فهرست مطالب

Global Journal of Animal Scientific Research - Volume:3 Issue: 2, 2015
  • Volume:3 Issue: 2, 2015
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1393/12/18
  • تعداد عناوین: 17
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  • B.R. Alkali, K.B. Tanyigna, Y.A. Yabo, Abdulrahman Bello Pages 300-304
    The study was designed to assess the competence of the Veterinary laboratory staff involved in Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) diagnosis in Nigeria with particular focus on the Nigerian Veterinary Research Institute Vom, Jos (NVRI) and the five disignated Nigerian Veterinary Teaching Hospitals for the diagnosis of HPAI using a structured questionare. Each of these laboratories should have the capacity to carry out screening direct antigen detection tests, immunofluorescence test and serological tests for antibody detection. The NVRI is expected to carry out virus isolation and identification and any other isolate characterization. Out of the 69 respondents involved in the diagnosis of HPAI, 15 (21.7%) were Senior Veterinary Research Officers while 19 (27.5%), 3(4.3%), 4(5.8%), 14(20.3%), and 2(2.9%) were Veterinary Research Officers, Chief Technologists, Assistant Chief Technologists and Technologists respectively. Holders of Doctor of Veterinary Medicine Degree (DVM) accounted for 47.8% while those with Higher National Diplomas (HNDs) and Ordinary National Diplomas (ONDs) accounted for 24.6% with few Bachelor of Science Degree (BSc) holders. Results also revealed that, 59.4% of the respondents were only involved with HPAI diagnosis in the last four years while only 18.8% indicated involvement during the last five years and beyond. Also, only 53.6% of the staff ever attended Laboratory training while 46.4% did not. It was concluded that many Veterinary laboratory staff in Nigeria lacked the necessary qualification and experience to carry out effective HPAI diagnosis.
    Keywords: Competence, Diagnosis, Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza, Veterinary Laboratory Staff
  • Khalid Mohammed Elamin_Siham Awad Elkareem Abdalla_Khadiga Abbas Abdelatti_Huwaida E. E Malik_Bakheit Mansour Dousa Pages 305-310
    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of feeding graded levels of gum Arabic (0%, 2.5%, %5 and 7.5%) on the performance and blood chemistry of broiler chicks. A total of 192 unsexed broiler chicks (Cobb strain) were randomly assigned in four dietary treatments. Each treatment contained six replicates (8 birds/replicate). Feed and water were offered ad libitum throughout the experimental Period (42 days).. Feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion ratio were not influenced by the dietary inclusion of gum Arabic. The results also revealed that the different levels of gum Arabic had no effect on serum constituents, except total protein which increased significantly. Cholesterol, creatinine and triglyceride levels were decreased significantly in bird fed 5% and 7.5% gum arabic. It is concluded that the incorporation of gum Arabic in broiler chickens diets has a positive effects on broiler chicks performance and reduced serum cholesterol levels, creatinine and triglyceride.
    Keywords: serum, Cholesterol, creatinine, triglyceride
  • Kourosh Mohammadi, Rostam Abdollahi-Arpanahi Pages 311-320
    This paper reports the genetic, phenotypic and environmental trends for growth traits including birth weight (BW), weaning weight (WW), 6-month weight (6MW), 9-month weight (9MW) and yearling weight (YW). Reproductive traits namely, litter size at birth (LSB), litter size at weaning (LSW), total litter weight at birth (TLWB) and total litter weight at weaning (TLWW) were also investigated. The data were collected from the Khojir Breeding Station of Zandi sheep in Tehran, Iran from 1993 to 2008. Best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) of breeding values was estimated by Restricted Maximum Likelihood procedure using multi-trait animal model. The most appropriate models were chose to predict breeding values of aforementioned traits. Genetic and phenotypic trends were obtained by regression of average breeding values and phenotypic least squares mean, respectively, on birth year. Direct genetic trends were significant for BW, WW, 6MW, 9MW, YW, TLWB and TLWW (5, 48, 21.5, 72, 65, −2.5 and 11 g per year, respectively). Phenotypic ones were significant for WW, 6MW, and TLWW (129.5, 238.3, and 187.3 g per year respectively). Environmental ones were significant for WW and 6MW (81.5, and 216.8 g per year, respectively). Both LSB phenotypic and environmental trends were −0.010 head per year. The results showed that Selection program would relatively bring out genetic improvement especially for growth traits in mentioned breed. Environmental fluctuations ought to be modified with particular managing schedules to provide a susceptible field to express genes’ additive effects.
