فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:15 Issue: 1, 2012
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1390/11/15
  • تعداد عناوین: 15
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  • Sadaf G. Sepanlou, Abdorrasoul Akbarian Page 2
  • Mohammad Hossein Badakhsh, Mahsan Seifoddin, Nahid Khodakarami, Roya Gholami, Sedigheh Moghimi Page 4
    Background
    Numerous studies show a growing trend in cesarean section rates throughout the world, including Iran. However, existing evidence in our country is scant and previous reports are restricted to short time periods. The aim of the current study is to measure the trend in cesarean sections (CS) rates over the past 30 years in a referral hospital in Tehran.
    Methods
    We routinely collected data on the demographic characteristics of all women who gave birth in the hospital during the study period. The mode of delivery and the personnel in charge of delivery has likewise been recorded for each birth during the study period. The data were extracted from medical records and entered into a structured checklist.
    Results
    The rate of CS out of all deliveries increased from 14.3% in 1979 to 22.7% in 1989, 52.5% in 1999, and 85.3% in 2009 (P < 0.001). The most common reason for CS was a repeated section. The percentage of vaginal deliveries performed by midwives has not changed significantly and the number of both midwives and obstetricians per 1000 births has increased, from 2.8 to 15.4 midwives per 1000 births and from 5.5 to 23.0 obstetricians per 1000 births.
    Conclusion
    Immediate strategies should be adopted to prevent the rising trend and increasing number of unnecessary CS in Iran.
  • Rahim Ostovar, Abolghasem Pourreza, Arash Rashidian, Batool Hossein Rashidi, Sedigheh Hantooshzadeh, Fedyeh Haghollai, Hasan Eftekhar Ardebili, Mahmoud Mahmoudi Page 8
    Background
    The aim of this study was to identify the appropriateness of cesarean sections, performed in Tehran hospitals using standardized Rand Appropriateness Method (RAM) criteria.
    Methods
    In this study we used the RAM criteria. In order to prepare the list of cesarean scenarios, clinical guidelines were selected, and the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation was used to choose the most appropriate. Two panels were held with the participation of related specialists. The scenarios derived through this method were compared with data existing in the medical records of 250 women who underwent cesarean sections in selected hospitals affiliated with Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The appropriateness rate of the cesarean sections was calculated.
    Results
    Out of 250 cases of cesarean sections performed, 91 (36.4%) were inappropriate, 41 (16.4%) were equivocal and 118 (47.2%) were considered to be appropriate. Appropriateness differed between public and private hospitals, which were statistically significant.
    Conclusion
    This study shows that as with many other health services, cesarean section has many scenarios that there are different opinions about them and no decision about presenting these scenarios as yet. Moreover the result of study showed the rate of inappropriate cesarean sections in this study is one of the highest reported rates from different communities.
  • Najmeh Maharlouei, Ezat Mazloomi, *Kamran Bagheri Lankarani Page 14
    Background
    The high rate of maternal mortality (MM) remains a challenge, especially in developing countries. In 2000, the World Health Organization (WHO) targeted a 75% reduction by the end of 2015. In this survey, we determine trends in MM rates and associated factors in Fars Province, southwestern Iran.
    Methods
    All MM in Fars Province from March 2003 to March 2010 were considered in this cross-sectional study. Data were recorded for demographic characteristics, autopsy findings, medical and obstetric histories. The data were then analyzed with a z-test to identify differences in the rate of MM during the study period.
    Results
    The mean MM rate was 22.18 per 100 000 live births (95% CI, 17.55–26.8) during the seven year study period, and was highest (32.3/100 000) in the first year. Most deaths (71.3%) occurred in the postpartum period, and the lowest proportion occurred during delivery (5%). High-risk mothers accounted for 79.2% of maternal deaths. Among the mothers who died, 62% received satisfactory prenatal care, and at least two years elapsed between successive pregnancies in 78%. Hemorrhage was the main cause of death (35.6%) and the least frequent cause was H1N1 virus infection (2%).
    Conclusion
    This study provides evidence of serious deficiencies in postpartum care that need urgent action. Priority should be given to vaginal bleeding and high-risk status mothers.
