فهرست مطالب

نامه معماری و شهرسازی - سال پنجم شماره 9 (پاییز و زمستان 1391)
  • سال پنجم شماره 9 (پاییز و زمستان 1391)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1391/11/15
  • تعداد عناوین: 9
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  • اسفندیار زبردست، احمد خلیلی، موسی پژوهان، ایوب انصاری صفحه 5
    در طرح های توسعه شهری، کاربری اراضی شهری از مهم ترین ابزارهای برنامه ریزی در دستیابی به اهداف به شمار می آید، و تمامی فعالیت ها و عملکرد های شهری و منطقه ای، هر کدام به طریقی محتوایی در آن نمایان است. در کنار کاربری اراضی شهری به مفهوم عام، موضوع پایداری کاربری اراضی شهری به مفهوم خاص، مقوله ای پراهمیت در پژوهش های کنونی شهرسازی جهان است که موفقیت طرح های پیشنهادی را به لحاظ تحقق پذیری و استقبال عمومی فراهم می آورد. مقاله حاضر بر آن است تا موضوع پایداری کاربری اراضی شهری و معیارهای مربوط به آن را در اسناد مطالعات طرح جامع (ساختاری راهبردی) شهر تهران مورد بررسی و ارزیابی قرار دهد. روش تحقیق در این مطالعه تبیینی و تحلیلی است و مدل های مورد استفاده در آن مدل های ANP و Fuzzy DEMATEL گروهی است. یافته های تحقیق نشان می دهند که در طرح جامع تهران، به برخی از معیارهای علی از جمله کاربری های مختلط توجه چندانی نشده است؛ و این در حالی است که بر اساس دیدگاه های افراد متخصص، این معیارها اهمیت زیادی در پایداری کاربری زمین دارند. از سوی دیگر، به معیارهای معلولی همچون حفظ زمین های کشاورزی، توجه بیشتری معطوف گردیده است.
    کلیدواژگان: ارزیابی، پایداری کاربری زمین، طرح جامع تهران، ANP، س Fuzzy DEMATEL گروهی
  • لیلی بشیری، غلامرضا حقیقت نایینی، میترا حبیبی صفحه 25
    دغدغه های ناشی از پراکنش شهری و گسترش افقی شهرها موجب شده است تا کشورهای مختلف در سراسر جهان تمهیداتی را به منظور مهار این بحران بیندیشند. این تمهیدات مشتمل بر سیاست های بلندمرتبه سازی و انبوه سازی، وضع قوانین و مقررات استفاده بهینه از زمین، و در راس آنها سیاست های افزایش تراکم جمعیتی و ساختمانی بوده است. اتخاذ راهکارهای جدید به شکل گیری اصطلاحات تازه ای چون متراکم سازی شهری، شهر پایدار، شهر فشرده، و رشد هوشمند منجر شده است. در این پژوهش به تبیین معیارهای موثر در تعیین تراکم شهری و ارائه الگویی برای تعیین تراکم مسکونی منطقه 22 شهر تهران پرداخته می شود. بدین منظور با استفاده از سنجه های تراکم حاصل از بررسی مباحث نظری و پژوهش های انجام شده، و نیز تحلیل عاملی و تطبیق نتایج حاصل از آن با اصول رشد هوشمند، در نهایت شش عامل به عنوان عوامل تبیین کننده الگوی تراکم مسکونی در منطقه 22 معرفی شده اند، که عبارت اند از: تراکم جمعیتی، تراکم ساختمانی، میزان فشردگی بافت مسکونی (نحوه پراکنش قطعات مسکونی)، موقعیت و میزان خدمات عمومی، وضعیت شبکه معابر، و وجود فضاهای سبز و باز. بررسی نواحی چهارگانه این منطقه، بر اساس الگوی تعریف شده، نشان می دهد که از نظر الگوی تراکم، ناحیه 4 بیشترین انطباق را با اصول رشد هوشمند دارد، و ناحیه 3 کمترین انطباق را.