    Keywords: genetic trends, growth, reproductive traits, Zandi sheep
  • Mahdi Khojastehkey, Ali Asghar Aslaminejad, Mohammad Mahdi Shariati, Rouhollah Dianat Pages 321-328
    In this study a method to determine the pelt pattern of Zandi sheep lambs using image processing and neural network is presented. Data were collected from Zandi sheep breeding center located in the North East of Tehran (Khojir). In the lambing season, pelt pattern (including regular and irregular patterns) of 300 newborn lambs along with other important characteristics were determined by qualified appraisers. Simultaneously, some photos were taken from each lamb pelt using digital camera. Due to the difference in image resolution and variety of pelt patterns, a total of 170 high quality pictures of lambs were selected and used for final assessment. Two independent image processing scenarios were developed in MATLAB GUI environment. In both scenarios, after the necessary image transformation and segmentation the relevant features were extracted from each image. In the first scenario, some morphological and texture features were extracted from images to classify the pelt pattern of lambs. In the second scenario, the original image firstly was divided into four equal sub-images, and in addition to the texture and morphological features which were extracted in the first scenario, variances and correlations between four sub-images were calculated and added to the features vector. The selected features were used as an input data to the artificial neural network to classify pelt pattern quality of lambs. Input data to the neural network in the first scenario included 21 morphological and texture features, while in the second scenario included 44 features. In both scenarios a three layers Percepteron artificial neural network with feed forward back-propagation algorithms were used. The regular and irregular pattern of lamb pelts were detected by the neural network with accuracy of 92 % and 100% in the first and second scenarios, respectively. The results showed that determination of pelt pattern of lambs based on proposed image processing method is feasible, and substitution of this new method instead of human appraisal method is achievable.
    Keywords: Artificial neural networks, Image processing, Pelt quality, Zandi sheep
  • Cryptosporidium Infection in Sheep and Goats in Southern Botswana and Its Public Health Significance
    Surender Pal Sharma, Mompoloki Busang Pages 329-336
    Fecal samples of 166 sheep and 222 goats collected from 14 farms in southern Botswana were screened for the presence of Cryptosporidium infection using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Modified Ziehl-Neelsen (MZN) staining technique. An overall prevalence rate of 13.3% (22/166) in sheep and 12.2% (27/222) in goats were detected. ELISA proved to be more sensitive in detecting Cryptosporidium infection than MZN (P = 0.04). Lambs and goat kids aged ≤ 4 weeks showed highest infection rates of 19.4% (13/67) and 16.5% (15/91), respectively. The infection rate of 16.7% (42/251) was recorded in small ruminants ≤ 12 weeks compared to 5.1% (7/137) in adults (P = 0.002). Diarrheic animals demonstrated 20.7% (12/58) prevalence in comparison to 11.2% (37/330) in animals excreting normal solid feces (P = 0.07). The significance levels in the infection rates in sheep versus goats and males versus females were P =0.87 and P = 0.76, respectively. Animals reared under traditional communal management system exhibited more susceptibility to cryptosporidiosis than those under semi-intensive husbandry system (P = 0.04). Of the 62 environmental samples taken, Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in 2 of 27 (7.4%) soil and 1 of 22 (4.5%) water samples. None of 14 manure specimens derived from every sampled small stock farm was found positive. The results of the present study revealed the occurrence of Cryptosporidium infection in small stock population in southern Botswana. It suggested potential role of young lambs and goat kids for transmission of human cryptosporidiosis via environmental contamination. Application of molecular techniques for characterization of Cryptosporidium field isolates including zoonotic species and genotypes is urgently required. Creation of farmers’ awareness through extension education program on good animal husbandry practices will help in devising appropriate strategies to control animal and human cryptosporidiosis.
