فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:7 Issue: 1, 2015
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1394/03/19
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Moulood Valipour Noroozi, Majid Hajibabaei *, Azadeh Saki, Zakieh Memari Page 1
    Background
    Musculoskeletal disorders are among common occupational diseases in the world, which have high prevalence not only among hard and hurtful jobs, but also in office works..
    Objectives
    The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) among office workers of Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences..Patients and
    Methods
    This study carried out intermittently among 392 individuals of Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences office workers by Nordic questionnaire from October 2013 to December 2013. Study population included office workers of different departments as well as central organization and library. We use descriptive statistic, t test and chi-square test for data analysis..
    Results
    The mean and standard deviation of participants’ age was 35.4 ± 6.7 years and their work experience was 9.7 ± 6.65 years, respectively. Most signs (51%) were in back region, which forced 18.9% of individuals to withdraw from daily activities. Statistical analysis also showed 36.7% neck disorders in office workers, which demonstrated significant association with age and work experience (P < 0.001)..
    Conclusions
    Significant association of work experience and age with musculoskeletal disorders shows that individual’s education and knowledge improvements with regard to ergonomics risk factors and correction of work postures are very important and ought to follow management and technical practices in the organization..
    Keywords: Musculoskeletal Disorders, Posture
  • Ali Aghanuri, Hamideh Salehi, Mahmood Mahmoudi, Farzad Faraji Khiavi, Kurosh Djafarian * Page 2
    Background
    Since the population of Iran is aging, there is a growing need for more information about the quality of life (QOL) of this group. Proper planning for this age group with the aim of increasing their quality of life depends on the identification of factors associated with QOL..
    Objectives
    The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a relationship between quality of life (QOL) and healthy eating index (HEI) in healthy elderly people living in urban areas of the Markazi Province, Iran..Patients and
    Methods
    A two-stage stratified sampling design was adopted for this survey. The HEI 2005 scores were calculated based on three 24-hour dietary recalls and the SF-36 questionnaire was used to assess QOL. Body weight and height of the subjects were measured and body mass index was computed..
    Results
    Men had significantly higher quality of life in all dimensions and components compared to women (P < 0.01), while there was no sex difference in the HEI scores. The HEI scores were positively correlated with the QOL total score (P < 0.05) and its physical health dimensions (P < 0.01); the significant correlation was eliminated after adjusting the data for age and gender. The HEI and QOL scores had no significant relationship with BMI..
    Conclusions
    The findings of this study do not show a significant relationship between quality of diet assessed by HEI and QOL in elderly people. We suggest for future researchers to design comprehensive food guidelines and related Iranian eating indexes in order to precisely assess the dietary pattern of Iranians..
    Keywords: Aging, Elderly, Health, Diet Habits, Quality of Life, Nutrition
  • Iraj Mohamadfam *, Esmaeel Soleimani, Fakhradin Ghasemi, Alireza Zamanparvar Page 3
    Background
    Accident investigation programs are a necessary part in identification of risks and management of the business process..
    Objectives
    One of the most important features of such programs is the analysis technique for identifying the root causes of accidents in order to prevent their recurrences. Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) was used to compare management oversight and risk tree (MORT) with Tripod-Beta in order to determine the superior technique for analysis of fatal excavation accidents in construction industries..
    Materials And Methods
    MORT and Tripod-Beta techniques were used for analyzing two major accidents with three main steps. First, these techniques were applied to find out the causal factors of the accidents. Second, a number of criteria were developed for the comparison of the techniques and third, using AHP, the techniques were prioritized in terms of the criteria for choosing the superior one..
    Results
    The Tripod-Beta investigation showed 41 preconditions and 81 latent causes involved in the accidents. Additionally, 27 root causes of accidents were identified by the MORT analysis. Analytical hierarchy process (AHP) investigation revealed that MORT had higher priorities only in two criteria than Tripod-Beta..
    Conclusions
    Our findings indicate that Tripod-Beta with a total priority of 0.664 is superior to MORT with the total priority of 0.33. It is recommended for future research to compare the available accident analysis techniques based on proper criteria to select the best for accident analysis..