    کلیدواژگان: رشد هوشمند، شهر فشرده، پراکنش شهری، تراکم، تحلیل عاملی، منطقه 22 تهران
  • الهام فلاح منشادی، سارا حبیبی، امیر روحی صفحه 45
    پایداری سیستم های حمل ونقل مانند پیاده راه ها صرفا ایجاد آنها نیست بلکه ارزیابی میزان کارایی آنها را نیز دربرمی گیرد و این نکته ای پراهمیت است. بدین منظور در پژوهش حاضر به ارزیابی احداث و بهره برداری یکی از پیاده راه های مهم تهران، یعنی پیاده راه بازار تهران واقع در خیابان 15 خرداد پرداخته می شود. قرار گرفتن بازار بزرگ تهران در جنوب پیاده راه، و نیز وجود عناصر تاریخی ارزشمند در محدوده، همواره موجب جذب تعداد زیادی از شهروندان به این منطقه شده است و می شود؛ و این موضوع توجه ویژه به این پیاده راه را به منظور تامین خدمات متناسب با حجم استفاده کنندگان، طلب می کند. انجام ارزیابی با استفاده از مشاهدات میدانی و دادن 100 پرسشنامه به عابران، و 50 پرسشنامه به شاغلان (با هدف آگاه شدن از نظر آنان)، و همچنین انجام مصاحبه عمیق با 10 نفر از شاغلان محدوده و مسئولان طرح انجام شده است. نتایج ارزیابی حاکی از آن اند که احداث پیاده راه به طور کلی رضایت استفاده کنندگان از محیط (شاغلان و عابران) را در پی داشته است. با این حال ضروری است به نکاتی دیگر نیز توجه شود؛ که از این دست اند: تامین امنیت عمومی، حفظ عناصر و جاذبه های تاریخی و فرهنگی، تامین و مدیریت مبلمان شهری متناسب با تعداد استفاده کنندگان با تاکید بر تامین نظافت و بهداشت عمومی، ساماندهی دستفروش ها، و فروشندگان اجناس بر روی چرخ های دستی و موتورسیکلت سواران، مقاوم سازی ساختمان ها و نوسازی بدنه، ایجاد فعالیت شبانه، افزایش سطح و تناوب خدمات دسترسی حمل ونقل عمومی، ایجاد پیوستگی مسیر، جلب مشارکت کاسبان و ساکنان، و مانند اینها.
    کلیدواژگان: جنبش پیاده گستری، پیاده راه، بازار تهران، ارزیابی
  • عبدالهادی دانشپور، سلمان مرادی صفحه 65
    گرایش به حرفه دانش طراحی شهری با هدف ارتقای کیفیت محیط های شهری باعث شده است که سطح وسیعی از نوشته ها در زمینه های مختلف و در ابعاد محتوایی و رویه ای این رشته ارائه گردند. در زمان حاضر، کمبود مشهود در حوزه حرفه ای طراحی شهری، در ابعاد رویه ای و به ویژه در زمینه ارائه روش های کاربردی در مراحل تجزیه و تحلیل فرم شهر و ارائه پیشنهادهای طراحی شهری از قبیل ارائه الگوی بافت های جدید و کدهای هدایت و کنترل فرم بافت ملموس است. در مقاله حاضر، پس از معرفی مفهوم ریخت شناسی شهری به عنوان زمینه ای ویژه در مطالعات فرم شهر، عناصر ریخت شهر از دیدگاه محققان مختلف بررسی می گردد و پس از آن، روش ریخت-گونه بندی به عنوان یکی از روش های کارآمد در طراحی شهری در مقیاس میانی، یعنی بخشی از بافت های شهری، تبیین می شود و کاربرد آن در مرحله تجزیه و تحلیل فرم بافت، ارائه پیشنهادهای طراحی شهری شامل تدوین راهنمای طراحی شهری، ارائه الگوی توسعه بافت های جدید و تهیه کدهای توسعه تبیین می گردد. در بخش جمع بندی مقاله حاضر، معیارها و نیز اجزا و عناصر، محصول و کاربرد روش ریخت-گونه بندی در سه مقیاس کلان و میانی و خرد ارائه می شود و در پایان نیز بافت محله فرحزاد تهران به عنوان نمونه، مورد تجزیه و تحلیل ریخت گونه شناسی قرار می گیرد.
    کلیدواژگان: ریخت شناسی شهری، ریخت، گونه بندی، روش های طراحی شهری
  • علیرضا عینی فر، عباسعلی ایزدی صفحه 87
    اینکه بزرگسالان و کودکان محیط خود را چگونه درک و در درون آن رفتار می کنند، موضوعی است که طراحان و روان شناسان و برنامه ریزان محیطی توجه زیادی بدان دارند و پژوهش های در خور تاملی نیز در این خصوص انجام گرفته است. ولی زمانی که نوبت فهم دنیای کودکان می رسد، طرح تئوری ها و یا مشاهدات پاسخگوی فهم عمیق و علمی از موضوع نیستند و نیاز به یک رویکردی درخور اعتماد و معتبر که چه بسا بتوان آن را «رویکرد علمی» نام نهاد، احساس می شود. هدف این مقاله، آشنایی با نحوه انجام پژوهش علمی در مورد کودکان و معرفی برخی از روش های مناسب برای مطالعات محیطی گروه سنی کودک در محیط های مفروض است. در حالت ایده ال، این نوشتار می تواند به پرسش های مرتبط با انتخاب رویکردها و روش های مناسب برای جمع آوری و تحلیل اطلاعات، بعد از اینکه موضوع و هدف پژوهش در محیط مورد نظر و رده سنی جمعیت آزمودنی به طور دقیق مشخص شدند، پاسخ دهد. با توجه به نکات مذکور، این مقاله بر آن است که پس از آشنایی با نحوه اکتساب دانش فضایی به وسیله کودکان در مراحل مختلف رشد، به معرفی انواع رویکردهای علمی در مطالعات محیطی کودکان بپردازد. سپس با ذکر اهمیت به کارگیری رویکرد کیفی در درک دنیای کودکان به ارائه چند روش تحقیق کیفی متناسب با سنین مختلف رشد پرداخته می شود. دستاورد این مقاله، ارائه ای گونه شناختی از روش های تحقیق در مطالعات محیطی کودکان است.