    Keywords: Cryptosporidium, enzyme, linked immunosorbent assay, feces, goats, oocysts, sheep
  • Mohammed Alhadi Ebrahiem, H.A. Galallyn, A.Y. Bashir Pages 337-341
    This study was designed to investigate the effect of breed and feeding level before slaughter on the skin\leather quality of the three main breeds of Sudangoats. Thirty (30) pieces of fresh skins from the three goat breeds (an average age 1-1.5 years) were chosen for the study purpose. For whole variations between the three breeds in two levels of feeding (poor and rich pastures) Complete Randomized Design (CRD) was used for data analysis. The results revealed that, leather weight (kg), elongation%, tensile strength (kg/cm2), cracking load (kg), thickness (mm), tear load (kg/cm) and chrome% findings were significantly affected (P≥0.05) by breed variation. Flexibility, moisture%, Ash% and fat % were not significantly affected (P ≥ 0.05) by breed. On the other hand, skin weight (kg), Cracking load (kg), Tear load (kg/cm) and Ash% were significantly affected (P≥0.05) by pasture quality. While Leather Elongation%, Tensile strength (kg/cm2), Thickness (mm), Flexibility, Moisture%, Fat % and Chrome% were not statistically (P ≥ 0.05) affected by pastures quality.
    Keywords: goat leather quality, Range, Sudan
  • Musa Dantani Baba, A.L. Ala, M.A. Maikasuwa Pages 342-349
    The study was conducted to examine weight gain and economic implications of feeding Uda rams with graded levels of dietary mineral salt (potash) in Tullun Gwanki Grazing Reserve, Silame Local Government Area, Sokoto State, Nigeria. Tullun Gwanki Grazing Reserve was purposively selected because of the predominance of pastoralists in the area. One hundred respondents were randomly selected from a list of four hundred and fifty pastoralists collected. All the sampled respondents were contacted and interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Feeding trial using sixteen growing uda lambs in a randomized complete block design was conducted. A complete diet was formulated and divided into four treatments; treatment A (control) without dietary mineral salt while treatments B, C and D contained potash at 1.25; 2.50 and 3.75kg/100/diet respectively. The animals were fed for the period of nine weeks in which daily records of feed and water intakes and weight gain were kept. Data were were analysed using descriptive statistics, farm budgeting and analysis of variance. Duncan’s New Multiple Range Test (DMRT) was used to separate the means where significant differences exist. The study showed that majority of the farmers (76%0 practiced semi-intensive system of management and most of them (64%) used common salt in feeding uda rams. The average quantity of dietary mineral salt used by the pastoralists in Tullun Gwanki grazing reserve was 2.5kg /100kg/ diet. Result of the experiment showed that treatment D gave the highest average daily gain at a feeding level of 3.75kg/100kg diet. Treatment D also gave the best result interms of cost of feed/kg live weight gain (962.83N/kg) as compared to treatments B and C. Similarly, net farm income obtained from the sale of uda under treatment D was highest. Based on the outcome of the study, it was concluded that, farmers in Tullun Gwanki Grazing Reserve were yet to exploit minerals to the maximum tolerable by uda sheep as they used 2.5kg rather than 3.75kg/100kg diet. Hence, it was recommended that 3.75kg/100kg diet should be used by pastoralists, and animal breeders since it gave the best result in terms of profit and weight gain.
    Keywords: Weight gain, Economics, Implications, Feeding, Uda Rams, Mineral salt
  • Rajrupa Ghosh, Abhijit Mitra Pages 350-358
    Traditional method of shrimp (Penaeus monodon) culture is a common practice in Indian Sundarbans which is done without any sound scientific back-up, proper feed and water quality management. The shrimp farmers use traditional feed of animal origin that often results in fouling of water quality and disease outbreak in cultured species. The present paper highlights the effect of total replacement of animal ingredients in shrimp feed with dust of saltmarsh grass Porteresia coarctata (as principal floral ingredient). Weight gain, condition index (C.I.), feed conversion ratio (FCR), survival, body pigmentation (astaxanthin level) were analyzed in shrimps along with pond water quality. Higher C.I. values, survival rate and gain in shrimp weight were observed in experimental pond (E) compared to control pond (C). Low FCR values were observed in the experimental pond than the control pond. Astaxanthin values in shrimps of the experimental pond were also higher than the control pond which points towards P. coarctata as the source of carotenoid in the shrimp tissue.