  • Arash Etemadi, Christian C. Abnet, Asieh Golozar, Reza Malekzadeh, Sanford M. Dawsey Page 18
    Background
    Identifying people at higher risk of having squamous dysplasia, the precursor lesion for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), would allow targeted endoscopic screening.
    Methods
    We used multivariate logistic regression models to predict ESCC and dysplasia as outcomes. The ESCC model was based on data from the Golestan Case-Control Study (total n = 871; cases = 300), and the dysplasia model was based on data from a cohort of subjects from a gastroenterology clinic in Northeast Iran (total n = 724; cases = 26). In each of these analyses, we fit a model including all risk factors known in this region to be associated with ESCC. Individual risks were calculated using the linear combination of estimated regression coefficients and individual-specific values for covariates. We used cross-validation to determine the area under the curve (AUC) and to find the optimal cut points for each of the models.
    Results
    The model had an area under the curve of 0.77 (95% CI: 0.74–0.80) to predict ESCC with 74% sensitivity and 70.4% specificity for the optimum cut point. The area under the curve was 0.71 (95% CI: 0.64–0.79) for dysplasia diagnosis, and the classification table optimized at 61.5% sensitivity and 69.5% specificity. In this population, the positive and negative predictive values for diagnosis of dysplasia were 6.8% and 97.8%, respectively.
    Conclusion
    Our models were able to discriminate between ESCC cases and controls in about 77%, and between individuals with and without squamous dysplasia in about 70% of the cases. Using risk factors to predict individual risk of ESCC or squamous dysplasia still has limited application in clinical practice, but such models may be suitable for selecting high risk individuals in research studies, or increasing the pretest probability for other screening strategies.
  • Roya Alavi-Naini, Luis E. Cuevas, S. Bertel Squire, Mehdi Mohammadi, Ali-Asghar Davoudikia Page 22
    Background
    The objective of this study is to describe the proportion of patients with chronic cough and negative smear microscopy appropriately diagnosed as tuberculosis (TB) and to identify clinical features that could be used in developing a diagnostic scoring system for smear-negative patients.
    Methods
    Records of patients with chronic cough and ≥ 3 negative sputum smears for acid fast bacilli who attended a reference University hospital in south-eastern Iran and screened by culture were retrospectively reviewed. We compared confirmed smear-negative pulmonary TB (PTB; culture-positive) and unconfirmed smear-negative patients (culture-negative) to describe the appropriateness of treatment and their characteristics. Features independently predictive of smear-negative PTB (SNPTB) were entered into a logistic regression to create a diagnostic rule.
    Results
    This study enrolled 350 patients, of which 52 (14.8%) were culture-positive and 298 (85.2%) culture-negative. Of these, 38 out of 52 (sensitivity 73%) confirmed SNPTB were diagnosed as TB and 283 out of 298 (specificity 95%) unconfirmed sputum-negative patients were diagnosed as non-PTB. Variables associated with confirmed SNPTB were the presence of night sweats, family history of TB, typical chest radiography, erythrocyte sedimentation rate > 45 mm and white blood cell count < 11000/mL. The score constructed with these variables had a sensitivity of 94% and specificity of 74% with an area under the curve of 0.90.
    Conclusion
    The clinical differences between SNPTB and control patients could be used to develop a clinical scoring system to identify patients with SNPTB.
  • Farideh Siavoshi, Atefeh Tavakolian, Alireza Foroumadi, Negar Mohammad Hosseini, Sadegh Massarrat, Shahrzad Pedramnia, Parastoo Saniee Page 27
    Background
    Non-antifungal drugs appear promising in treatment of opportunistic infections of Candida spp. that are often resistant to current antifungals.
    Methods
    The broth macrodilution method (NCCLS M27-P document) was used to compare the antifungal activity of trifluoperazine, propranolol, and lansoprazole with that of ketoconazole and amphotericin B, using 50 yeast isolates from the GI tract. The minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs), resistance rates and the time required for fungicidal activity of the drugs (2 – 48 hours) were determined.
