فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:7 Issue:4, 2015
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1394/06/08
  • تعداد عناوین: 10
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  • Domenico Santoro *, Maria Teresa Ingegnieri, Giuseppe Vita, Silvia Lucisano, Carmelo Zuppardo, Valeria Canale, Vincenzo Savica, Michele Buemi Page 1
    Background
    Hyperphosphoremia is one of the most important risk factors for morbidity and mortality for chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, and also, for the general population. Excessive dietary intake of phosphate (P) is one of the key factors. In particular, P in its inorganic form, which is contained in food additives, is more readily absorbed. Unfortunately, these food additives are mostly present in convenience so called “fast foods” (pre-cooked), soft drinks, which represent the typical food consumed by our hemodialysis (HD) population, composed by elderly people, mostly low-socio economic class, who often live alone..
    Objectives
    We performed an observational retrospective multicenter study to find any association between social, cultural and economic situation, as well as food habits, and P levels in a cohort of patients on HD. Secondarily; we also examined the association between the fast food consumption and increased P levels, as well as patient compliance for P binding products..Patients and
    Methods
    To explore the association between socio-economic factors and serum P levels, we enrolled 100 patients on periodic HD treatment from three different units. Information on social, cultural, economic, diet habits, therapy for hyperphosphoremia and hematological and clinical parameters had been collected through specific questionnaires, administered by a physician..
    Results
    Results showed serum P level was reduced in patients who live alone compared to patients in family (P = 0.04), in self-sufficient (P = 0.05) and in patients belonging to middle-upper class, versus low-class (P = 0.003). Fast foods intake correlates with increase in P serum levels (P = 0.002), whilst the same correlation was not found for cheese intake. Our data show that socio-economic status and food habits are useful predictors of P serum levels..
    Conclusions
    In conclusion, dietary counseling of patients on HD is mandatory. Interventions that consider the socio-economic situation allow delivering important messages on foods with the least amount of P and adequate protein content, and they may be a successful strategy in targeting patients at a higher risk of hyperphosphoremia..
    Keywords: Phosphates, Kidney Failure, Chronic, Socioeconomic Factors, Fast Foods
  • Shokouh Shayanpour, Mohammad Faramarzi * Page 2
  • Francesco Summaria *, Maria B. Giannico, Giovanni P. Talarico, Roberto Patrizi Page 3
    Context: Coronary artery disease is highly prevalent among patients with end stage renal disease/hemodialysis (ESRD/HD) and coronary percutaneous interventions (PCI) has been increased by nearly 50% over the past decade. After PCI with stent placement, guidelines recommend dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT), but no specifically tailored pharmacotherapy approach is outlined for this frail population, mostly excluded from large randomized clinical trials (RCTs)..Evidence Acquisition: We reviewed current evidences on the use of antiplatelet therapy in patients with ESRD/HD undergoing PCI, focusing on the efficacy and safety of specific agents and their indications for detailed clinical settings..
    Results
    Clinical setting in HD patients is the principal determinant of the type, onset, combination and duration of the DAPT. However, irrespective clinical setting, in addition to aspirin, clopidogrel is currently the most used antiplatelet agent even if no information derived from RCTs are available in ESRD. Due to the large experience acquired in routine clinical practice, the awareness of safety is higher for clopidogrel than newer antiplatelet agents. Because of lack of data, the use of prasugrel and ticagrelor is actually not recommended. However, in case of high ischemic and acceptable bleeding risk, they may be selectively used in ESRD/HD..
    Conclusions
    This investigation might contribute to delineate the best treatment options for this high risk population..
    Keywords: Percutaneous Coronary Interventions, Antiplatelet Therapy, Hemodialysis Patients, Clopidogrel, Prasugrel, Ticagrelor, Drug Eluting Stent
  • Zahra Saadat, Farahnaz Nikdoust, Hossein Aerab-Sheibani, Mostafa Bahremand *, Elham Shobeiri, Habibollah Saadat, Yashar Moharramzad, Donald E. Morisky Page 4
    Background
    Comorbidity has been noted as a potential barrier to proper adherence to antihypertensive medications..
    Objectives
    We decided to investigate whether comorbidity could significantly affect adherence of Iranian patients with hypertension to their medication regimen..Patients and
    Methods
    Two hundred and eighty consecutive hypertensive patients were interviewed in 4 cities of Iran. The 8-item Morisky medication adherence scale (MMAS-8) (validated in Persian) was used to assess medication adherence. This scale determines adherence by scores as lower than 6 (low adherence), 6 or 7 (moderate adherence), and 8 (high adherence). Comorbidity was considered as any concomitant medical condition, which necessitates the patient to take medicine for a minimum of 6 months prior to the interviews..