    کلیدواژگان: کودکان، محیط، تحقیق کیفی، تحقیق کمی، شناخت فضایی، مطالعات محیطی کودکان
  • هاله حاج یاسینی، محمود ارژمند صفحه 105
    نخستین حصار شهر تهران و چهار دروازه آن در دوره شاه تهماسب صفوی بنا شده اند. در دوره های بعدی، یک دروازه در زمان افغان ها به این حصار اضافه شد و یک دروازه دیگر هم به دوره قاجار تعلق دارد. معمولا این دروازه ها به دلیل شباهت اسمی، با دروازه های حصار ساخته شده در دوره ناصرالدین شاه یکسان انگاشته می شوند؛ حال آن که لازم است با دقت در منابع گوناگون، نقشه های تاریخی شهر تهران و نیز نوع و تاریخ تهیه تصاویر مختلف، دروازه های حصار نخست را شناسایی کرد و جداگانه به بررسی آنها پرداخت. هر چند این منابع اطلاعاتی کلی از دروازه ها در اختیار قرار می دهند، اما در این مقاله با استفاده از نتایج حاصل از سامان دهی آنها، به صورت مستقل به دروازه های حصار تهماسبی پرداخته شده است. به این ترتیب، مشخصه های ویژه این دروازه ها که به دلیل فاصله زمانی ساخت شان با یکدیگر تفاوت هایی نیز داشته اند، مورد تاکید قرار گرفته و امکان بازشناسی آنها از دروازه های حصار دوم فراهم آمده است. مشخصه های عمومی به کار رفته در دروازه های حصار تهماسبی با توجه به عناصر اصلی و مشترکات بین آنها مشخص گشته و در قالب الگویی کلی که بر اساس تصاویر برجای مانده، با نرم افزارهای رایانه ای شبیه سازی شده بیان گردیده است. این الگوی پیشنهادی در واقع نمونه ای است از فرم کلی دروازه، که عناصر به کار رفته در آن و نحوه ترکیب آنها در بیشتر دروازه های این حصار وجود داشته است.
    کلیدواژگان: حصار تهماسبی تهران، دروازه های تهران، الگوی معماری دروازه
  • فاطمه هاشمی، شاهین حیدری صفحه 131
    در گذشته آسایش حرارتی و روشنایی از طریق طراحی ساختمان و تعداد محدودی از تجهیزات ساختمانی ایجاد می شد. جانمایی فضاها در پلان، انتخاب پوسته متناسب با اقلیم، ابعاد بازشوها و مواردی از این دست در طراحی معماری همواره در کانون توجه بودند. چنین شرایطی در دهه 1960 بسیار دگرگون شد و تامین گرمایش و سرمایش و روشنایی ساختمان از طریق تجهیزات مکانیکی، جنبه ای محوری و اصلی به خود گرفت. متعاقب بحران انرژی در سال 1973، بهترین حالت تامین گرمایش و سرمایش و روشنایی، توجه به طراحی ساختمان و سپس تاسیسات مکانیکی تعیین شد. در پژوهش حاضر تاثیر طراحی بر اساس چرخه خورشیدی روی بار گرمایشی و سرمایشی مسکن اقلیم سرد بررسی می گردد. در این بررسی به دلیل اهمیت ورودی نور در فضاهای بسته، محاسبات برای ابعاد مختلف پنجره جنوبی انجام می شود. این محاسبات از طریق شبیه سازی در نرم افزار Ecotect که ویژه محاسبات انرژی است، انجام می شوند. خروجی نهایی، بار گرمایشی و سرمایشی مورد نیاز را برای ابعاد مختلف پنجره های جنوبی در طول یک سال مشخص می سازد. حاصل محاسبات انرژی، می تواند میزان تاثیر جانمایی فضاها را بر اساس چرخه خورشیدی و با توجه به ابعاد مختلف بازشو، بر مصرف انرژی مشخص سازد. بر اساس نتایج به دست آمده، می توان تصمیم های لازم را گرفت و میزان کاهش مصرف انرژی خانگی را تنها از طریق جابه جا کردن فضاها و بدون صرف هزینه مازاد تعیین کرد.
