فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:15 Issue: 2, 2014
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1393/04/22
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
|
  • Mahnaz Yadollahi *, Narges Shamsedini, Ali Poostforooshfard, Sareh Roosta Page 1
    Background
    Investigating the obstacles to research in developing countries can yield valuable outcomes. Thus, the universities that seek global competition and progress should identify and remove the barriers to research to provide the researchers with the opportunity for performing more studies..
    Objectives
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the obstacles to research and the viewpoints of faculty and nonfaculty members of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences..
    Materials And Methods
    This study was conducted using two consecutive methods among the researchers of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. First, a qualitative phase was conducted and followed by a cross-sectional phase using convenience sampling. At the end, 105 questionnaires were filled out in academic year 2011-12. The questions were classified into three areas of management-organizational, financial-equipment, and personal-professional and were ranked from very unimportant to very important by Likert scale. SPSS 17 was used for statistical analysis..
    Results
    Three areas of management-organizational, financial-equipment, and personal-professional were the main core variables. The findings showed that the problems for performing research were high workload and different expectations of the university from the faculty members and researchers (Mean, 4.63), lack of time due to educational tasks (Mean, 4.31), and lack of funding support (Mean, 4.13). Considering the barriers, the highest and lowest means belonged to financial-equipment (Mean, 3.75 ± 0.65) and personal-professional (Mean, 3.35 ± 0.82) obstacles, respectively..
    Conclusions
    There were significant problems in different phases of performing a research, which must be identified and solved. Moreover, all the motivations for conducting a useful research should be prepared..
    Keywords: Internal Barriers, Research Activities, University, Qualitative Study
  • Arash Mani, Ali Sahraian *, Zohreh Fouladivanda Page 2
    Background
    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is not only one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders, is also one of the most disabling medical disorders with some cognitive deficits, like poor cognitive inhibition..
    Objectives
    The main purpose of the present study is to compare cognitive inhibition between patients with OCD and a healthy control group..Patients and
    Methods
    This was a cross-sectional study, performed on 20 patients with OCD and 20 patients in the control group, selected with convenience sampling method, from outpatients and inpatients. They completed a computerized cognitive inhibition task and the Maudsley Obsessional-Compulsive Inventory (MOCI). Data were analyzed by SPSS and a P-Value less than 0.05 was considered significant..
    Results
    The results indicated that patients and control groups were equal according to sex and education and there was no significant difference. Also, the results show that the difference in negative prime between the two groups was significant, although the differences in positive prime and neuter stimuli were non-significant..
    Conclusions
    According to cognitive inhibition deficits in patients with obsessive–compulsive disorder, it seems that in protocol treatment, patients should be provided with instructions, in the field of cognitive rehabilitation..
    Keywords: Cognitive Inhibition, Neuropsychology, Executive Function
  • Azade Bayat, Zahra Jamali, Hossein Hajianfar, Motahar Heidari Beni * Page 3
    Context: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the most common chronic diseases worldwide. In recent years, Cucurbita ficifolia intake has been identified as one of the most widely used herbal medications in treatment of DM. Since previous studies have suggested the benefits of C. ficifolia intake in treatment of DM, we reviewed available literature concerning effects of C. ficifolia on Type 2 DM..Evidence Acquisition: Databases such as PubMed, Scopus, and Google scholar were searched. Key words included type 2 diabetes, blood glucose, hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and Cucurbita. After removing irrelevant article, ten articles were reviewed..
    Results
    Studies reported beneficial effects of C. ficifolia on serum insulin and glucose level. Some of the studies showed a correlation between low level of lipid profiles and plasma glucose and increase intake of C. ficifolia. Although the exact role of C. ficifolia intake on DM has not been identified, the benefits might be due to the effects of active compounds such as flavonoids, alkaloids, polyphenolic components, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase..
    Conclusions
    Cucurbita ficifolia intake might have useful effects on prevention and treatment of DM. Cucurbita ficifolia has beneficial effects on insulin sensitivity and risk factors of DM; however, due to the small number of available studies, more researches are needed in this field..
    Keywords: Type II diabetes, Cucurbita, Hyperinsulinism, Hyperglycemia
  • Ali Sahraian *, Banafsheh Omdivar, Ahmad Ghanizadeh, Amir Bazrafshan Page 4
    Background
    Locus of control (LOC) is one of the most important factors with a significant role in stress management and increase or decrease negative emotions, notably in the work environment with many occupational consequences. This effect is more prominent in those working in more stressful environments such as medical professionals including nurses..
    Objectives
    This study examined the association of job stress and perceived LOC considering covariates variables..Patients and
    Methods
    Subjects were female nurses working in public hospitals in Shiraz during 2011. A total of 270 nurses were selected according to stratified sampling with proportional allocation. They were asked to complete the Rotter’s internal-external LOC scale and Occupational Stress Questionnaire..
    Results
    The results showed that the LOC has significant positive association with the occupational stress (P < 0.001)..
    Conclusions
    The result supported the significant association of LOC with occupational stress in nurses. With regard to the impact of internal LOC, organizing educational programs in this field may promote the nurses'' health in workplaces..
