فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:3 Issue: 2, 2015
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1394/01/28
  • تعداد عناوین: 13
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  • Amir Sarrafchi, Mahmoud Rafieian, Kopaei* Pages 69-70
    Medicinal plants are a good source of new drugs. An important approach in developing a new drug from medicinal plants is to examine scientifically the usage claimed in traditional medicine. Using medicinal plants throughout centuries provided valuable information that will be critical when they are evaluating as new drugs, because, the judgment on the efficacy and safety of a specific drug can rarely be found in the results of the scientific studies. In contrast, the scientific information published on toxicity and efficacy of a particular plant, resulted from some studies, together with the anecdotal evidence, can help whether it might be acceptable for medicinal use.
    Keywords: Medicinal plants, New drug, Drug discovery
  • Bahram Delfan, Kourosh Saki, Mahmoud Bahmani*, Nader Rangsaz, Mohammad Delfan, Nima Mohseni, Hedayatollah Shirzad, Zahra Babaeian Pages 71-76
    Introduction
    Diabetes and hypertension are amongst the most prevalent diseases in the world, while they can be controlled and prevented, create many problems and complications for affected patients. This study was aimed to identify and report the most important and effective herbs for diabetes and high blood pressure treatment in Lorestan province (West of Iran).
    Methods
    By gathering and integrating indigenous data from local inhabitants of Lorestan, Iran, the goal of this study was accomplished. Data were gathered by cooperation of the agents of public health services network all over the towns of Dorud, Boroujerd, Khorramabad, Aleshtar, Poledokhtar, Aligoodarz, Nurabad and Kouhdasht.
    Results
    Results of this study showed that there were overall 17 medicinal plants which were used for treatment and controlling of diabetes and high blood pressure.
    Conclusion
    Medicinal plants reported in this study are indigenous to the Lorestan province. Some of the foresaid herbs seem to have some unknown therapeutic effects which are reported in this study for the first time, and some others have various known therapeutic effects mentioned in other similar studies. It is essential for researchers to find out the actuality of clinical effectiveness of the herbs and their active substances. Once the positive effects of these herbs proved, it would be possible to produce drugs which are useful in curing and controlling diabetes and hypertension.
    Keywords: Lorestan province, Herbs, Traditional medicine, Diabetes, High blood pressure, Iran
  • Nematollah Amini, Sarteshnizi, Saber Zahri, Hamideh Jafari, Ghahfarokhi, Fattane Keivani Hafshejani, Hossein Teimori* Pages 77-82
    Introduction
    Gastric cancer is the fourth prevalent cancer and the second reason for cancer-associated mortalities worldwide. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) is one of the main medicinal components of propolis. The aim of this study was to investigate the morphological apoptotic changes and cytotoxic effects of CAPE in human gastric adenocarcinoma cell line (AGS cell).
    Methods
    AGS human gastric cancer cell line was cultured in Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium (DMEM) medium in vitro. Cytotoxic effects and morphological changes induced by 72 h treatment with CAPE at different concentrations on AGS cells were investigated by MTT assay test and inverted microscope, respectively.
    Results
    CAPE in a concentration dependent fashion reduced viability of AGS cells. IC50 was obtained approximately 10 μM at 72 h treatment. Also, CAPE induced concentration-dependent morphological apoptotic changes and promoted complete apoptosis program in AGS human gastric cancer cell line.
    Conclusion
    Our results strongly suggest that CAPE stimulates apoptotic process and leads to cell death. Therefore, CAPE could be useful in developing chemotherapeutic agents for treating human gastric cancer.
    Keywords: AGS cells, CAPE, Apoptosis, Morphological changes, Cytotoxicity
  • Nasrolah Ghassemi, Dehkordi, Ebrahim Sajjadi, Hamed Shafiei, Koojani*, Mahtab Keshvari, Seyyed, Masih Hoseini Pages 83-86
    Introduction
    With regard to using drugs with plant origin and with the aim of suitable use of these types of drugs and preventing them to be abused, it is necessary to determine the standards of these plants. The aim of the present study was to identify and study chemical compounds of Nardostachys Jatamansi essence in Iran and define monograph of this plant for the Iranian plant pharmacopeia.
    Methods
    In an experimental study the Nardostachys Jatamansi specimen was prepared from the market in Iran. The essence of the plant was prepared by the hydro-distillation in Clevenger apparatus. Essence was obtained as a greenish yellow oil layer with the 0.07 % yield. The essence compounds were identified quantitatively by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (GC/MS) method.
    Results
    Totally, 29 compounds were identified in Nardostachys Jatamansi essence. The retention indexes (RI) were only similar with overall standard values in two compounds like mesitylene and P-cymene. In this line the RI values about three compounds of valerenic acid, palmitic acid, and valerenyl isovalerate were determined significantly higher than standard values of RI.