    کلیدواژگان: ساختمان مسکونی، طراحی پلان، چرخه خورشیدی، بار گرمایشی، بار سرمایشی، نرم افزار اکوتکت
  • مریم حقایق، شروین میرشاهزاده صفحه 145
    تفکر کمیت گرای دوران معاصر، همچنان که نگاهی ماشینی به معماری و ساختمان و شهر دارد، طبیعت و عناصر موجود در آن را نیز به مثابه ماشینی قلمداد می کند که حداکثر بهره وری اقتصادی از آن مد نظر است. در این میان آب به عنوان یکی از اساسی ترین عناصر طبیعی، از روزگاران کهن، تاثیر بسزایی در شکل گیری و شکوفایی فضاهای شهری و معماری داشته است. این در حالی است که امروزه نحوه ارتباط انسان با این عنصر حیات بخش دگرگون شده است. به همین منظور چگونگی ارتباط مجدد و احیای فرهنگ به کارگیری آب در معماری، نیاز به بازنگری در روش های طراحی دارد. در نوشتار حاضر کوشش بر آن است تا ضمن بیان مبانی مفهومی و کارکردی و زیبایی شناختی آب و تحلیل این سه نظام در مصادیق معماری ایران، زمینه بهره گیری از تجارب گذشتگان با تاکید بر احیای سه بعد معنوی و مادی و روانی آب فراهم آورد. نتایج حاصل از پژوهش حاضر نشان از توجه ژرف گذشتگان به دسترسی به منابع آب چه از جنبه روابط ساختاری میان آب و شهر و چه در استفاده از آب در کالبد و فضای معماری دارد، به گونه ای که همواره جلوه های مختلف آن، علاوه بر تهییج و تحریک گرایش انسان به زیبایی، فراتر از آن به عنوان عنصری با ویژگی های والای معنوی و روحانی در طرح های انسانی حضور و نمود یافته است. روش تحقیق و جمع آوری اطلاعات در این پژوهش، توصیفی تحلیلی است که بر مبنای مطالعات کتابخانه ای و اسنادی و بررسی های میدانی صورت گرفته است.
    کلیدواژگان: آب، معماری ایران، مشخصه های معنایی و زیبایی شناختی و کارکردی
  • پرستو عشرتی صفحه 163
    باغ ایرانی منظری فرهنگی است که از تعامل ذهن ایرانیان با طبیعت، بر بستر جغرافیایی و در طول زمان شکل گرفته و به حیات خود ادامه داده است. تداوم نیافتن کاربرد الگوی باغ ایرانی در طراحی های معاصر منظر ایران، زنگ خطری است که نخستین انعکاس آن در زمان ناصرالدین شاه با اقدام به پارک سازی به گوش رسید و طنین آن امروزه بلندتر از هر زمان دیگری است. مقاله حاضر از میان پرشمار دلایل تاثیرگذار گسست کاربرد این الگو با تکیه بر آموزش معماری منظر در مقطع کارشناسی ارشد ناپیوسته معماری و با روش کمی، افزایش سطح آگاهی به باغ ایرانی را در میان دانشجویان و حرفه مندان دانش آموخته معماری منظر به عنوان یکی از نقاط قوت این گرایش برمی شمارد. نتایج این تحقیق نشان می دهند که آموزش دانشگاهی باعث بالا رفتن سطح آگاهی از باغ ایرانی در دانشجویان و دانش آموختگان و نیز طراحان و حرفه مندان -اما نه یکسان- شده است. این بدان معناست که روند دستیابی به آگاهی از باغ ایرانی با پایان دوره دانشگاه خاتمه نمی یابد. در ادامه بر اهمیت عواملی تدقیق نیافته صحه می گذارد که به رغم افزایش تمایل به کارگیری این الگو با افزایش شناخت آن در دانشگاه، برقراری ارتباطی مستقیم را میان آگاهی و تمایل در کار حرفه ای تضمین نمی کند؛ و البته شناخت این عوامل خود سرآغاز پژوهشی دیگر است.
    کلیدواژگان: باغ ایرانی، آموزش معماری منظر، آگاهی، تمایل، دانشجویان و دانش آموختگان، طراحان و حرفه مندان
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  • Esfandiar Zebardast, Ahmad Khalili, Musa Pazhuhan, Aiub Ansari Page 5
    Land use is a result of interplaying between economic, ecological, social and cultural systems. By addressing these systems in their spatial dimension (that is the distribution dimension, like location and density, and the spatial interaction dimension, like attraction, pressure and change dynamics), it is possible to impinge on more fundamental concepts. Urban land use is one of the most important planning tools to achieve the goals in urban development plans and it considered as a content platform of urban and regional activities and functions. In other hand one of the basic issues in urban development plans success is attention to desired urban land use system and considering stable and sustainability framework. Today in most of urban comprehensive and detailed plans land use changes are among challengeable issues that take places in many cities and cause of many structural changes in urban comprehensive plans. While by considering three subjects (Indicator-based, method-based and network-based) in determining land uses in urban development plans, problems in such plans should be resolved. Therefore, the dynamic and flexible urban mechanism formation is paying attention to mentioned important aspect of urban planning. Beside the general concept of urban land use, land use sustainability in its special concept, is an important category in literature of urban planning that accumulates the success of urban plans. This problem represents the challenge that Tehran Metropolitan faced with, and relevant projects from the first Tehran comprehensive plan of Tehran in 1968, as well as the Master Plan 2006 attempted to find suitable responses for the mentioned problems. Considering urban land use sustainability, both in theory and practice are available in related documents of the mentioned plans. The main purpose of this paper is explanation and evaluation of sustainable urban land use and its relevant criteria in the studies of Tehran comprehensive plan. Among the other objectives of research, are developing related literature in urban land use sustainability in regard of global context and presentation of a new evaluation models in urban planning. Therefore researchers review and extract the main criteria in urban land use planning, especially in metropolises, for evaluation using new models. Method of the research is explanatory-analytical method and the methodology is based upon ANP and group Fuzzy DEMATEL models. The results show that: 1. in connection with the internal relations between criteria, they can be divided into two main categories: causal criteria’s and effecting ones and 2. The final ranking distinct that has been less attention, nevertheless the most important and influential on other criteria and unaffected, to tow mixed land uses and sustainable transportation. Mean while more attention on criteria of farmland preservation and reducing environmental risks. Also the research results show that in Tehran comprehensive plan (Structural-Strategic plan), little attention has been paid for the casual criteria. According the expert’s point of view, these criteria have important roles in sustainability of urban land use. Moreover, it is necessary to pay more attention to the criteria such as preserving agricultural lands.
