فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:5 Issue: 10, 2014
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1393/08/21
  • تعداد عناوین: 20
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  • Maziar Moradi Lakeh, Sareh Shakerian, Mohsen Yaghoubi, Abdoulreza Esteghamati, Farhad Shokraneh, Hamid-Reza Baradaran, Roxana Mansour Ghanaee Pages 1213-1223
    Background
    The recent studies show that Rotavirus is important cause of the acute gastroenteritis. The aim of this review is to estimate the number of Rotavirus infection among Iranian children by performing a systematic review and estimating a pooled data.
    Methods
    We performed a systematic literature review in relevant databases including PUBMED, MEDLINE, OVID, SID, MAGIRAN, and IRANMEDEX. Search in databases was done in October 10, 2013. Meta‑analysis was performed using the STATA statistical package version 11. We assessed heterogeneity by Q‑test and used random model for pooling measures of proportion of Rotavirus infection among Iranian children with diarrhea (and 95% confidence intervals [CI]). Sub group analysis between in‑patient and outpatient group were done and publication bias was assessed by Egger and Begg tests.
    Results
    A total of 154 records were identified in our searching. There were 36 studies including a total of 15,368 children with diarrhea. Out of 15,368 children, 6,338 were positive for Rotavirus gastroenteritis. Overall pooled estimate of infection with Rotavirus among cases of gastroenteritis was 0.35 (95% CI, 0.28-0.41). Pooled estimates for hospitalized children and outpatient subgroups were 0.39 (95% CI, 0.30-0.48), and 0.31 (95% CI, 0.23-0.38), respectively.
    Conclusions
    This study supports the importance of Rotavirus in the Iranian population such as common cause of diarrhea among children. Therefore, decision to adopt immunization programs to prevent Rotavirus infection might be helpful in Iran.
    Keywords: Acute gastroenteritis, children, diarrhea, Rotavirus infection
  • Roya Kelishadi, Mostafa Qorbani, Mohammad Esmaeel Motlagh, Gelayol Ardalan, Mohammad Moafi, Minoosadat Mahmood-Arabi, Ramin Heshmat, Mohsen Jari Pages 1224-1230
    ackground: This study aims to assess the frequency, causes, and places of injuries in a nationally representative sample of Iranian children and adolescents, as well as the referral, places allocated for injured individuals.
    Methods
    This nationwide study was conducted in 2011-2012 among 13486 elementary, secondary and high‑school students who were selected by random cluster stratified multistage sampling from 30 provinces in Iran. The Global School‑based Health Survey questionnaire of the World Health Organization was used.
    Results
    The study participants consisted of 50.8% boys, 75.6% urban resident with a mean age of 12.5 years. Overall, 20.25% of participants reported that they were minimally injured once in the last 12 months; this prevalence was higher in boys than in girls (25.74% vs. 14.58%, respectively, P < 0.001), without significant difference in urban (20.11%) and rural (20.69%) areas. Most of them (39.92%) were injured at homes or house yards with higher prevalence in girls than in boys (48.61% vs. 35.17%, respectively, P < 0.001) and in rural than in urban areas (27.30% vs. 20.89%, respectively, P < 0.001). Schools were reported as the second prevalent site of injury occurrence (22.50%). Emergency departments and physician offices were the most prevalent referral places for injured individuals (32.31% and 22.38%, respectively). Most of the school injuries occurred during play or sport activities (45.92%).
    Conclusions
    Prevention of unintentional injuries should be considered as a health priority. Appropriate preventive strategies should be enhanced at homes and schools.
    Keywords: Adolescents, children, injuries, Iran, prevention
  • Shirin Saravani, Ebrahim Miri-Moghaddam, Nima Sanadgol, Hamideh Kadeh, Mohammad Reza Nazeri Pages 1231-1238
    Background
    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and viral load of Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) and Human herpesvirus‑6 (HHV‑6) in different histopathologic grades of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC).
    Methods
    Forty‑five formalin‑fixed paraffin‑embedded tissue section of OSCC patients were analyzed by quantitative real‑time polymerase chain reaction for detection of EBV and HHV‑6.
    Results
    The mean age of the patients was 58. 6 years، 69% of whom were female، and 31% were male. Overall، the positive rate for EBV and HHV‑6 were 16. 7% and 27. 1%، respectively; and the mean viral load EBV was 27. 9 × 103 and 38. 5 × 103 for HHV‑6. No correlation was demonstrated between the viral load of EBV DNA (P = 0. 35) and HHV‑6 (P = 0. 38) at the different OSCC histopathologic grades.