    Keywords: Astaxanthin, Porteresia coarctata, Penaeus monodon, Indian Sundarban
  • Farzaneh Mehrabi, Kaivan Hazaee, Mohammad Kazem Khalesi Pages 359-362
    This research investigated the specialization of anemone fishes and the phylogenetic relationships among 12 species of the genus Amphiprion and between two species of the genus Premnas using the mtDNA D-LOOP sequence. Following DNA extraction from caudal fins of 14 fish samples, a 450 bp fragment of the D-LOOP mitochondrial (mt) DNA was amplified through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using a pair of specific primer. The amplified products were tested on agarose gel (1%). The obtained sequences were registered in the Genbank. The arrays of nucleotides obtained from the samples were corresponded to those available in Genbank using BLAST tool in NCBI database. The results showed significant correlations with D-loop nucleotide arrangements of common anemone fish (Amphiprion ocellaris) and those of other fish types indicating the accurate selection of the desired fragment of mtDNA. Resultant phylogenetic tree revealed species abundance together with distribution of many species located in the end of the tree probably classified as older species. Accordingly, a region at a longitude between the Philippines and large sea cliffs at latitude between Sumatra and Melanesia was determined to be the possible area of origin for Amphiprioninae, which was identified as the most important center of biodiversity and evolution.
    Keywords: D, LOOP, mtDNA, Nucleotide arrangement, Phylogenetic treec
  • John Sparrowe, Magdalena Jimenez, Joaquin Rullas, Antonio E. Mart, Iacute, Nez, Santiago Ferrer Pages 363-369
    Intratracheal intubation (i.t.) in mice is a technique required for many in vivo study protocols, as are the intranasal (i.n.) route or the use of aerosol generators.The i.n. technique is rapid to perform but erratic whereas the transtracheal route requires a short surgery, with anesthesia and a few days needed for total recovery and wound healing before the study can be performed. The i.t. route is a reliable, fast and simple technique and we provide a detailed description for intubation by transthoracic illumination and confirmation in the mouse, using commercially available tools. The result is a technique that takes about 40 seconds to perform, including verification of right positioning of the probe, with no mortality, pulmonary edema, bleeding or laryngeal damage observed. However checking the correct placement of the probe is crucial for good results.This method’s robustness was evaluated by comparing bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cell count results, obtained both from i.n. instillation and i.t. inoculation of LPS (E. coli Lipopolysaccharide) to produce a model of lung lower airways inflammation to evaluate anti-inflammatory compounds. We also describe its use as the standard infection technique in an acute Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection model for therapeutic efficacy studies.
    Keywords: Commercially available tools, intratracheal intubation, mouse, verification
  • Awoke Kassa Zewdie Pages 370-382
    The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of supplementations with F. sycomorus leaf, fruit and their mixtures ondigestibility of sheep fed basal diet hay, The experiment was carried out at Gish Abay in Sekela Woreda, West Gojjam Zone; using twenty intact male yearling Washera sheep with a mean (±SD) initial body weight of 17.5±0.39kg. The animals were vaccinated against anthrax and pasteurellosis, dewormed and sprayed against internal and external parasites, respectively, before the start of the experiment. Experimental sheep were adapted for 15 days to the treatment feeds. The experiment consisted of digestibility trial of 10 days including harness training. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with five blocks consisting of four animals per block based on their initial body weight. Dietary treatments were randomly assigned to one of the four treatment diets within a block. Treatments comprised of feeding natural pasture hay ad libitum (un-supplemented: T1) or natural hay supplementation with either F. sycomorus leaf (Treatment 2: T2), or F. sycomorus fruit (Treatment 4; T4), or mixture of F. sycomorus leaf and fruit in a ratio of 1:1(Treatment3; T3). The amount of supplements offered was 300 g/day on DM basis. Water and salt were available free choice. Natural pasture hay in the current study contained 8.0% crude protein (CP), 73.1% Neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and 43.6% acid detergent fiber (ADF). Sheep in the un-supplemented treatment consumed higher (p<0.001) basal dry matter intake ((581.6 g/day) as compared to supplemented group. However, total DM intake was higher for sheep in the supplemented group (T2-T4) compared to the un-supplemented (control).Supplementation significantly improved digestibility co-efficient of DM, organic matter (OM) (P<0.001) and CP (P<0.001). NDF and ADF digestibility were also improved (P<0.001) due to supplementation as compared to un-supplemented group. Thus, it can be concluded that supplementation in general improved animal performance. Among the supplements, however, T2 is biologically optimum.