    Keywords: Evaluation, Land use sustainability, Tehran comprehensive plan, ANP, Group Fuzzy DEMATEL
  • Leili Bashiri, Gholamreza Haghighat Naeini, Mitra Habibi Page 25
    Urbanization, globally, has led to a general perception that cities are becoming more dense and overcrowded places. While the urban form and land-use activities in the centre of cities have increased significantly, globally the population density of cities is falling. Quick expansion of cities’ area compared to the population growth rate during recent half-century has turned the concept of “urban sprawl” to an umbrella term. Because of Urban Sprawl all countries, both developed and developing have faced many problems such as waste on land consumption, degradation of natural resources and environment, economic problems resulting from the development of required facilities and services,… The concerns resulting from the urban sprawl and expanding urban areas have made different countries all over the world take actions for restraining this crisis. Taking new strategies, new expressions are formed, namely urban consolidation, sustainable city, compact city and Smart growth. Smart growth provides a solution to the concerns facing many communities about the impacts of the highly dispersed development patterns characteristic of the past 50 years. The Urban Density is the most widely recognized indicator of sprawl and low density development is a hallmark of sprawl. The current research is endeavours to detect and analyses the effective elements on determination of residential density by applying principles of Smart growth and introducing appropriate strategies for a practical guidance on expansion of urban fabrics. Tehran is one of the cities which have experienced quick expansion of area in proportion to its population growth; as it can be said that Sprawl and spread-out development is the city’s growth pattern. District 22 of Tehran is the vastest and largest urban development connected to this city which is developed with the aim of addressing the deficiencies in urban services and resettling part of the population of Tehran. This district with dispersed towns and vast land lots free of urban constructions has been selected as the case study for this research. The research first refers to investigation of theories and experiences related to the issue of urban density and the applied theoretical framework is introduced. Thereafter, the residential density is defined for district 22 by cognition of specifications of studied area, selection of variables effective for residential density, performance of factor analysis, returning to principles and strategies of Smart growth regarding urban density. Along this, six factors of population density, Floor Area Ratio, rate of compactness of residential lands (distribution of residential land plots), locations and state of public services, state of passage network, and the existence of green and open spaces were introduced as explaining factors of residential density pattern in district 22. At the end, fourfold regions of this district were evaluated based on the defined pattern. For this, investigation of fourfold regions of this district indicates that region four has the maximum and region three has the minimum conformity with the principles of Smart growth.
    Keywords: Smart Growth, Compact City, Urban sprawl, Density, factor analysis, District 22 of Tehran
  • Elham Fallah Manshadi, Sara Habibi, Amir Roohi Page 45
    Wide movements against motor vehicles have been occurred all over the world in recent decades because of increasing city problems such as environmental pollutions, traffic congestion, unsafe transportation, demolition of historical places and quality reduction of public spaces. Regarding to these issues, pedestrian zones, as a component of sustainable transportation systems, have been considered by urban planners and designers, especially in European countries which have some valuable experiences about developing pedestrian-friendly places. In Iran, and especially in Tehran, pedestrian zones are going to become the prominent transportation systems in the city center. It is necessary to aware that sustainability of transportation systems is not limited to their establishment, but effective usage of these spaces is important. It could be determined by evaluating effectiveness of these systems which provide mobility and accessibility for people. In this paper the establishment and usage of pedestrian zone in Tehran bazaar in 15-Khordad Street has been evaluated. Locating of this pedestrian zone near Tehran bazaar together with valuable historical places attract so many citizens to the mentioned region and this subject needs special attention to provide facilities based on volume of users. Evaluation has been done in four dimensions: socio – economical; functional; accessibility and transportation and urban design. In socio-economical dimension criteria such as safety, existence of historical places, cultural and interesting activities, 24-hours activities and participation have been evaluated. In functional dimension criteria such as mixed land use, diversity of activities and volume of pedestrians have been noted. In accessibility and transportation, integrated transportation, traffic flow, accessibility for service and urgent vehicles have been mentioned. In the category of urban design, criteria such as suitable design of the path, urban furniture, Preserving from environmental hazards, diversity of the path and human scale have been noted. In this research, first of all the definition and history of establishment pedestrian zones in the world and in Iran have been considered and the necessity and importance of them have been mentioned. Then, indicators for evaluating the pedestrian zones have been defined in four dimensions. After that, the result of evaluating Bazaar pedestrian zone has been presented by tables, graphs and pictures. Finally, based on the results of the evaluation, some recommendations have been introduced for improving the function of the mentioned zone. The observation method has been used for evaluating and 100 questionnaires by pedestrians and 50 questionnaires by tradesmen have been completed, also 10 deep interviews have been done with authorities. The results show that establishment of the pedestrian zone has caused satisfaction of users (pedestrians and tradesmen) as general. But it is necessary to pay more attention to issues such as public security by installation facilities of visual supervision, paying attention to the historical places, providing and management of urban furniture based on number of users by emphasizing on public Hygiene and Clarity, management of vendors, Wheelbarrows and motorcycles, Retrofitting and renovation of buildings, encouraging night life, increasing quality and frequency of public transportation, Continuity of the path and attracting participation of tradesmen and residents.
