فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:7 Issue:3, 2013
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1391/12/28
  • تعداد عناوین: 9
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  • Masoud Mardani Pages 79-80
  • Payam Tabarsi, Masoud Mardani Pages 81-84
    Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis (XDR-TB) is a new challenge for Tuberculosis control programs. Lack of effective drugs and high rate of failure in treatment and mortality is a major threat for public health. Treatment of this serious infection needs well-designed individualized dosage regimen and powerful national TB program. In this review we will describe the XDR-TB definition and its epidemiology and will discuss about the treatment options and future opportunities..
    Keywords: Tuberculosis, Extensively Drug, Resistant Tuberculosis, Drug Resistance, Multiple
  • Ashraf Tavanaee Sani, Maryam Mojtabavi, Kiarash Ghazvini Pages 85-87
    Background
    The emergence of Penicillin resistance and multidrug-resistant pneumococcal strains is a global concern. Several reports have demonstrated a correlation between increased Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of Penicillin, and increased MICs of Cephalosporins and other β-lactam antibiotics. It should be pointed out that pneumococcal resistance to Penicillin may predict an unfavorable response to other β-lactam antibiotics..
    Objectives
    To outline pneumococcal resistance to Ceftriaxone, a microbiological survey was performed on pneumococcal strains, during a two-year period..Patients and
    Methods
    In this study, 35 strains of Pneumococci were isolated from blood samples of 35 different consecutive patients, admitted to two educational hospitals in Mashhad, North East of Iran during a two-year period of this prospective study, the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Ceftriaxone was determined, using E-test..
    Results
    Amongst 35 clinical isolates, evaluated in this study, only one isolate (2.86%) was resistant to Ceftriaxone (MIC > 1) and 34 isolates (97.14%) appeared to be sensitive to this antibiotic. MIC ranged from 0.012 to 6 and MIC50 and MIC90 were 0.07 and 0.5, respectively..
    Conclusions
    Considering the low rate of Ceftriaxone resistance amongst isolated pneumcocci.in this study, Only Ceftriaxone treatment of adult patients with invasive pneumococcal infections (other than CNS infections) is sufficient; but pediatric patients and patients with CNS infections should be treated with Ceftriaxone and Vancomycin. Apparently, diminution of Vancomycin use can be resulted in reduction of the resistance rate among other bacteria, sensitive to this antimicrobial agent, such as Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococci..
    Keywords: Ceftriaxone, Pneumococci, Sensitivity, Specificity
  • Hossain Faramarzi, Mahdie Khalily Zade, Maryam Bazrgar, Negar Panahi, Behrooz Fathi Pages 88-91
    Background
    Influenza A (H1N1) has common signs and symptoms with other respiratory tract infections, but due to heavy socioeconomic burden of influenza A (H1N1), consideration of some symptoms to start the treatment on the proper time is an especial important point. On the other hand, these symptoms and signs may be depended on regional weather conditions or genetic traits of Iranian people..
    Objectives
    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the findings of this re-emerging infectious disease in Iran. Timely diagnosis with regard to the factor whether the findings vary within regions- is helpful with early treatment, better patient''s outcome and more effective prevention..Patients and
    Methods
    We have analyzed clinical symptoms and risk factors and duration of hospitalization of patients who had been referred to Ali-Asghar hospital in Fars province between October 26, 2009 and February 16, 2010..
    Results
    RT PCR test has been conducted on 371 probable patients and found 46 confirmed cases of influenza A (H1N1). The most common symptoms in these cases were cough, dyspnea, chill, myalgia and fever. There was not any significant correlation between these symptoms or symptoms with low prevalence or suggested symptoms by WHO or CDC or ILI with negative and positive PCR results..
    Conclusions
    Among confirmed patients with influenza A (H1N1), the most common symptoms were sequentially cough, dyspnea, chill and myalgia. PCR did not show high sensitivity in diagnosis of influenza A (H1N1) infection. The risk factor with the highest prevalence was heart disease followedby cigarette smoking and hematologic disorder. The mean age of these patients was about 38..
    Keywords: Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype, Pathological Conditions, Signs, Symptoms, Risk Factors, Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Nariman Shah-Hosseini, Alireza Khabiri, Farideh Bagheri, Hashem Yazdi, Nima Farajianfar Pages 92-95
    Background
    So far several literatures have discussed that GMP as a major cell wall component in Aspergillus species and can also be secreted into the medium as a component of the exoantigen. Moreover, one of the critical points in designing an ELISA is the preparation of the antigen..
