فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:2 Issue:4, 2014
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1392/12/17
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Zohre Sadat Pourtaghi *, Farhad Nejadkoorki, Mohsen Asadi, Lari, Esmaeil Khedmati Morasae, Zahra Nasrollahi Page 238
    Introduction
    Inequalities in urban environment are a significant concern. Socioeconomic level plays an important role in these inequalities. Inequality in environmental hazards recognized as potential determinants of health disparities. This current study, for the first attempt, investigates inequality from individual and cumulative air pollution in Tehran, Iran.
    Materials And Methods
    In this study, we used individual and cumulative environmental hazard inequality indices to compare the inequality among 379 neighborhoods in the city. Inequality indices were calculated based on unequal shares of environmental hazards for socioeconomic status (SES). The hazards include ambient concentrations of PM10 and NO2 in 2011.
    Results
    Inequalities from cumulative hazards (additive and multiplicative) and individual PM10 in different education rates were significant (P<0.001). However, there was no significant relation between inequalities in distribution of the pollutants and the variable of unemployment rate (P>0.05).
    Conclusion
    Findings of this research can be useful for policymakers and managers to investigate environmental justice especially in mega cities.
    Keywords: Inequality, Air pollution, Cumulative hazard, Tehran
  • Ali Dadbinpoor *, Ali Mohammad Haghdoust Haghdoust, Mohammad Bagher Movahedi, Azam Rasti Page 253
    Introduction
    Viral hepatitis is one of the causes of premature death in world peoples, according to WHO reports, five percentage of people are carrier, lethal from this disease is 1%, therefore about 1-1.5 million people each year die from complications of this disease. This disease varies from an acute to chronic illness. The aim of this study was to determine the level of anti-HBs Ag (hepatitis B surface antigen) in vaccinated children that born in Abarkouh city in 1992 in order to evaluation of the efficacy childhood hepatitis B vaccination in adults.
    Materials And Methods
    We measured anti-HBs Ag concentration in blood sera of 102 adult peoples than 600 new born children that vaccinated in 1992. Five milliliters (5ml) of blood sample was taken from 102 cases (33 male and 69 female).
    Results
    All blood samples were analyzed for anti-HBs Ag by ELISA method. 94 out of 102 samples (92.2%) showed anti-HBs Ag concentrations higher than 30 Iu/ml (positive) and, 4 out of 102 samples (3.9%) showed anti-HBs Ag concentrations less than 10 Iu/ml (negative), 4 out of 102 samples (3.9%) showed anti-HBs Ag concentrations between 10-30 Iu/ml (border line) considered immune after 20 year after the third dose of the vaccination. Non signifi-cant association in males and females (93.9% vs.97.1%) (P=0.390, df= 1, (2=.0.555)
    Conclusion
    our results reinforce the importance of hepatitis B vaccine in new born and efficacy of HBV vaccination in Abarkuh (Yazd province) is in the WHO standards.
    Keywords: Hepatitis B Vaccine, Children, Anti, HBs Ag
  • Milad Gholami, Azizallah Dehghan *, Nadjmeh Kargar, Pejman Mohammadi, Mahmood Moosazadeh, Hadi Hadi Zadeh Page 260
    Introduction
    Malnutrition remains the most serious children health problem and the most main cause of children mortality in the World Health Organization (WHO) Eastern Mediterranean Region. Nearly one-third of children in the region are either underweight or stunted, and more than 30% of the population suffers from micro-nutrient deficiencies.The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of malnutrition among school children in Kerman.
    Material And Methods
    This is a cross–sectional study. The number of 1,056 students recurred in Kerman, in the age range of 7 to12 years were selected by multistage sampling. Children weight for age (W / A), height for age (H / A) and weight for height (W / H) indicators was calculated and were compared with NCHS standard index. Students'' height and weight were measured with standard tools. Epi-info and Stata 11 software were used for analysis. Descriptive and chi 2 tests were used to provide a comparison according to (in) gender (sex).