    Keywords: Pedestrian movement, Pedestrian zone, Tehran bazaar, Evaluation
  • Abdolhadi Daneshpour, Salman Moradi Page 65
    Perhaps the most central topic in the field of urban design is urban form. In this regard, many theories have been presented to explore and explain this concept, but few of them presented useful techniques for analyzing it and making it an applicable one. In other word, although the need for a close relation between knowledge of urban form and its application in urban design is evident, the nature and application of this relationship is more important. In this article, it is explained that morphological studies in urban planning and design can solve this problem and employ the urban form in analysis and preparation of urban design proposals. Urban morphology as an interdisciplinary field has grown rapidly in last 3 decades. The ideas developed by M.R.G. Conzen have provided a basis for conceptual reconstruction of the urban development process and regionalization of the urban form. This is reflected in the increasing number of related researches in a wide variety of geographical regions, new theoretical advances and attempts to strengthen the contribution of research in urban morphology to the practice of planning and design. According to literature review, typomorphology technique is explored as an applicable useful technique in urban morphological studies. This technique is defined as one that utilizes appropriate morphology elements to divide the urban tissue to uniformed parts in a proper and applicable resolution according to projects’ goals. Apart from its intrinsic importance, it is argued that typomorphology is a fundamental technique in two main stages as following:•Urban form analysis: Analysis helps to establish why things look and operate the way they do. One of the most obstacles in urban form analysis is multiplicity of elements that harden the formation of holistic perception of urban fabric. Typomorphology technique enables urban designers to get rid of individual elements and think to the urban fabric holistically. Moreover, this technique helps them in recognizing the identity elements of urban form and applying them in design process.•Preparation of new urban design proposals: Preparation of guidelines and development codes based on typomorphology is a way of imbedding planning and urban design decisions within the context of the existing city in a systematic and flexible way. Working within the existing typologies also accelerates the process of urban improvement. Also this technique guides urban designers to a more context sensitive design process. Therefore, in preparation of design guideline and development codes, typomorphology technique can lead to make design decisions according to the urban character and identity.In the next part, this article presents three tables that include ingredients and criteria, output and application of typomophological technique in triple scale. At last of this article, Farahzad neighborhood is analyzed typomophological technique.
    Keywords: Urban morphology, Typomorphology, Urban design technique
  • Alireza Einifar, Abbasali Izadi, Minou Gharehbaglou Page 87
    Children are different from adults in physical and psychological aspects. They use different physical spaces and facilities too and therefore they should be expected to experience different perception and evaluation of the environment rather than adult users. The existing study shows that designers, planners and psychologists have paid special attention to know how children and adults perceive and behave in their environments. However, the theories and observations have not been able yet to achieve a deep scientific response to understand children’s world. Children lack sufficient experience of various spaces. Therefore, it seems that examining the perceptive and cognitive capabilities of children with respect to space can yield better understanding and selection of the research methods. Meanwhile, it is important and necessary to understand the scientific methods of research on children, as prerequisites for selecting these methods. There is an extensive need to a valid and reliable approach, which may be named as “scientific approach”, in the mentioned field. The main objective of this article is to explore the way of scientific research is conducted on children subjects and to introduce some of the suitable framework and methods of environmental studies about children in hypothesized environments. Ideally, this manuscript would be able to respond to major questions associated with selection of suitable data collection and analysis methods, once the research problem and objectives in an environment of interest and the age group of interest were determined. Assuming that ability to carry out active discovery in an environment boosts the spatial perception of children, this article aim to clarify research in environmental studies of children, first by exploring the way spatial knowledge is obtained by children at various developmental stages. At the second step, the article introduces various scientific approaches within positivist (quantitative) and constructivism (qualitative) paradigms in the related environmental studies, in order to shed light on these approaches and show how they are subject to prejudice and subjective interpretation. Due to the importance of application of qualitative approaches in understanding the children’s world which can yield optimum understanding as a result of dialectic interaction of the environment with children’s minds. The article will finally present some of the qualitative methods of research which suitable for various developmental stages of children. The authors conclude that creativity in a research process depends on the application of mixed approaches and implementation ofa spectrum of research methods on children’s experiences, simultaneously. This will provide the opportunity for supplementary understanding, difficult to achieve by reliance on a single data collection method. The outcome of this article is a presentation of the typology of research methods in the mentioned issue.