    Keywords: Management Oversight, Risk Tree, Tripod, Beta, Accident Analysis
  • Mohammad Razi Jalali *, Mohammad Taha Jalali, Zeinab Mapar Page 4
    Background
    Previous studies have demonstrated that scorpion venom increases blood levels of some cytokines, including Interleukin-1 (IL-1), Interleukin-6 (IL-6), and Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-α) in experimental model of scorpion envenomation in laboratory animals..
    Objectives
    This study aimed to measure circulating cytokines levels in rats after envenomation with Mesobuthus Eupeus scorpion and to compare the findings in rats treated with polyvalent antivenom to evaluate the role of routine treatment in scorpion envenomation..
    Materials And Methods
    For the present research, the venom of Mesobuthus eupeus scorpion was extracted by electric shock and then intraperitoneally injected (1.5 mg/kg) into 2 groups (V: venom group and AV: antivenom group) of 36 Wistar rats each weighing 200 ± 10 g. Additional 36 rats were considered as control group (group C) and were intraperitoneally (ip) injected with 50 μL saline solution. Group AV were injected ip, with polyvalent antivenom 2.5 ml/kg, 30 minutes after envenomation. Heparinized blood samples were collected by heart puncture at different time periods (1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours) after venom injection for determination of the levels of plasma cytokines, including IL-1α, IL-6, and TNF-α by Ray Biotech specific ELISA kits for rats..
    Results
    IL-1a, IL-6, and TNF-α levels were significantly increased in 3 hours after envenomation in both groups (V and AV), but the intensity of increase in AV group was less than the other group, i.e. moderate elevation of cytokines occurred after treatment with polyvalent antivenom. At next time points, gradually decreasing amounts of cytokines were seen..
    Conclusions
    Our data suggest that using polyvalent antivenom in short time after envenomation could reduce the inflammatory responses related to the systemic changes during the elevation of cytokines in scorpion envenomation..
    Keywords: Scorpion, Mesobuthus eupeus, Cytokine, Interleukin, 1, Interleukin, 6, TNF, ?
  • Sadegh Ghasemi, Roya Mafi Gholami * Page 5
    Background
    Lead is a toxic metal with a poor electrical conductivity. This metal can be hazardous and poisonous even in low concentrations..
    Objectives
    The objective of this study is the evaluation of Prosopis Mimosaceae sawdust as a low-cost adsorbent for removal of the lead from effluents..
    Materials And Methods
    The experiment was conducted in a batch system and the effect of pH, the amount of adsorbent, contact time, and the initial concentration of lead were examined. The most common isotherms and kinetics of adsorption were applied to analyze lead adsorption and the reaction rate, also the morphological characteristics of Prosopis Mimosaceae sawdust were determined before and after the separation process by using scanning electron microscope (SEM)..
    Results
    According to the results, the maximum efficiency of lead adsorption was 96.12%, which was obtained in pH of 7, contact time of 30 minutes, and 10 g/L of adsorbent. With the increase of the initial concentration of lead, the adsorbed metal at first increased, but later the removal percentage decreased. The data from this study indicated a good correspondence with both isotherms of Longmire and Freundlich. The kinetic analysis indicated that lead adsorption is consistent with the second-degree kinetic adsorption model (R2 = 1)..
    Conclusions
    According to the high efficiency of lead removal by the sawdust of Prosopis Mimosaceae, this method can be applied as an efficient and low-cost method for the removal of lead..
    Keywords: Lead, Adsorption, Concentrations
  • Roohollah Shiralipour *, Behrooz Zargar, Hooshang Parham Page 6
    Background
    Temephos is an organophosphate pesticide used as larvicide in the environment. Although not extremely hazardous, it can be risky for human health in the moderate concentrations..
    Objectives
    This study investigated the quantitative removal efficiency of temephos, an organophosphate pesticide, from contaminated water by silver-modified ZVINPs. In addition, the operational parameters affected on removal process were optimized..
    Materials And Methods
    In the current study, three water samples from different parts of Iran such as Ahvaz tap water, the Karoon River passing through Khoramshahr city, and the Caspian Sea were collected. A new method for effective removal of temephos from the sample solutions by silver modified zero-valent iron nanoparticles as an efficient adsorbent was introduced..
