فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:5 Issue: 3, 2013
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1392/09/03
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Mohammad Mehdi Taghizadeh, Tahereh Mohebzadeh, Afshin Takdastan, Mansooreh Dehghani Pages 149-156
    Introduction
    Due to the risks of hormones on human health and aquatic life, the aims of this study were to determine the efficiency of estrogen removal in the different stages of Shiraz wastewater treatment plant using activated sludge process and Marvdasht wastewater treatment plant using aerated lagoons process and also comparing the performance of both systems in removing the hormone of estrogen. Methods and Materials: In this study, the instantaneous sampling was used to take a sample from the wastewater treatment plants. The sampling was done for 3 times to determine the removal efficiency of estrogen hormone E2. The samples were transported to the laboratory within the maximum period of 3 hours. The Enhanced Chemiluminescence(ECL) was used to measure the hormone. The device (Elecsy 2010) was made by co-production tech companies (Roche) Germany and (Hitachi) Japan.
    Results
    The results showed that the amount of estrogen in the influent wastewater treatment plants is approximately 40 pgmL-1.The percent of the removal of the hormone in Marvdasht wastewater treatment plant using lagoon aeration process was 52.5%. The hormone removal efficiency in Shiraz wastewater treatment plant using activated sludge was more than 82%. Primary sedimentation removes only 3 to 4 percent of theestradiol hormone.
    Conclusions
    Although the primary wastewater treatment plant was able to remove a trace amount of estrogen, biological treatments plant has an important role in removing the hormone. The capability of activated sludge process in removing estrogen is higher than aerated lagoon.
    Keywords: estradiol E2, wastewater, activated sludge, aerated lagoons, Shiraz, Marvdasht
  • Mahmoud Reza Hataminejad Fi, Abdolkazem Neisi, Forouzan Farrokhian Pages 157-166
    Introduction
    If solid wastes are not collected and disposed properly, can cause environmental pollution which affect human health, animals and plants. Also aesthetic aspect of solid waste disposal is important. Therefore proper management is necessary. This study was carried out for the Identification and classification of solid waste produced by oil drilling company temporary camps based on RCRA Act and UNEP guidelines. Methods and Materials: Tools used to collect data were a questionnaire and an interview with HSE officials of the company. Also samples were collected from solid waste containers of the camps and analyzed for physical characteristics. Then the obtained data were analyzed statistically by EXCEL and Spss software’s.
    Results
    Results of weight percent of solid wastes were as follows: 77% biodegradable waste, 6% paper and carton, 6% pet, 3% textile, 2% glass, 2% metals, 1.5% plastic, 1% wood, 1.5 % Household Hazardous Waste (HHW) and about 0.5% hospital waste. There was a direct and statistically significant relationship between numbers of employees in temporary camps and amount of solid waste generated per capita (p < 0.05). Also the relationship between waste separations within the camps and discharge frequency of pet, plastic and metal was direct and statistically significant (p < 0.05). According to the results, total amount of solid wastes generated in 31 camps were 2801 kg at day, Wastes Density of solid wastes was 433 and per capita solid waste generation was 0.87.
    Conclusions
    We can conclude that solid waste of oil drilling company temporary camps is similar to municipal solid waste and that dry wastes can be recycled and food wastes can be used for composting.
    Keywords: solid waste, temporary camps, oil drilling, management
  • Maryam Nourollahi, Abbas Mohamadi, Seyed Mahmod Latifi Pages 167-173
    Introduction
    Firefighting profession is one of the most stressful occupations; in each mission, firefighters are exposed to harmful factors, including the stress due to the driving, traffic, to see heartbreaking scenes, and so on. Occupational stress is one of the factors affecting at increased risk of mental and physical problems in the job. The main objective of this study was to determine the effects of risk factors of occupational stress on general health. Methods and Materials: Information required for this cross-sectional descriptive study was completed by 270 staff in the fire stations through two standard job-specific and general health questionnaires. Data was analyzed using SPSS software and the corresponding tests.
    Results
    The results showed that work environment, and social-cultural-economic factors were the greatest factors affecting on the job stress. It also revealed that occupational stress has a straight and significant relationship with general health (p<0.05).
    Conclusions
    It is suggested that changes in work environment, and social-cultural-economic factors of stress can balance job stress; and accordingly, the level of general health of personnel will beincreased
    Keywords: Occupational stress, General health, Fire, fighting
  • Iraj Mohhammadfam, Morteza Abdoli, Fakhroddin Ghasemi Pages 175-182
    Introduction
    Using natural gas as a clean, plentiful and inexpensive source of energy in recent years has progressively increased in Iran. Pipelines are the most common system to transport natural gas from field to different regions of Iran. These pipelines always pose risks to surrounding population and environments. The aim of this study was to assess the potential health, safety, and environment risk of Alamout natural gas pipeline. Methods and Materials: In this study Kent-Mauhlbauer method was used to assess risks of Alamout natural gas pipeline. Data collection was performed through field measurement and investigation.
    Results
    The results of the present study reveal that there are three level of risk in the path of pipeline including; high (10%), low (1%) and very low (89%). There is no moderate risk in the path of pipeline. Also there are seven high risk areas that must be considered as a target of risk control measures.