    Objectives
    The main aim of this study was the identification of GMP and standardization of an indirect ELISA for the serological diagnosis of Aspergilloma..
    Materials And Methods
    An indirect enzyme linked immunoassay (ELISA) was developed and standardized for the serological diagnosis of Aspergilloma..
    Results
    Among 500 serum samples, 35 had positive and 465had negative ELISA test against Aspergilloma. In comparison, serum samples were tested by immunoblotting test, considered as the standard. In relation to the immunoblotting, the ELISA presented 94.2% sensitivity, 99.5% specificity, 94.2% positive predictive value, 99.5% negative predictive value and 99.2% precision..
    Conclusions
    It was concluded that the ELISA is a suitable method for large scale screening of antibodies against Aspergilloma. The easy techniques have shortened the required time of tests (approximately 1.30 hours for our ELISA, as opposed to 2.30 hours with commercial ELISA kit). This may be a substantial benefit for large numbers of samples that should be tested..
    Keywords: Serologic Tests, Enzyme, Linked Immunosorbent Assay, Immunoblotting
  • Ahmadreza Zarifian, Ali Sadeghian, Hamid Sadeghian, Kiarash Ghazvini, Hadi Safdari Pages 96-98
    Background
    Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen. Due to high prevalence of S. aureus infections and increasing resistance to antibiotics, physicians have been facing problems in choosing the appropriate empirical antibiotic therapy for such infections..
    Objectives
    The aim of this study was to determine the pattern of antibiotic resistance in S. aureus clinical isolates of Mashhad Quaem Hospital between 2009 and 2011..
    Materials And Methods
    In this study 170 isolates of Staphylococcus aureus were identified in laboratory. The specimens (including 82 urine, 43 wound, 37blood, 8 stool samples) were collected and examined by standard diagnostic methods. Determination of S. aureus sensitivity to antibiotics was performed using standard disc diffusion method. The antibiotic sensitivity of bacteria were reported according to the clinical laboratory standards institute (CLSI) manual as sensitive (S), intermediate (I) and resistant (R)..
    Results
    Among tested antibiotics, Staphylococci isolates were highly resistant against Ceftazidime (94%), followed by Penicillin (91%), Ampicillin (82%), Cefotaxime (65%), Erythromycin (60%), and Oxacillin (43%). Nearly all strains were susceptible to tested Vancomycin..
    Conclusions
    Our results are similar to the reports from other parts of Iran. According to this study, resistance pattern among Staphylococcus aureus strains were widespread in Quaem hospital. The implication of this high resistance is that Staphylococcus aureus infections should be treated more consciously and not with Penicillin and other ineffective antibiotics..
    Keywords: Antibiotics, Antineoplastic Agents, Drug Resistance, Staphylococcus aureus
  • Alireza Fahimzad, Azadeh Gharooei, Nava Safaei Pages 99-101
    A twelve-year-old girl with disseminated Tuberculosis was complicated by psychogenic vomiting and multiple drugs’ adverse effects. She was admitted to our hospital, complaining of fever, cough and abdominal pain. Diagnosis of TB was obtained by abdominal CT-scan and open liver biopsy. During the anti-TB treatment, hepatitis, hemolytic anemia and pancreatitis occurred due to some drugs'' side effects In addition, her main complaint was of persistent nausea which made all probable somatic basis ruled out, since she did not also show response to routine antiemetic treatment. As a result, the patient’s depression as well as the appropriate response to anti-depressant therapy helped us in confirming the diagnosis of psychogenic vomiting..
    Keywords: Tuberculosis, Adolescent, Psychogenic
  • Abbas Fadaii, Bahador Bagheri Pages 102-103
    Tracheomegaly or tracheobronchomegaly is a rare syndrome which is characterized by dramatic dilatation of the trachea and the major bronchi. This syndorme is usually associated with chronic respiratory infection and airway obstruction. In this paper, a case with tracheomegaly and bronchiectasis was scrutinized..
    Keywords: Bronchomegaly, Tracheomegaly, Mucociliary Clearance
  • Mohsen Masoudi, Zahedin Kheyri, Ali Ali-Asgari Pages 104-105