    Keywords: Locus of Control, Stress, Negative Affect, Occupations, Nurses
  • Mozhgan Akbarzadeh-Jahromi *, Fatemeh Sari Aslani Page 5
    Introduction
    Cervical teratoma is a rare neoplasm originating from the pluripotent cells and ectopic embryogenic non-germ cells and is manifested as a large and deformed mass in the neck..
    Case Presentation
    We reported a fetal autopsy case with the diagnosis of cervical immature teratoma. Prenatal sonography showed a huge neck mass with differential diagnosis of thyromegaly or thymoma..
    Conclusions
    On autopsy, a well circumscribed encapsulated mass measuring 10×7×5 centimeter was identified. Histopathological examination showed a neoplastic tissue composed of haphazardly arranged various mature and immature tissues derived from the three germ cell layers. The thyroid gland was not identified in the gross and serial sections of microscopic examination. Therefore teratoma must be considered in the differential diagnosis of neck masses in fetus and may involve the thyroid gland or arise from it..
    Keywords: Immature Teratoma, Cervical, Fetus, Thyroid
  • Anca Chiriac, Caius Solovan, Tudor Pinteala, Anca Ed Chiriac, Piotr Brzezinski *, Liliana Foia Page 6
    Background
    Psoriasis is a systemic, immune-mediated disease, associated with significant comorbidities, with a high negative impact on the quality of life..
    Objectives
    The aim of this study was to evaluate the profession of patients diagnosed with psoriasis and establish a correlation between the disease and occupation..Patients and
    Methods
    In an outpatient clinic, 1236 patients were diagnosed with psoriasis during eight years (2004-2011) and followed up for different clinical parameters and details in their working places..
    Results
    Of 1236 patients, 669 were male (54.13%) and 567 (45.87%) female, with a predominance of male over female (1.18/1); the median age at diagnosis was 29.34 ± 15.24; the retired individuals were mostly representatives (149, 12.6%), followed by pupils (112, 9.06%), employees (108, 8.74%), engineers (87, 7.04%), students (70, 5.66%), managers (56, 4.53%), housewives (54, 4.37%), professors (53, 4.28%), drivers (46, 3.72%), salesmen (39, 3.16%), economists (38, 3.07%), healthcare professionals (32, 2.59%). Others were unemployed (71 - 8.77%) or had other occupations..
    Conclusions
    The results did not conclusively declare psoriasis as an occupational or occupational-induced disease..
    Keywords: Psoriasis, Occupational Skin Diseases, Economics, Romania
  • Saman Farahangiz, Negin Hadi *, Mahsa Naseri, Ehsan Agah, Ali Montazeri Page 7
    Background
    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease, which decreases the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of the affected patients. There are various determinants related to the patients'' HRQOL..
    Objectives
    The objective of this study was to assess the HRQOL of a group of Iranian psoriatic patients in comparison with healthy adults..Patients and
    Methods
    This cross-sectional study was conducted in Shiraz, Iran. Ninety- six psoriatic patients and a control group of 200 healthy subjects were participated in the study. SF-36 questionnaire was used for the data collection. HRQOL was analyzes according to some selected variables including gender, age, education level, duration of the disease, and also in comparison with the control group..
    Results
    Ninety six patients with psoriasis (mean SD age of 35.72 9.95) included 41 males and 55 ty females. The control group had statistically significant (P-Value < 0.001) higher scores in all 8 scales of HRQOL. Physical and emotional role limitation (RP and RP) scales were significantly different in patient group based on the age. Scores forall the 8 scales and 2 summary measures of mental and physical health increased with increasing educational level..
    Conclusions
    The negative impact of psoriasis on various aspects of patients'' QOL is an undeniable fact.. The results of the present study indicate the necessity of appropriate therapeutic, social and psychological interventions in psoriasis patients in order to help them have better life quality..
    Keywords: Health, Quality of life, Iran
  • Seyed Mohammad Mirrezaie, Hamid Reza Saber, Bashir Hajibeigi, Ebadollah Salekmoghaddam, Ali Abbasian, Seyed Moayed Alavian * Page 8
    Background
    Hepatitis B (HB) vaccination is the most effective measure for preventing hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and its consequences. HB vaccination has been a part of the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) of Iran since 1993. To extend HBV immunization, mass HBV vaccination was planned for adolescents born during 1989-1992..
    Objectives
    The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence of HBV infection in Tehran blood donors after implementing national HB vaccination program..Patients and
    Methods
    Prevalence of HBV infection was determined in all of Tehran blood donors born during 1989-1993 as cases and the ones born during 1986-1988 as controls. All the participants were recruited after medical interviews. Serum samples taken from the participants as well as other blood donors were tested according to the IBTO standards for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Initially, positive samples were tested with appropriate confirmation methods. Statistical comparisons were performed using chi-square test. Prevalence estimates were age-adjusted by the direct method for comparisons across subgroups..
    Results
    The prevalence of HBV infection was 57/100 000, 350/100 000, and 265/100 000 among accepted blood donors born during 1989-1993 (cases), 1986-1988 (nonconcurrent controls), and 1989-1993 (concurrent controls), respectively. The prevalence of HCV infection in the same group of blood donors was 28/100 000, 38/100 000, and 31/100 000, respectively..
    Conclusions
    HBV prevalence was significantly lower among blood donors born during 1989-1993, which reflected the positive impact of EPI program and extended mass vaccination against HBV..
    Keywords: Hepatitis B, Blood Donors, Vaccination