    Keywords: Children, environment, qualitative research, quantitative research, spatial understanding, environmental studies about children
  • Haleh Haj Yasini, Mahmood Arzhmand Page 105
    The first rampart of Tehran was built in 1554 in Safavid era, during the reign of shah Tahmasb 1st. It is still called to as the Tahmasbi Rampart and contained four gateways at the time: Shemiran Gate to the north, Dulab Gate to the east, Shah Abdul Azim gate to the south, and Qazvin gate to the west. Two other gates had also been built later: Dowlat Gate had been added to it during the period of Afghan occupancy to the northern rampart where the citadel and the rampart shared the walls. The gate was to provide the occupants with a safe passage to flee if the citadel would be in a state of siege. The construction of Mohammadia Gate in Southern walls of the city had been constructed during late years of Mohammad shah (a Qajar king). The gate had finally come into use during the reign of Nasseroddin – shah of Qajar. At the middle years of his reign in 1867, all of the mentioned gates had been destroyed along with the other parts of the city’s fortifications in order to build a new rampart with 12 gates. The only gate that still exists is the Mohammadia gate which had also acted as an entrance to the Bazar. Today there is no evidence of the gates, but a few numbers of visual records and historical maps. Some tourists and ambassadors have described these fortifications and gates in their journals and books. The largest collection of the pictures is belonged to Emil de Hose who traveled to Iran in 1858. In some pictures, one could recognize the architectural aspects. There are three historical maps that contain valuable information about Tehran surrounded by remained walls since Safavid Era. The earliest map belongs to Naskov and has been drawn in 1826 for the Russian army. The second one has been drawn in 1842 by Nikolayevich Berezin. In 1860 a group of Iranian students supervised by an Austrian professor, named Kriziz had completed the third map. In this paper the information derived from all documents are utilized to specify formal differences or similarities as well as general features of gateways. Results indicate that all the Safavid gates had defensive roles and constructed as parts of the. City’s fortifications. Though this role had become of less importance in later Afghan gate, and the last gate – louilt in Qajar era – acted as was rather an entrance, rather a defensive part of the rampart. The Safavid Gates had been built much stronger than the later ones with two massive watchtowers at each side of the entrance. There was also a round watchtower outside the gates at a distance of each which were built during the Zand era. According to the documents in the Afghan gate, the proportions of the main watchtowers had noticeably been reduced. These towers could not be seen in Mohammadia gate. Compared to the Qajar gates, it is deduced that last gate of the Tahmasbi rampart, is a prototype for the gates of the Qajar era. Moreover, using the common rules that shaped most of these gates, a model is presented which demonstrates the main elements and their composition in gateways of Tehran’s Safavid rampart.
    Keywords: Gateways, Ramparts of Tehran, Tehran's Safavid rampart
  • Fatemeh Hashemi, Shahin Heidari Page 131
    In the past, thermal comfort and lighting were provided through the building design and a limited number of construction equipment. Buildings orientation’s, form, location of spaces, selecting the appropriate skin according to climate, size of opening, etc., all were significant items in architectural design. Such condition, however, was changed considerably in 1960 and mechanical facilities taken to be the main way for providing occupants comfort of buildings. Posterior to the energy crisis in 1972, attending to building design before the mechanical equipment’s use, were under consideration as one of the best ways for saving energy. This issue is an unprecedented one in our country, therefore, it should be determined that; how a historical architect decreased thermal load in buildings and put the ways in priority of design process, as well as the effect of each point on energy consumption, etc. The present study focused on the effect of building design according to the solar cycle in one of the cold climates of Iran. In Solar Design the main spaces which are used during the day, are located in southern side of building due to natural heating, lighting and so on. As a result of the importance of entering light enclosed spaces, the calculation was made for south windows. These mathematical approaches are performed by modeling in energy calculation software named “ECOTECT”. In this research, three main types of common residential plans in Ardabil have been modeled. Therefore, the interior spaces have been replaced in two parts called days and night parts. Spaces located in day part, usually occupied during sunrise to sunset and Spaces located in night part, include the rooms which are used during night like bedrooms. At the first plan, day spaces are located in north of building and bedrooms are located in south. In the second arrangement, living room and one of the bedrooms are located in south. Other spaces are located in north and at least in the third plan, day spaces are located in south and bedrooms are located in north of plan. Final output of simulation is the required domestic heating and cooling load over a year for various dimensions for south window of these three types of plans. The results of energy calculations show, that by comparing plans with 25 percent opening in south face of building, first option has more annual thermal load due to lack of attention in locating spaces according to solar cycle. The thermal load of the second planes 10 percent less than first one, because of having solar gain in living and bedroom. Last plan which all day-time spaces are located in south of building has least thermal load; that is 18 percent less than the first one. Besides, the results show that significant amount of energy saving could be achieved only by locating spaces according to solar cycle, without excesses costs.