    Keywords: Digestibility, Feed Intake, andWashera Sheep
  • Min Aung, M. Khaing, T. Ngwe, K.S. Mu, M.T. Htun, L.N. Oo, A. Aung Pages 383-387
    This survey was carried out to evaluate the dairy cattle production system, conventional feed resources and their nutritive values in Central Dry Zone (CDZ), Tatar U and Amarapura Townships, in Myanmar. The secondary data and questionnaires were accessed from 180 farmers of 180 households in the study area and made Focus Group Discussion (FGD) with them. According to the findings of this survey, most of farmers were relying on the agriculture for their livelihood and livestock farming played as the secondary role. As the gender issue, the role of female was vital for the development of dairy production sector indicating that female were the resource person in small-scale dairy production system. Generally, one household possessed 4 cattle including milking cows, heifers and calves. As breeding, natural breeding was still important for small-scale dairy farmers and the calving intervals were between12 and 18months. The average 11.5 kg of milk per cow were recorded from the study area. Among the conventional feed resources, butter bean residue, natural grass and sesame residue were used as the roughages sources in diet when rice straw was not available. These feedstuffs were valuable potential to be used in the ration of dairy cow.
    Keywords: Dairy cattle production system, Conventional feed, Gender issue
  • Effects of Albizia Julibrissin Leaf Meal-Based Diet on Carcass and Sensory Characteristics of Broiler Chickens
    Frederick Adzitey, Abdulah Muktar, Gabriel Ayum Teye, Mohammed Alhassan, Herbert Kofi Dei Pages 388-392
    The carcass and sensory characteristics of broiler chicken fed Albizia julibrissin leaf meal (AJLM) was studied. A total of 24 (6 from each treatment) 8 weeks old broiler chickens were randomly selected from 120 broiler chickens fed diets containing 0% (control, T1), 2% (T2), 3% (T3) and 4% (T4) AJLM. The chickens were weighed and slaughtered after a 24 hour feed withdrawal. Carcass and viscera weights were taken, after which viscera and primal cuttings were bagged and labeled for carcass and sensory analysis. The breast muscles were grilled to an internal temperature of 70oC for 15 minutes for sensory analysis. The results showed that, AJLM had no significant effect (P > 0.05) on carcass characteristics of broiler chickens. In addition, there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in colour, juiciness, flavour, flavour-liking and overall- liking. However, there was significant difference (P < 0.05) in tenderness and taste. Tenderness of T3 was significantly better (P < 0.05) than T1, T2, and T4. Taste of T1 and T3 were significantly better (P < 0.05) than that of T2 and T4. Feeding of AJLM to broiler chickens up to 4% on weight basis has no adverse effect on carcass and sensory characteristics.
    Keywords: Albizia julibrissin, carcass, sensory characteristics, broiler chicken
  • Faeze Fazeltorshizi, Majid Salari, Mehdi Moghaddam Pages 393-402
    This experiment was conducted to determine of nutritive value, chemical composition and digestibility sorghum bicolor silage with different levels of fibrolytic enzymes using in situ technique. Chemical compositions were measured according to the standard methods. Three fistulated-Baluchi male lambs used factorial experiment in a completely randomized design. Treatments were A: sorghum silage, B: sorghum + 3g fibrolytic enzymes before silage, C: sorghum + 6g fibrolytic enzymes before silage, D: sorghum + 9g fibrolytic enzymes before silage, E: sorghum + 3g fibrolytic enzymes after silage, F: sorghum + 6g fibrolytic enzymes after silage and G: sorghum + 9g fibrolytic enzymes after silage. The amounts of degradation were measured using nylon bags at 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72 and 96 h times. The degradability parameters of dry matter for potential degradability fractions (a+b) were 60.77, 61.52, 64.43, 68.56, 62.60, 63.04 and 66.95% for treatments, respectively. The results showed significantly differences in degradability of experimental treatments in different incubation times and treatment D had highest and treatment A had lowest rumen degradability of 96 h. The result showed that enzymes were causes the significant reduction of NDF and ADF and significant increase of CP, EE and WSC in silage. Between the enzymes is added before or after the silage process can be concluded that in both cases, the enzyme causes significant changes in the treatments containing silage compared to the control treatment. So, this process for feeds in the local animals are benefit and nutrition value of them is suitable, therefore we can recommend them for providing part of roughage requirements in animal feed.