    Conclusions
    In this study, seven high risk areas were recognized that must be placed in the center of risk management programs. Also the highest risk of Alamout natural gas pipeline was related to third-party damages that can be reduced by public education programs, regular inspections and using enclosure in high population density areas.
    Keywords: Safety, Kent, Mauhlbauer, Natural gas, Pipeline, Risk assessment
  • Batool Mandani, Sheyda Javadipour, Ahmad Fakhri Pages 183-192
    Introduction
    War is an effective factor in incidence and promotion of psychological and behavioral problems such as post-traumatic stress disorder. This study aimed to determine the quality of life and its correlation with age and percent of injury in war veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder. Methods and Materials: This was a cross-sectional study, which included 70 war veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder. This study focused on the quality of life with SF36.
    Results
    The results indicated that war veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder had the least scores in physical, emotional and social function subclasses of SF36 questionnaire. There was significant correlation between quality of life and percent of injury (p = 0/039) but no significant correlation between quality of life and age.
    Conclusions
    Post traumatic stress disorder results in low quality of life in war veterans. Percent of injury significantly reduces their quality of life.
    Keywords: Quality of life, Percent of Injury, Posttraumatic stress disorder, War veterans
  • Omid Abobakri, Sedigheh Salavati, Seyed Kamel Hoseini Pages 193-200
    Introduction
    Organizational justice is the employee perceptions on fairness and justice in work relationships and behaviors in the organization. Organizational commitment is individual’s participation in organization and their sense of belonging to the organization and job. This study was conducted to identify the relationship between organizational justice and organizational commitment from the view of administrative and supportive personnel in teaching hospitals of Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences in 2012. Methods and Materials: This was a cross-sectional study which was conducted on two teaching hospitals. The sample was all administrative and supportive personnel that were working in these hospitals (n=300). Staff viewpoints were investigated using Moorman and Niehoffs organizational justice questionnaire and Mc Gee & Fords organizational commitment questionnaire. Results were analyzed using One Way Anova and Pearson correlation test in spss18 software.
    Results
    The organizational justice score was relatively low (45.3 7.8).The mean of organizational commitment score was in medium level (45.49 8.9). There was a positive correlation between organizational commitment and procedural justice (pConclusion
    According to the study results it is essential that hospital managers improve organizational justice in particular procedural justice among personnel. In this regard setting the organizational procedures accurately, providing correct and reliable information and preparations for stability of organizational procedures could be helpful.
    Keywords: hospital, organizational commitment, organizational justice
  • Mona Sharififard, Farhad Safdari Pages 201-206
    Introduction
    The house fly, Musca domestica L., is known as one of the most important hygiene problems worldwide. It has shown a high potential to develop resistance to chemical insecticides. This study was undertaken to determine the susceptibility or resistance of the house fly, which were collected from 3 livestock farms near the city of Ahvaz, to prevalent pyrethroid insecticides (delthamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, cypermethrin). Methods and Materials: Females of 3 field strains, Molasani, Saiahi and Shoeibi, and one susceptible population, were exposed to each insecticide with two bioassay
    Methods
    topical and residual methods.
    Results
    All three populations developed resistance to the prevalent pyrethroid insecticides. This phenomenon was determined by both topical and residual methods. The highest resistance level to delthamethrin insecticide was observed in the Molasani population with a resistance factor of RF>500 determined by both bioassay methods. The Siahi population showed the highest level of resistance to both the lambda-cyhalothrin and cypermethrin insecticides. Resistance factor values of this population to the above-named insecticides recorded by both bioassay methods were RF>1000 and RF>450, respectively. The highest resistance level of all was observed in the Siahi strain to cypermethrin.
    Conclusions
    Continuous use of insecticides with the same modes of action results in the development of class- or cross-resistance in target pests. Rotational use of insecticides with different modes of action could lead to the destruction of the resistant population and reduce the development of resistance in the house fly population of these places.
    Keywords: Resistance, Susceptibility, Musca domestica, Livestock Farm, Ahvaz
  • Amir Hossein Hashemian, Haji Ali Yartireh, Marzieh Sadeghian Pages 207-211
    Introduction
    Noise is a type of energy when exceeds T.L.V., It can cause hearing loss, especially in working environments. As factory workers are at high risk of noise, the present study evaluated the Bistoon Tile Factory workers hearing losses. Methods and Materials: In this analytical cross-sectional study, workers’ noise Leq were calculated according to I.S.O. standards and their audiometry results were derived from their health files. Data was analyzed by statistical tables and chi-square test by SPSS 21.
    Results
    There is no statistically significant relation between age and work history and hearing status of the workers, but a significant statistical relationship existed between noise Leq exposure and audiometry status. The persons with more noise exposure than standard values had bad audiometry status.
    Conclusions
    Large body of research has indicated that noise has effect on audio system, and in the present study, however the workers age and work history were not long enough to detect an exposure to Leq of higher than the standard level, a high exposure to loud noise reminded us that considering the issue, workers would prove important in the context of occupational health.
    Keywords: Audiometry, Noise Leq, Tile industry