    Keywords: Residential building, Plan designing, Solar circulation, Heating load, Chilling load, Ecotect software
  • Maryam Haghayegh, Shervin Mirshahzadeh Page 145
    In the vast territory called Iran, Consistently accessing to fresh water and springs due to the broad surface of the desert and lack of rainfall has been associated with many problems. Therefore the motivation to escape from problems of water absence, intelligent strategies for achieving, storage, and appropriate use has been developed. Nowadays, according to quantitative thinking, architecture and planning are viewed as machines and the elements and nature of them as parts of machine are considered that maximum economic efficiency. Water as the most basic natural element, has a significant impact on formation and effectiveness of urban spaces and architecture from the ancient till today. But nowadays the relationships between the men with the element of life have been changed. Therefore, it is necessary that the methods which reconnect and restore a culture of water in architecture, and design methods be reviewed. The present article describes the conceptual foundations, as well as the aesthetic aspect and analysis of water in architecture of Iran Background and past experience with emphasis on restoring material, spiritual and mental dimensions of water. The mentioned categories in contemporary life, cope with problems caused by cars on lifestyle, and therefore human contact with nature is neglected. in the first part of this article, as regards the human worldview and world communities play role on their own activities, to examine the predecessors worldview, with the aim of identifying “position and the role of water element” in the various period and feedback in arts and culture, especially in architecture, is considered as a scientific support to the other sections of this paper. Then, in order to explain the aesthetic principles, water will be reviewed from three aesthetic aspects: sensory, symbolic and formic. These characteristics are surveyed in the third section, by using the instances of Iranian architecture and functional aspects of water in architectural spaces, with four functions such as mosque, school, home and garden.At last these characteristics have been analyzed by using so samples, and at the end of each section, only two examples are presented. After analyzing the conceptual, aesthetic and functional characteristic of water, the design principles, is defined with emphasizing on “spiritual, aesthetic and material”. The results of this study showed a deep interest in the past, to access to the water resources although the structural relationship between water and the city, and moreover the usage of water in architectural spaces. There are different approaches for human tendency to excite and stimulate the beauty, but beyond that the water as an element with high spiritual qualities is present in the human sketches. Research and data collection in this study is descriptive-analysis and it is based on documents and library studies and surveys have been done in this study.
    Keywords: Water, Iranian architecture, Conceptual foundations, Aesthetic aspect, Functional
  • Parastoo Eshrati Page 163
    Persian Garden is a cultural landscape which has been made from an interaction between Iranians minds and the nature of geographical context over a long period of time. Lack of continuity in using Persian Garden Pattern for contemporary landscape design in Iran was like a danger bell, which first rang when Naser al-Din Shah ruled as the king of Iran, by starting construction of parks. In fact the sound of that bell is being heard louder nowadays. Although it was a decade ago when the degree “Master of Art” (M.A.) has established for a discipline called “the landscape architecture” in Iran relying on understanding and appreciating the importance of Iranian nature as well as the cultural characteristics, the process of using imported design patterns and lack of continuity in using the pattern of Persian garden is still in progress. The process is a serious threat for Persian Gardens. The first step, in this paper, is the introduction of Persian Garden as a cultural landscape, and the second one is emphasizing the role of architecture education in speeding up the process of switching from “gardens” to “parks”. The consequences of new architecture education system, which is the gap between “academic education” and “practical jobs”, are among the main reasons of this change. Among lots of reasons for lacking the continuity in using the mentioned pattern and with regard to degree of M.A. in landscape architecture in Iran and the quantitative method, in this paper, understanding Persian Garden by landscape architecture students and designers as well as the experts identified as the key point of landscape architecture education. The results of this research show that academic education has led to raise awareness and increase in understanding Persian Garden by landscape architecture students, designers and experts. However, raising awareness was not fair to everyone. The level of awareness and understanding Persian Garden pattern is higher among designers and experts in comparison with landscape architecture students or newly-graduated students who may not have many practical experiences. This means that the process of raising awareness for understanding the pattern should not be stopped by graduation, and practical experience may provide opportunities to answer the questions which might not have answered or even brought up during academic education. Other results of the investigation demonstrate that the difference in level of awareness does not directly result in desires to use the pattern of Persian Gardens in landscapes. Among the students, raising the awareness results in using the pattern more; and it is not so necessarily among the professionals. This shows the existence of other factors in practical experience. In other words, even though the issue of education is still remained, and finding a solution for the problem has great importance, it may not lead to boost the use of Persian Garden pattern. In this paper, firstly the necessity of revising the subjects studied in this field in universities of Iran is exposed in order to fill gaps. Secondly, it identifies the importance of many factors which do not guarantee the use of Persian Garden pattern as a result education. Recognizing these factors may be the beginning of another research.
    Keywords: Persian garden, Landscape Architecture Academic Education, Awareness, Desire, Students, Graduates, Designers, Experts