    Results
    Prevalence of Malnutrition based on weight-for-age, height-for-age and weight-for-height respectively are 6.06, 5.58 and 75.9 percent and the prevalence average of malnutrition with above indicators respectively are 24.43, 26.04 and 24.90 percent. Comparison of weight-for-age and weight-for-height indices in children showed higher prevalence of malnutrition in girls than boys (P-value<0.05).
    Conclusion
    According to results, prevalence of malnutrition among school children was high in Kerman and must identify the factors creating it, and the necessary planning should be done to eliminate them.
    Keywords: Malnutrition, Children, Kerman
  • Mohammad Taghi Ghaneian, Jalal Sadeghi Zadeh, Mahboobeh Matoob *, Mohammad Hassan Ehrampoosh, Bahador Hajimohammadi, Hossein Fallahzadeh, Mahboobeh Dehvari, Arefeh Dehghani Tafti Page 267
    Introduction
    Attention to food safety and health at all stages from production to consumption is inevitable. Inappropriate sanitary status of the food production, distribution and supply centers caused food-borne diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the environmental health indicators of halva and tahini production centers in the city of Ardakan in 2013.
    Materials and Methods
    This is a descriptive, cross- sectional study. For data collection, the checklist were prepared consisting 5 part raw materials store, production processing halls, packaging halls, product store and bathrooms according to regulations form of article 13, law of edible, drinking, cosmetics materials of the department health, treatment and medical education with questions in different fields such as health card status, observance personal hygiene, status production centers structural, observance the criteria about the number of bathrooms, showers and toilets, wastewater disposal method and observance health principles in the halva and tahini production centers that during a inspection from 16 production centers were completed in the winter. Final, obtained data analyzed by SPSS, version 18 and χ2 test.
    Results
    Generally, 75% production centers had favorable hygienic status and 25% had slightly favorable hygienic status. According to obtained results, hygienic status of production centers had relatively favorable and favorable conditions and only in January and February in 31.3% and 18.8% processing hall and 12.5% product store was in a very favorable hygienic status. The results showed that in terms of environmental health status, 62.5% production centers in raw materials store part, 66.66% in production processing hall, 20.83% in packaging hall, 60.41% in product store and 37.5% in bathrooms had favorable status. Based on the results, hygienic status of bathrooms and processing hall achieved lowest and highest score, respectively. Statistical analysis showed that between hygienic status and production rate (p=0.411) there is no significant relationship.
    Conclusion
    The results of this study indicate that the halva and tahini production centers of Ardakan city in terms of environmental health indicators had slightly favorable status to favorable and none of the production centers had not very favorable conditions. The results of this study can be used to improve health status of halva and tahini production centers.
    Keywords: Environment health, Halva, Tahini production centers, Ardekan city
  • Gholam Hossein Halvani, Amir Hossein Khosh Akhlagh *, Hamid Hoboubati Page 275
    Introduction
    Sleepiness may predispose drivers to road traffic accidents. Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome is the most common medical cause of sleepiness. Hence increased neck circumference (NC) and obesity are known as obstructive sleep apnea syndrome risk factors. This study was conducted to assess OSAS role in occurrence of road traffic accidents in sleeping drivers of commercial heavy vehicles.
    Materials And Methods
    Seven hundred sixteen truck and bus drivers randomly selected who referred to occupational medicine clinic for routine annual examination. In addition, drivers who had one road accident during study period consists case and other drivers consists control group, respectively. Subjects also completed demographic and driving variables (e.g. type of vehicles …) and Epworth Sleepiness Scale questionnaire. We measured Neck Circumference and chance of road accident by Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve (ROC).
    Results
    Mean of NC in sleepy drivers and drivers who had road accidents was significantly higher than other drivers (P< 0.05). Drivers who had night driving had significantly higher road accident in compare with others (odds: 3.83; CI: 1.36-10.77; P=0.01). Marital status (P< 0.05) and road accident (P< 0.001) had significant association with sleepiness occurrence. According to ROC curve analysis, 43.18 centimeters as cut off point for positive results, was higher sensitivity and specificity for prediction of road accidents.
    Conclusions
    Drivers who have sleepiness and especially OSAS have more chance to involve an accident. By measuring of NC as OSAS, predictor may be able to reduce the risk of road accidents between commercial drivers.