    Conclusion
    The essence prepared from the Nardostachys Jatamansi plant in Iran was different in terms of some compounds and components including valerenic acid, palmitic acid, and valerenyl isovalerate and so it is necessary to identify and register quality and quantity characteristics of compounds available in this plat in the Iranian medicinal plants pharmacopeia.
    Keywords: Essence, Nardostachys Jatamansi, Iran, Retention index
  • Hossein Nazarli *, Ali Ahmadi, Javad Hadian Pages 87-92
    Introduction
    The dried flowers of chamomile contain many terpenoids and flavonoids contributing to its medicinal properties. Salicylic acid (SA) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) have antioxidant properties and function as direct radical scavengers. Two Matricaria chamomilla cultivars (Bodgold and Hungary breed seeds) were used in this study to investigate the effects of exogenous application of SA and MeJA on protection against drought stress as well as on changes of malone dialdehyde (MDA) and electrolyte leakage index (ELI), and the fluctuation of proline and soluble sugars content in the leaves under drought stress.
    Methods
    The experiment was conducted in a factorial design based on randomized complete blocks with three replicates. Chamomile plants were treated by two levels of drought stress as well as two different levels of MeJA (i.e., 0.0 and 100 μM) and SA (i.e., 0.0 and 0.5 mM) solutions.
    Results
    There was a dramatic drought induced increase in the MDA content (128%) and ELI (49%) in the leaves. Deleterious effect of drought stress was more severe in untreated plants than in treated ones. Treatments with SA and MeJA significantly improved drought tolerance in chamomile plants. These treatments effectively maintained membrane integrity, thereby retarding electrolyte leakage and membrane lipid peroxidation (MDA). Treatments with SA and MeJA were also effective in enhancing the antioxidant concentrations of proline and soluble sugars.
    Conclusion
    The production of these antioxidants could have been part of a defence system against drought damage, reducing MDA and ELI and maintaining membrane stability.
    Keywords: Chamomile, Drought stress, Salicylic acid, Methyl jasmonate
  • Mehrdad Modaresi *, Hormat Khorrami, Majid Asadi, Samani Pages 93-96
    Introduction
    Soybean possesses isoflavones and might, therefore, cause problem in thyroid hormone synthesis. The purpose of this study was to study the effect of soybean on serum levels of Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), Triiodothyronine (T3), and Thyroxine (T4) in male mice.
    Methods
    In this experimental study, 24 Balb/C male mice were randomly assigned to three groups of eight including control or base diet-fed group and treatment groups 1 and 2 receiving respectively 30% and 50% soybean-containing diet. After nine weeks, the blood sample was taken from the animals’ heart and serum levels of TSH, T3, and T4 were measured. The data were analyzed by SPSS software using one-way ANOVA and Duncan’s test.
    Results
    In 50% soybean group, a significant decrease was observed in T4 serum level compared to the control group (p<0.05). On the other hand, this hormone level non-significantly decreased in the group fed by 30% soybean compared to the control group (p<0.05). TSH serum level increased significantly in 30% soybean group compared to the control group (p<0.05). But, serum level of T3 was not significantly different between 30% or 50% soybean groups and control group (p>0.05).
    Conclusion
    In view of the findings, it is estimated that the effect of addition of soybean into meal on thyroid function is dose-dependent, so that the diet containing 30% and 50% soybean might cause increased TSH release in thyrotrope cells and hence variation in pituitary-thyroid axis function.
    Keywords: Isoflavone, Soybean, Thyroid stimulating hormone, Triiodothyronine, Thyroxine, Male mice
  • Maryam Shirzad *, Mahboubeh Yousofi, Behnam Zamanzad, Akram Sedaghat, Masih Hosseini, Najmeh Shahinfard, Hedayatollah Shirzad Pages 97-100
    Introduction
    Following injury, inflammatory response occurs and the cells below the dermis begin to increase collagen production, then, the epithelial tissue is regenerated. Royal jelly (RJ) has anti-inflammatory activity hence, the aim of this study was to examine the effect of RJ on the induction of sterile skin incision in Balb/C mice.
    Methods
    In an experimental study 60 female Balb/C mice (8 weeks old) were anaesthetized with ether and a longitudinal para vertebral full thickness incision of 10 mm long was made. The animals were divided into six equal groups. Group 1 was considered as negative control. Group 2 (positive control) was treated topically with Nitrofurazon ointment, group 3 with RJ (200 mg/kg) every day, group 4 with RJ (200 mg/kg) every two days, group 5 with RJ (300 mg/kg) every day and group 6 with RJ (300 mg/kg) every two days. The wound length was measured with vernier capilar every two days up to full healing occurred and compared in different groups.