    Conclusions
    These findings neither lend support to the hypothesis that EBV and HHV‑6 are directly involved in OSCC nor rule out the possibility that these viruses play an indirect role in carcinogenesis in this area.
    Keywords: Epstein–Barr virus, herpesvirus‑6, infection, oral cancer
  • Sepideh Mahboobi, Bijan Iraj, Zahra Maghsoudi, Awat Feizi, Reza Ghiasvand, Gholamreza Askari, Najmeh Maayeshi Pages 1239-1246
    Background
    Prediabetes is a high‑risk condition for type 2 diabetes mellitus. The growing prevalence of diabetes emphasizes on the necessity of concentrating on various strategies to prediabetes prevention and management. Probiotics as a group of functional foods might exert antidiabetic effects. This study aimed to assess the effects of probiotic administration on blood lipid profile and blood pressure in patients with prediabetes.
    Methods
    This randomized controlled trial consisted of 60 prediabetic patients, aged 25-65 years old, that were randomly assigned to the intervention (receiving 500 mg probiotic capsules, n = 30) or control group (receiving placebo, n = 30) for 8‑week period. Demographic and anthropometric data were collected at baseline. Blood samples were collected at baseline and after 8 weeks for biochemical measurements. Blood pressure was measured at the baseline an after 8 weeks of intervention. Data regarding dietary intakes and physical activity were also collected during the study. We used SPSS software version 16 (SPSS Inc. Chicago, USA) for data analyzing.
    Results
    Probiotic supplementation did not contribute to significant changes in total cholesterol, low‑density lipoprotein (LDL)‑cholesterol, high‑density lipoprotein (HDL)‑cholesterol, Triglycerides (TG), TG/LDL and LDL/HDL ratios, after 8 weeks. After adjusting for potential confounders, HDL‑cholesterol reduced significantly in the placebo group compared with probiotic group. Percent change in systolic blood pressure was significantly different in the probiotic group in comparison with a placebo group (−3.10 ± 2.22 vs. 3.24 ± 1.96, P = 0.01), although this significance did not exist anymore after adjusting for confounders (P > 0.05).
    Conclusions
    Our study showed that probiotics did not have significant effects on lipid markers although they had positive effects on systolic blood pressure.
    Keywords: Blood pressure, lipid, prediabetes, probiotic
  • Zahra Taheri, Maryam Amidi Mazaheri, Mahbubeh Khorsandi, Akbar Hassanzadeh, Masoud Amiri Pages 1247-1254
    Background
    Nowadays, there has been a growing trend of caesarean sections in Iran. One reason would be the mother’s desire. Increased maternal self‑efficacy can be an important step to reduce percentage of cesarean. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of training‑based strategies to increase the self‑efficacy for choosing delivery method among pregnant women in Shahrekord city.
    Methods
    This quasi‑experimental study was conducted on 130 pregnant women who attended urban health centers in Shahrekord city in 2013. Intervention was applied in the experimental group in three sessions in about 60-90 min while control group did not receive any intervention. Fear of childbirth and self‑efficacy questionnaire was completed before and after training.
    Results
    While mean scores of the fear of childbirth, expectations and childbirth self‑efficacy before the intervention between the two groups were not significantly different (P > 0.05), mean scores of childbirth in intervention group was reduced and expectation and childbirth self‑efficacy had a significant increase after intervention (P < 0.05). In this study, 71.4% of mothers in intervention group and 53.8% of control mothers naturally delivered their children. Most of intervention group mothers desired to deliver through cesarean and had more fear (P < 0.001) but lower childbirth expectation (P > 0.05) and self‑efficacy (P < 0.001) than those who chose normal method.
    Conclusions
    Our findings showed that training‑based self‑efficacy procedure has been effective in encouraging mothers to choose natural childbirth. Therefore, the design and implementation of curriculum‑based strategies for increasing self‑efficacy is suggested for pregnant women.
    Keywords: Cesarean delivery, efficacy, elective cesarean, natural delivery
  • Maryam Mahmoudabady, Mohammad Naser Shafei, Saeed Niazmand, Esmaeel Khodaee Pages 1255-1260
    Background
    Antispasmodic and vasorelaxant effects of Teucrium polium L. (TP) were mentioned in former studies, so we attempted to evaluate the eventual preventive effect of TP in an acute experimental model of hypertension induced by angiotensin II (Ang II).
    Methods
    Forty‑eight male Wistar rats were divided randomly into six groups (n = 8); control Group (C), which received only saline, group Ang II; which received Ang II (300 ng/min, IV), group losartan (Los); which received Los (10 mg/kg, IV) before Ang II injection, three groups of TP 100, TP 200, and TP 400; which received different doses of TP extract (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, IP, respectively) before Ang II application. After cannulation of the femoral artery, mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) was continuously measured and recorded during the experiments. Comparisons were performed using t‑test with SPSS software, version 16 (SPSS, Chicago, IL).