    Keywords: Sleep Apnea, Obstructive, neck, Accidents, Traffic
  • Seyyed Abbas Hosseini *, Masoomeh Fasih Zaban Page 284
    Introduction
    One of the sources of natural occurring radiation was soils. The purpose of article was to determine soil pollution by radiation absorbed dose rate, radium equivalent activity, external hazard index, annual gonad dose equivalent and annual effective dose equivalent. Methods & Materials: The soil samples was located in Chahbahar city in Blouchestan of Iran, was chosen for studying of radioactivity. It was collected from twenty five points, each one in three separate places with 100 meter distance (twelve in western and thirteen in eastern sites) in the region. Then, each three soil samples were mixed and dried as one sample. The radioactivity concentration was measured in soil samples by gamma spectrometer.
    Results
    The natural radioactivity doses of soil in studied samples resulted in average absorbed dose rate, 42.92 ±4.03 nGy h-1; radium equivalent activity, 86.79±8.26 Raeq per Bqkg- the external hazard index, 1:8231.86±327.76; the annual gonad dose equivalent, 322.9±31.6 μSvh-1; and the annual effective dose equivalent 193.15μSvh-1.The results of study were compared with the international recommended values and radioactivity measurements in soils of different countries.
    Conclusion
    The contribution of natural radioactivity in pollution of area in comparison to ICRP was low.
    Keywords: Radiation, Soil Pollutants, Radioactive
  • Leila Dehghani *, Narges Khanjani, Abbas Bahrampoor Page 292
    Introduction
    Malignant melanoma is a fatal cutaneous neoplasm and one of the fastest growing cancers worldwide. The objective of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of melanoma in different cultural settings and the probable role of clothing for prevention.
    Materials And Methods
    In this cross-sectional study, data about diagnosed melanoma patients in Kerman Province, Iran including age, pathology, sex, location, and site of skin involvement, were obtained from the Kerman and Rafsanjan Cancer Registries from 2005 to 2009. Similar data related to melanoma incidence in Victoria, Australia were obtained from the Victorian Cancer Council, Melbourne. Incidence by age, sex and site of skin was calculated in both Kerman Province and Victoria State. Then the incidence differences for exposed and unexposed limbs were calculated and compared.
    Results
    Melanoma incidence in Kerman was 5.7 in million annually. Incidence in men was higher than women. The highest incidence was seen in 70-79 years of age. Most cases of melanoma (30%) were localized in the face. Incidence in Victoria State was 431.9 in million annually. The incidence in men was more than women. The highest incidence was seen above 80 years of age. Most of the cases (30.1%) of melanoma were seen in the trunk and then arm with 22.1%. The incidence difference between the two nations was significant except for the hands and male’s feet.
    Conclusion
    The present study suggests that clothing is possibly preventing about 25.7, 37.4 and 72.6 cases of melanoma respectively in the trunk, arm and leg in 1,000,000 people annually in Iran.
    Keywords: Melanoma, Incidence, Kerman, Victoria, Clothing
  • Zahra Mangabadi, Ali Jafari Nodoushan, Sadrallah Khosravi, Tahereh Alipour, Reza Jafari Nodoushan * Page 302
    Introduction
    motivational interviewing techniques to manipulate and extract of patients'' good behavior in order achieve to their better health behavior changes.
    Materials And Methods
    The type of research used in this quasi-experimental, pre-test and post-test in done by control group. The statistics obtained from the population the population consists of all individuals associated with drug addiction treatment center in the city of Yazd, using purpose sampling methods were employed.. Therefore, 40 patients in methadone treatment were randomly assigned to two experimental and control groups, and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (2004) was used. Motivational interviewing program administered to experimental group for 6 sessions of 90 minutes. At the end of the training period, both groups were assessed again. Data were analyzed using SPSS statistical software.
    Results
    T-test results showed that impulsivity is a significant difference between experimental and control groups.
    Conclusion
    The results of this study can be concluded that group motivational interviewing in reducing drug addiction and impulsive highly effective drug-dependent individuals.
    Keywords: Motivational interviewing, Impulsivity, Methadone, Treatment outcome