    Results
    For a typical solution in which temephos was removed about 21% by iron zero-valent nanoparticles, modification by silver improved removal method was up to about 99%. The required time for the complete removal of temephos was about eight minutes. Variation of pH and concentration of KNO3 as an electrolyte was considerably ineffective on the efficient temephos removal. Adsorption studies of the method were followed by Langmuir isotherm. Maximum temephos adsorption amount was 12.65 mg/g under optimal conditions. The proposed method was simple, fast and safe to treat temephos polluted waters. Preparation of the adsorbent was easy and removal time was short..
    Conclusions
    Briefly, the current study represents a novel method to eliminate temephos as an organophosphate compound from water samples with modified zero-valent iron nanoparticles..
    Keywords: Temephos, Removal, ZVINPs, Silver
  • Sahar Geravandi, Afshin Takdastan, Elahe Zallaghi, Mehdi Vousoghi Niri, Mohammad Javad Mohammadi *, Hamed Saki, Abolfazl Naiemabadi Page 7
    Background
    Noise pollution is of particular importance due to the physical and psychological effects on humans. Noise is a stressor that affects the autonomic nervous system and the endocrine system. Noise is also a threat to marine and terrestrial ecosystems. Health risks from noise are correlated with road traffic. In other words, noise health effects are the health consequences of elevated sound levels..
    Objectives
    This study aims to determine the effect of noise pollution (near roadways) on health issues in Ahvaz, Iran..
    Materials And Methods
    In this cross-sectional study, equivalent sound pressure level were measured by sound level meters TES-1353 in 75 locations around 4 roadways, which had a high load of traffic in Ahvaz City during day time. During the study, 820 measurements were recorded at measuring stations, for 7 days per week with 1-hour interval between each measurement. Statistical analysis was carried out by SPSS software..
    Results
    According to the research findings, the equivalent sound pressure levels in all stations were 76.28 ± 3.12 dB (Mean ± SD). According to sound measurements and the survey questionnaire, noise pollution is higher than EPA (US Environmental Protection Agency) and Iran standard level. Based on result of this study the worst noise health effects were the nervousness and sleep quality during 2012..
    Conclusions
    According to the results of this study, with increasing load of traffic, there is an increasing need for proper consideration plans to control noise pollution and prevent its effects..
    Keywords: Noise, Health Impact Assessment, Sound
  • Masuod Ferdosi, Nematollah Akbari, Ali Nemati *, Maryam Mofid, Farzaneh Mohammadi, Ali Beigi Nasiri Page 8
    Background
    Determining and understanding of healthcare costs and its financing method is one of the most important subjects understatement of which can cause such major problems as excessive health costs for households due to the high rate of out-of-pocket expenses..
    Objectives
    The current study aimed to analyze the healthcare costs and determine the share of Isfahan province, Iran, from the total healthcare costs of the country from 2006 to 2011..
    Materials And Methods
    It was a retrospective and descriptive-analytical study. The required statistical data were gathered from statistical yearbooks of the country and the province, the website of the World Bank, the statistics provided by the Healthcare Department of Isfahan and Kashan Universities of Medical Sciences and the statistical data provided by Iran Statistics Center in 2011, all covering the period of six years from 2006 to 2011. Excel software was used for data analysis and computations of the research..
    Results
    During this period, the annual growth average of healthcare and treatment costs were 12% and 20%, respectively. The share of the healthcare sector declined from 33% in 2006 to 25.4% in 2011. In other words, healthcare cost per capita, being about one second of the treatment cost per capita, reduced to a third of treatment per capita in 2011..
    Conclusions
    Efficient allocation of financial resources in the healthcare system based on specific goals and strategies, coordination of public and private sectors in providing healthcare services, the rising share of the healthcare sector in GDP of the province and the country, and the preference of prevention over treatment measures can affect achieving the healthcare system goals and surmount challenges such as pay-out-of-pocket and rising healthcare costs, particularly the costs of integrated treatment with full performance..
    Keywords: Cost, Healthcare, Isfahan Province