addiction in pregnant women causes complications such as abortion, asphyxia and cerebral and physical problems. APGAR score assesses vital signs and birth weight and represents the physical and brain growth of newborns. In this study, the effects of opium addiction in mothers on birth weight and APGAR scores of neonates were discussed.
    Methods
    This study analytic, descriptive study was conducted on 49 pregnant women addicted to oral consumption of opium (0.5-0.8 grams daily) and 49 non-addicted women who referred to Afzalipour Hospital associated with Kerman University of Medical Sciences. Information including various personal characteristics, history of addiction and drug consumption, and the possibility of taking other drugs was collected by a researcher and recorded confidentially in a checklist. Birth weight and APGAR score t first, fifth and tenth minutes were also recorded. Statistical analysis was performed using Pearson correlation test, independent t-test, and repeated measure to evaluate the APGAR scores and other characteristics of the two groups of infants.
    Findings
    Average birth weight of infants with addicted mothers was 2255 grams which had a significant difference with infants born by non-addicted mothers (P < 0.0001). Average APGAR scores at the first minute were 7.6 ± 1.1 and 8.6 ± 1.1 among infants from addicted and non-addicted mothers, respectively. Average APGAR scores over time (at minutes 1, 5 and 10) had a significant difference (P < 0.0001) where an ascending trend was seen. This difference was significant in both groups (P = 0.003).
    Conclusion
    Drug addiction in mothers decreases the APGAR score and birth weight of infants.
  • Bahman Akbari Page 68
    Background
    One of the most important strategies in preventing addiction is changing positive attitudes and stabilizing negative attitudes towards opiate abuse. Current research has been comparing the effectiveness of behavioral recognition and stress surmounting techniques instructions on changing students'' positive attitudes towards opiate abuse.
    Methods
    To determine the effectiveness of behavioral-recognition and group stress surmounting instructions on changing student’s positive attitudes towards opiate abuse, 90 students (45 boys and 45 girls) who had got good grades in attitude measuring questionnaire were chosen and were randomly assigned in 3 groups (two test groups and the control group) and then, were randomly replaced in 15 person groups with sex distinction. The research data were analyzed using multivariate statistical analysis method.
    Findings
    The results of pot-test analyses showed significant improvement compared with pretest analysis in both training methods and in both genders (P < 0.05). Then, the surmounting methods group training and recognition-behavioral group training both significantly improved positive attitudes of male and female students towards opiate abuse.
    Conclusion
    Behavioral-recognition and stress surmounting techniques instructions brought about changes in students attitudes towards opiate abuse and these changes were more prominent in female students than in males.