    Results
    MAP and HR in Ang group were significantly higher than the control group (P < 0.001), MAP in group Los significantly was lower than Ang group (P < 0.001) and pretreatment with three doses of TP extract also inhibited increasing of MAP after Ang II injection (P < 0.001). Los also inhibited the increase of HR due to Ang II (P < 0.001), but none of three doses of TP extract had a protective effect on tachycardia induced by Ang II.
    Conclusions
    It seems TP extract could be effective in preventing of high blood pressure induced by Ang II pathway activation but could not have remarkable efficacy for improving the created tachycardia.
    Keywords: Angiotensin II, hypertension, rat, Teucrium polium
  • Gholamreza Asghari, Mohammad Ali Nilforoushzadeh, Shaghayegh Haghjooy Javanmard, Sayed Mustafa Ghanadian, Fariba Jaffary, Abolfazl Fallah Yakhdani, Nasim Dana, Sayed Ali Fatemi Pages 1261-1268
    Background
    A lot of remedies، mostly plant based، were mentioned in the Persian old pharmacopoeias for promoting of burn and wound healing and tissue repairing. The efficacy of most of these old remedies is unexplored till now. Adiantum capillus‑veneris from Adiantaceae family is one of them that was used to treating of some kinds of chronic wounds.
    Methods
    Methanol extract was fractionated to four different partitions that is، hexane، ethyl acetate، n‑butanol، and aqueous. The potential of A. capillus‑veneris fractions in wound healing or prevention of chronic wounds were evaluated through angiogenesis and fibroblast proliferation، in addition to in vitro tests for protection against damage to fibroblasts by oxygen free radicals.
    Results
    The aqueous part of A. capillus‑veneris promoted significant angiogenesis (P < 0. 05) through both capillary‑like tubular formations and proliferation of endothelial cells in vitro. In addition، in the tests for protection against damage to fibroblasts by oxygen free radicals، aqueous and butanol fractions showed significant protective effects in the concentrations 50، and 500 μg/ml (P < 0. 05) in comparison with a control group. In the toxicity testing، it showed weak irritation in the Hen’s egg test chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) bioassay at the vascular level on the CAM of the chicken and no significant cytotoxicity in the MTT assays on normal human dermal fibroblasts.
    Conclusions
    Angiogenic effects and protective effects against oxygen free radicals suggested aqueous partition of A. capillus‑veneris local application for prevention of late‑radiation-induced injuries after radiation therapy and healing of external wounds similar to bedsores and burns.
    Keywords: Adiantum capillus‑veneris, angiogenesis, fibroblast proliferation, hen's egg test chorioallantoic membrane test, Iranian traditional medicine, wound healing
  • Elham Hashemi Dehkordi, Seyed Mohammad Kazem Nourbakhsh, Noushin Rostampour, Fateme Alizadeh Boroujeni Pages 1269-1273
  • Elahe Kazemi, Seyed Mohsen Hosseini, Abbass Bahrampour, Elham Faghihimani, Masood Amini Pages 1274-1280
  • Akram Asadollahi, Hadi Sarir, Arash Omidi, Mohammad Bagher Montazar Torbati Pages 1281-1285
  • Elahe Khorasani, Mahmoud Keyvanara, Saeed Karimi, Marzie Jafarian Jazi Pages 1286-1298
  • Majid Motaghinejad, Majid Asadi Ghaleni, Ozra Motaghinejad Pages 1299-1307
  • Jafar Nasiri, Mehran Kargar Pages 1308-1313
  • Mohammadreza Amiresmaili, Sajad Khosravi, Vahid Yazdi Feyzabadi Pages 1314-1323
  • Ensiyeh Jamshidi, Esmaeil Khedmati Morasae, Khandan Shahandeh, Reza Majdzadeh, Elham Seydali, Kiarash Aramesh, Nina Loori Abknar Pages 1328-1335
  • Maryam Amini, Nasrin Omidvar, Heather Yeatman, Shadab Shariat, Jafari, Maryam Eslami, Amirabadi, Malihe Zahedirad Pages 1337-1341
  • Marcelo Carlos Bortoluzzi, Peterson Cadore, Andrea Gallon, Soraia Almeida Watanabe Imanishi Pages 1343-1345
  • Hamid Reza Saberi, Mohammad Shanbeh, Amir Hossein Naseri Esfahani Page 1347