    Results
    The most effective antifungal activity was exhibited by trifluoperazine. Its MFC was 32 µg/mL for Candida albicans (3.3% resistance) and Candida spp. (0% resistance) yeasts, and 64 µg/mL for Candida tropicalis with 10% resistance. The MFC for C. albicans and Candida spp. was comparable to that of ketoconazole. However, the time required for the inhibitory effect (6 hr) was shorter than that of ketoconazole (48 hr) or amphotericin B (24 hr). The time required for the inhibitory activity on C. tropicalis was 24 hr, which was shorter than that of ketoconazole and amphotericin B (48 hr). A considerable number (40%) of Candida spp. showed resistance to ketoconazole, and 20% of C. tropicalis showed resistance to amphotericin B. Trifluoperazine, an antipsychotic drug, exhibited effective antifungal activity with the MFC, comparable to ketoconazole (32 µg/mL). Among the three yeast groups, C. tropicalis showed resistance to trifluoperazine and amphotericin B, and Candida spp. was considerably resistant to ketoconazole.
    Conclusion
    Trifluoperazine could be considered as an alternative antifungal when encountering Candida spp. resistant to current antifungals.
  • Hossein Ahmadi, Maryam Moshkani Farahani, Azam Kouhkan, Kasra Moazzami, Roghayeh Fazeli, Hakimeh Sadeghian, Mehrnaz Namiri, Manouchehr Madani-Civi, Hossein Baharvand, Nasser Aghdami Page 32
    Background
    The implantation of a CD133+ bone marrow cell population into an ischemic myocardium has emerged as a promising therapeutic modality for myocardial regeneration and restoration of ventricular contractility. While previous studies have documented the short-term safety and efficacy of CD133+ cell transplantation in patients with acute myocardial infarction, there are few reports of long-term follow-up results. Here, we present the results of long-term follow-up of our acute myocardial infarction patients who were treated with intramyocardial injection of CD133+ cells after coronary bypass graft.
    Methods
    After five years, 13 patients in the cell transplantation group and 5 patients in the control group underwent safety and efficacy investigations by New York Heart Association classification and two-dimensional echocardiography (2D echo).
    Results
    During the five-year study period, no major cardiac adverse events were reported among patients who received CD133+ stem cells. Regarding efficiency, we observed no statistically significant treatment effects for the echocardiographic parameters [left ventricular end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes, and resting ejection fraction] measured during the follow-up period. However, detailed analysis of regional wall motion revealed an improvement in the Wall Motion Score Index from baseline to the six month follow-up, which was maintained during the follow-up period.
    Conclusion
    Taken together, the long-term results of the present study indicate that transplantation of CD133+ is a safe and feasible procedure; however, we could not show any major benefits in our patients. Thus, this issue needs to be addressed by conducting other studies with more patients.
  • Shumei Zheng, Gandi Li, Hui Xu, Mingde Jiang, Dejun Cui, Linyun Xue, Jinnan Li Page 36
    Background
    Primary intestinal NK/T cell lymphoma is extremely rare and early diagnosis is frequently difficult. The aim of this study is to investigate the clinicopathological findings, immunophenotype, and T cell receptor (TCR) γ gene rearrangement of primary intestinal NK/T cell lymphomas in 25 Chinese cases.
    Methods
    Clinical data of the 25 cases were analyzed. Immunohistochemistry for immunophenotype, in situ hybridization for EBER, and polymerase chain reaction for TCR γ gene rearrangement were investigated. Survival curves according to clinical characteristics were analyzed.
    Results
    The median age was 33 years and the median survival was 7 months. The common symptoms consisted of abdominal pain, fever, marasmus, diarrhea, and hematochezia. Endoscopically, the tumors were mainly featured by focal, multifocal or diffuse irregular ulcers, which most frequently emerged in the ascending colon. Histologically, the tumors were characterized by the proliferation of pleomorphic atypical lymphoid cells (ALCs), necrosis, lympho-epithelial lesions, and mixed inflammatory infiltration. The positive frequency of CD3ε was 88.2%, of CD56 was 84%, granzyme B was 90%, and EBER was 84.2%. A total of 12 out of 14 cases (85.7%) highly expressed Ki67. The negative prognostic factors for survival were Ann Arbor stage IIIE or IVE (P = 0.039) and more than one extranodal site of disease (P = 0.019).
    Conclusion
    Primary intestinal NK/T cell lymphomas most frequently favor young people and have a poor prognosis. Due to the nonspecific clinical and endoscopic findings, it is difficult to distinguish intestinal NK/T cell lymphomas from inflammatory and infectious disorders. Histopathology, immunophenotype, and DNA study play key roles in differential diagnosis.