    Results
    There was significant difference between groups 1 or 2 and other groups (p<0.05). RJ promoted wound healing activity significantly in group 3, 5 compared to negative and positive control groups. There was no significant difference between the uses of 200 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg RJ (p>0.05).
    Conclusion
    The results of this study indicate that daily application of RJ possesses betters wound healing effects than Nitrofurazon and every two days usage of RJ.
    Keywords: Royal jelly, Skin cut repair, Nitrofurazon, Balb, C mice
  • Marzieh Mousavi, Javad Baharara *, Majid Asadi, Samani Pages 101-105
    Introduction
    There is an interest in Crocous sativus L. (Saffron) mainly because of its biological properties. Biomedical research has focused on saffron as a powerful antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor, but its mechanism has not yet been thoroughly clarified. In this study, the effects of saffron aqua extract on matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) gene expression were investigated.
    Methods
    In this experimental study, the saffron was extracted using water as solvent. MCF-7 cells in RPMI1640 medium were supplemented with 10% FBS and incubated at 37 ˚C with 5% CO2. After 24 h, the cells were treated by saffron extract at concentrations of 100, 200, 400 and 800 μg/ml. 48 h after treatment, total RNA was extracted and cDNA was synthesized using specific primer. Synthesized products were analyzed by Real Time PCR to determine expression level of MMP.
    Results
    Data analysis showed inhibitory effect of saffron at concentrations of 100 to 800 μg/ml on MMP gene expression in comparison with control group. Reduction for 100, 200, 400 and 800 μg/ml were 5%, 18%, 15%, 11%, respectively. According to data analysis treating MCF-7 cells with saffron at concentration of 200 μg/ml caused the highest decrease, with 18% reduction in gene expression (P<0.001).
    Conclusion
    Results indicate decrease in the expression of MMP compared with controls revealing induction of inhibitory effects of saffron on angiogenesis which might be also considered as a promising chemotherapeutic agent in breast cancer treatment.
    Keywords: Crocous Sativus L, Angiogenesis, Matrix metalloproteinase, MCF, 7 Cell Line, Cancer
  • Parivash Rahimi, Sedigheh Asgary *, Najmeh Kabiri Pages 107-111
    Introduction
    Hepatoprotective and hypolipidemic effects of Carthamus tinctorius Linn.(Safflower) seed oil was investigated in diabetic rats.
    Methods
    Diabetes was induced by administration of 120 mg/kg alloxan monohydrate. The seed oil of safflower at dose of 200 mg/kg was administered as single dose per day to diabetic rats for a period of 28 days. The effect of oil on blood glucose level was measured in the diabetic rats. Serum lipid profile [total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TGs), low density (LDL) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) and enzymes such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were also determined.
    Results
    Levels of blood glucose, TC, TGs, LDL, ALT, AST and ALP decreased and HDL increased in alloxan induced diabetic rats after treatment with 200 mg/kg safflower seed oil for 28 days.
    Conclusion
    The present study demonstrates that seed oil of safflower seems to be useful for the prevention of diabetes complications.
    Keywords: Carthamus tinctorius, Safflower oil, Hepatoprotection, Hypolipidemia
  • Navid Mazroi Arani, Reza Sharafati Chaleshtori*, Mahmoud Rafieian, Kopaei Pages 113-117
    Introduction
    The use of medicinal plants has risen worldwide. In Iran, herbal waters and rose waters are of traditional medicinal products and as a result, they are widespreadly consumed. Therefore, diagnosis of microbial quality of these products is important. The aim of this study was to evaluate microbial quality of herbal extracts distributed in Kashan, Iran.
    Methods
    In this descriptive study, 256 samples of herbal waters and 191 samples of rose waters (total samples of 447) distributed in Kashan during 2012 to 2013 were purchased and transferred to laboratory. Then microbial tests such as total aerobic bacterial count, mold and yeast count, total coliforms, and detection of Enterococcus, Pseudomonas and sulphite-reducing Clostridia were evaluated based on national standard of Iran.
    Results
    Contamination with Pseudomonas and Enterococcus was observed in the herbal water samples. 196 cases (43.84%) of the total samples, 113 cases (44.15%) of the herbal waters and 83 cases (43.45%) of the rose waters were usable based on the national standard of Iran. Neither herbal waters nor rosewater samples were contaminated by E.Coli and Sulphite-reducing clostridia. Additionally, none of the rosewater samples was contaminated by Coliforms and Pseudomonas.
    Conclusion
    Based on the findings and due to the fact that these products are contaminated with aerobic mesophilic bacteria, mold and yeast, to minimize the risks we recommend to apply pasteurized temperature, high-quality packaging material and hygiene observance in processing time of herbal waters and rose waters.