    Keywords: Degradability, Enzyme, In situ, Nutritive Value, Sorghum
  • Isaac Hyeladi Malgwi, Ibrahim Dukku Mohammed Pages 403-411
    This experiment was conducted to develop dry season supplement for ruminants and their degradation characteristics. Ten (10) different rations were formulated, F1, F2, F3, F4, F5, F6, F7, F8, F9, and F10 using a mixture of different locally available feed ingredients with different inclusion levels which includes sorghum husk, maize bran, wheat offal, millet bran, rice bran, bran (dusa), cowpea husk (as energy source), cotton seed cake, groundnut haulms and poultry litter (as protein source). Rumen degradation of the formulations revealed that at 6, 12 and 18 hours, F9 and F10 recorded significantly higher degradability with no statistical difference in degradability amongst F1 through to F8. At 48 hours of incubation period The % DM degradation for all the formulations is not significantly different which ranged from 76.50% - 79.84% DM while at 72hours it ranges between 78.84% - 83.67% DM degradability. The cost of production from this analysis showed that highest production cost was (N6100) equivalent to $39.35 while least production cost was (N2710) equivalent to $17.48. 20% inclusion level of poultry litter in ruminant ration will result in a significant increase in rumen DM degradation by stimulating activities of rumen microbes’ thereby increasing digestibility of crop-residues which are mostly fibrous in nature.
    Keywords: Dry Season, Ruminants, Supplements, Semi Arid, Degradation Characteristics
  • Majid Kalantar, Fariborz Khajali, Akbar Yaghobfar Pages 412-418
    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of different dietary source of Non-starch polysaccharides supplemented with enzymes on growth, carcass and physiological characteristics of broilers. A total number of 625 unsexed broiler chicken (Ross 308) were randomly assigned to 5 treatments, 5 replicates and 25 birds per each unit, using a CRD statistical design. Treatments were included control, wheat (W), wheat+ enzyme (WE), barley (B), and barley+ enzyme (BE). Total feed intake and body weight gain were significantly increased, but feed conversion ratio decreased by diets supplemented with enzymes rather diets without enzymes (P<0.05). The inclusion of W and B in diets led to significantly decreased in carcass yield and the percentage of breast, leg, fat pad, and liver compare to the control (P<0.05). The percentage of pancreas was higher in W and B diets than control or enzyme supplemented diets (P<0.05). Serum levels of glucose (GLU), triglyceride (TG), and cholesterol (CHO) significantly decreased in diet contained W and B (P<0.05). Digesta viscosity significantly increased, but pH decreased after feeding the chickens by W and B diets rather control (P<0.05). The results of present study have shown that supplementation of W and B with multi-enzymes completely restored the situation and neutralized the negative effects of W and B on growth and carcass traits, blood parameters and gut physicochemical properties of broiler chickens.
    Keywords: chicken, carcass, growth, NSP, physicochemical
  • Khalid Mohammed Elamin, Khalid Elbashir Mohamed, Amir Mohammed Salih, Wafaa B. Zomrawi, Manal Mohamed Hamza, Bakheit Mansour Dousa Pages 419-422
    This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of drying method on dry matter, organic matter, ash, crude protein, phosphorus, calcium, neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre, in vitro-digestible organic matter and tannin content Leucaena leucocephala leaves. On average Leucaena leucocephala leaves contained 222.2 g/kg DM-1 crude proteins, 315.7 g/kg DM-1 neutral detergent fiber concentration, 234.1 g/kg DM1 acid detergent fiber concentration, 1.85% Ca, 0.198 % P, 23.4 g. kg-1 tannin concentrations and 54.9% digestibility. It was concluded that L. leucocephala leaves contain adequate amount of nutrients to support microbial growth and to feed animals. Method of drying samples (air-dried, sun-dried and soaked plus sun-dried) showed that sun-drying and soaking plus sun-drying slightly increased the level of dry matter, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber. However, the levels of tannin concentration were reduced in sun-dried and soaked samples compared to air dried samples.
    Keywords: Dry matter, In vitro, digestible, Tannin, Leucaena leucocephala