  • Zohreh Jadali Page 43
    The skin could be a main target organ for extrahepatic manifestations in hepatitis C virus- (HCV) infected patients and research data suggest that interferon treatment may be associated with immune-mediated skin lesions. However, case reports propose that the response of dermatologic extrahepatic manifestations to interferon in patients with chronic HCV is greatly different. The objective of this study is to summarize currently available data on dermatologic conditions associated with chronic HCV infection. In addition, we investigate the incidence of the development of immune mediated dermatologic disorders during interferon therapy in these patients.
  • Masoumeh Falah, Massoud Houshmand, Saeid Mahmoudian, Hessamalddin Emamdjomeh, Yaser Ghavami, Mohammad Farhadi Page 49
    Mutations in the GJB2 gene are the most common causes of hereditary hearing loss. This study reveals some facts about the inheritance pattern of M163V in the GJB2 gene.This study was performed on two different families with non-syndromic hearing loss. We screened the GJB2 coding region with direct sequencing. There was a substitution of A to G in exon 2 at nucleotide 487 (M163V). This mutation was heterozygous in fathers and children while mothers were normal. Fathers of both families showed late onset hearing impairment, but there was early onset hearing loss in the children, which was more severe compared to the fathers.M163V has been reported as an unknown heterozygous mutation that leads to failure of the homotypic junctional channel formation. Another mutation in this codon is M163L, with an autosomal dominant inheritance, which impairs trafficking through the plasma membrane, resulting in cell death. Assessment of the familial pedigree has revealed anticipation in phenotype and autosomal dominant inheritance. These data in addition to the high conservation of methionine residue in mammalian species suggest that M163V is inherited with an autosomal dominant pattern. Therefore, the risk of inheritance will increase. Genetic counselors and otologists should prioritize the evaluation and prevention of this disorder in patients.
  • Mohsen Moghadami, Behnam Honarvar, Behnam Sabaeian, Nima Zamiri, Omid Pourshahid, Mojtaba Rismanchi, Kamran Bagheri Lankarani Page 55
    The 2009 H1N1 Influenza virus was the first infectious pandemic of the 21st century which spread rapidly throughout the world. High-risk groups, such as diabetics, suffered more and showed higher hospital admission and death rates due to this virus. Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) may develop the fulminant picture of their disease after being infected with influenza. From June to December 2009 at Nemazee Hospital, affiliated with Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, two patients with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) were admitted. The H1N1 influenza virus triggered DKA and its complications in these patients. Both patients were female, of ages 16 and 40 years. When admitted, they had signs of influenza-like illness (ILI), tachypnea, laboratory confirmation of acidosis, and high blood sugar levels. The 2009 H1N1 influenza viral RNA was detected in their nasopharyngeal specimens by real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Both patients received oseltamivir, but eventually both died. This was the first report of an association between DKA and H1N1 influenza in Iran.
  • Vijayalakshmi S. Kotrashetti, Alka D. Kale, Alka D. Kale, Seema R. Hallikeremath, Deepa R. Mane, Punnya V. Angadi, Pooja Bhatt Page 59
    Fibrosarcoma is a malignant mesenchymal neoplasm of fibroblasts that rarely affects the oral cavity and can cause local recurrences or metastasis. Fibrosarcomas account for 15% of all soft tissue sarcomas, which represent only 1% of all malignant tumors of the head and neck region. The clinical behavior of the fibrosarcoma is characterized by a high local recurrence rate, and low incidence of loco regional lymph node and/or distant hematogenous metastasis. The etiology for fibrosarcoma has no definite cause but is thought to occur from preexisting lesions or in previously irradiated areas of bone lesions. Immunosuppression associated with HIV infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) has been consistently linked to various cancers, including Kaposi’s sarcoma, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, and invasive cervical cancer. Rare neoplasms like Hodgkin’s disease, anal cancer, leukemia, basal cell carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma have also been demonstrated. This paper presents one such a rare incidence of an intraosseous fibrosarcoma occurring in an HIV-positive patient.
  • Chun-Chieh Huang, Ching-Wei Tsai, Chin-Chi Kuo Page 63