    Keywords: Herbal waters, E. coli, Clostridia, Enterococcus, Pseudomonas
  • Nasrollah Ghassemi, Dehkordi, Mustafa Ghanadian*, Sajjad Arabha Pages 119-124
    Introduction
    Cassia obovata Coll is the only Senna species which grows wild in Iran. In the present study, an optimised reverse High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) validated method was established for quantification of sennosides A and B, the major constituents of C. obovata with a simple and accurate method.
    Methods
    HPLC analysis was done using Waters 515 pump on a Nova-Pak C18 (3.9 × 150 mm). Millennium software was used for the determination of the sennoside A and B in Cassia species and processing the information. The method was validated according to USP 32 requirements.
    Results
    The solvent impact on the selectivity factor and partition coefficient parameters evaluated. Using a conventional RP-18 L1 column, 3.9 × 150 mm, the mobile phase was selected after several trials with different mixtures of water and acetonitrile. Sennosides A and B were determined using the external standard calibration method. Using USP 35-NF 30, the LOD and LOQ were calculated. The reliability of the HPLC-method for analysis of sennoside A + B was validated through its linearity, reproducibility, repeatability, and recovery. Fina1ly ethanol:water (1:1) extracts of Cassia obovata and Cassia angustifolia were standardized by assay of sennoside A and B through above HPLC validated method.
    Conclusion
    Through the above method, determination of sennosides in Cassia species are completely possible. Moreover, through comparing the results, even though sennosides are rich in Cassia angustifolia but, the results shows that C. obovata could be considered as an alternative source for sennosides A and B.
    Keywords: Cassia obovata, Sennoside A, Sennoside B, High Pressure Liquid Chromatography
  • Narges Askarian Dehkordi, Hedayatollah Shirzad, Loghman Salimzadeh*, Behnam Zamanzad, Rezvan Meshkate, Mahbube Kiyani Pages 125-128
    Introduction
    Chrysin is a natural flavonoid antioxidant which its role in tumor cell death has been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of Chrysin effect on proliferation and apoptosis of gastric cancer cell line (AGS).
    Methods
    Cells were cultured and treated with different concentrations of Chrysin (90, 80, 70, 60, 50 μM) for 48 h and evaluated for cell viability. To examine the cytotoxic effect of drug in inducing apoptosis, staining with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and propidium iodide (PI) was used. The cells were treated for 48 h with different concentrations of Chrysin (50 of 90 μM) and examined for the morphological changes. The one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Excel software were used for data analysis.
    Results
    Different concentrations of Chrysin significantly inhibited the growth and proliferation of AGS cells (p<0.05). The IC50 dose was determined to be 67.5±0.66. Apoptosis induced by 50 and 70 μM of Chrysin was significantly greater than in untreated cells (p<0.05). Cells treated with high concentration of Chrysin (90 μM) showed more prominent growth inhibition and cell shrinkage compared to cells treated with the lower concentrations of Chrysin.
    Conclusion
    The results of this study showed that Chrysin effects on AGS cell line were significantly high and dose-dependent and might be helpful in the treatment of gastric cancer. Chrysin may therefore be considered a potential candidate for both cancer prevention and treatment. Further investigation is needed to validate the contribution of chrysin in tumor therapy in vivo.
    Keywords: Chrysin, Gastric cancer, Apoptosis
  • Marziyeh Abolhasani, Morteza Hashemzadeh, Chaleshtori, Abbas Doosti, Nematolah Amini Sarteshnizi, Mostafa Gholami, Arjenaki, Hossein Teimori* Pages 129-133
    Introduction
    The Ras/Akt/mTORC1 signal transduction pathways play a critical role in regulating translation and converge on initiation factor eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) which is overexpressed in various malignancies. In the current study we aimed to assess the effect of chrysin and caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) on eIF4E expression level in human stomach cancer AGS cell line.
    Methods
    AGS cells were treated with 15, 20, 30 and 40 μM concentration of chrysin and CAPE separately, then eIF4E expression was evaluated in treated cells using real time-PCR method.
    Results
    A significant decrease in eIF4E expression in the cells following 40 μM chrysin treatment was observed (p<0.05). There was a significant decrease in CAPE-treated cells in a dose dependent manner. Indeed the cells treated with 30 and 40 μM concentrations of CAPE, showed a significant decline in eIF4E expression (p<0.05).
    Conclusion
    Our results suggest that CAPE and chrysin may be useful as a potential therapeutic agent for treatment of gastric cancers with an elevated eIF4E expression level.
    Keywords: Gastric cancer, AGS cell line, eIF4E, Chrysin, CAPE