    Results
    The most common comorbid conditions were ischemic heart disease (65 patients, 23.2%), diabetes mellitus (55 patients, 19.6%), and dyslipidemia (51 patients, 18.2%). Mean (± SD) MMAS-8 score in comorbid group was 5.68 (± 1.85) and in non-comorbid hypertensive patients, it was 5.83 (± 1.91) (P = 0.631). Mean (± SD) number of comorbidities was 1.53 (± 0.75) in low adherence group compared to 1.54 (± 0.77) in moderate/high adherers (P = 0.98). With increasing the number of comorbid diseases, the proportion of patients with high adherence decreased successively from 20% in those with no comorbid disease to 14.1% in those with one or two comorbid conditions, and finally 11.1% in those with 3 to 5 comorbid conditions..
    Conclusions
    With increasing the number of comorbid conditions, the proportion of patients with high adherence decreases. In our opinion, this finding is a useful clinical note for healthcare providers when managing patients with hypertension who have other medical problems at the same time..
    Keywords: Hypertension, Comorbidity, Iran, Medication adherence, Antihypertensive agents
  • Thomas Vogel, Markus Utech, Fabian Schmidt, Wiebke Holscher Keplin, Ricarda Diller, Jens Brockmann, Heiner Wolters * Page 5
    Background
    Kidney transplantation has long been recognized as the best available therapy for end stage kidney disease..
    Objectives
    This study aimed to compare outcomes of double-J versus percutaneous ureteral stent placement in renal transplantation..Patients and
    Methods
    A retrospective analysis was performed on data of renal transplantations performed at our institution in a 12-month period. In this period, external and double-J stents were used in parallel. Length of hospital stay and stent-associated complications were evaluated..
    Results
    In 76 kidney transplants, 43 external (group 1) and 33 double-J (group 2) urinary stents were used. No significant difference was observed in the number of urinary tract infections, ureteric stenosis or necrosis. The mean overall length of hospital stay was comparable in both groups (20.7 days in group 1 vs 19.3 days in group 2, P = 0.533). For patients without immunological complications, the hospital stay was significantly reduced using double-J stents (12.9 days in group 1, 10.8 days in group 2, P = 0.018). Leakage of the ureteroneocystostomy occurred in 6 out of 43 patients in group 1 (13.9%). No case of anastomotic insufficiency was observed in group 2 (P = 0.035). Macrohematuria was detected in 13 out of the 43 patients in group 1 (30.2%), compared to 3 out of 33 patients in group 2 (9.1%; P = 0.045)..
    Conclusions
    This nonrandomized comparison of stent types in kidney transplantation supports the use of prophylactic double-J stents in terms of decreased ureteric complications and reduced length of hospital stay..
    Keywords: Kidney Transplantation, Ureter, Stent
  • Kaushal Kumar *, Ahsan Ahmad, Shailendra Kumar, Vijyanand Choudhry, Rajesh Kumar Tiwari, Mahendra Singh, Mohammad Ali Muzaffar Page 6
    Background
    Pyeloplasty is a widely accepted treatment for ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO). However, the renal function recoverability after pyeloplasty is still a matter of debate. Different parameters have been used to predict renal functional recoverability after corrective surgery, with conflicting results..
    Objectives
    In this study, renal biopsy was carried on a series of cases of UPJO, during pyeloplasty, to study the extent of histological alterations in renal parenchyma, as a result of obstruction, and its predictive value in renal function recoverability after pyeloplasty..Patients and
    Methods
    We retrospectively analyzed the renal biopsy obtained during pyeloplasty in 53 adult patients. Histopathological changes were graded on a scale of 1 to 3, according to their severity, and compared with the differential renal function (DRF) revealed on the preoperative and postoperative follow up diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) renal scan. A Fischer’s t test was used to evaluate statistical differences between values..
    Results
    This study showed a linear relationship between the severity of histological changes and renal function recovery, after pyeloplasty. Out of 24 obstructed renal units (ORU), with minimal histopathological changes (grade I), 21 ORU (87.5%), with > 35% DRF preoperatively, showed significant improvement in renal function after 12 months of pyeloplasty (P < 0.05). On the other hand, all kidneys (n = 29) with moderate to severe obstructive changes (grade II and III) had minimal improvement in DRF, after pyeloplasty, which was clinically insignificant (P > 0.05). Renal function deterioration after pyeloplasty was not observed in any of the cases..
    Conclusions
    The severity of pathological changes in renal parenchyma, due to UPJO, is a good predictor of renal function recoverability, after pyeloplasty. The ORUs, with DRF > 35%, usually have normal (grade I) renal biopsy and might be expected to present better functional recoverability after pyeloplasty..
    Keywords: Ureteropelvic Junction Obstruction, Biopsy, Renal Pelvis, Hydronephrosis
  • Mehryar Zargari *, Omid Sedighi Page 7
    Background
    Free radical induced damages are thought to be involved in chronic kidney disease (CKD), especially in patients who are on hemodialysis (HD) for prolonged periods. Hemodialysis can influence multiple biochemical factors, several of which are useful, although the rest can be harmful and increase the severity of disease..
    Objectives
    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the HD membrane polysulfone on oxidative stress markers, by measuring the level of lipid peroxidation and total antioxidant activity (TAC), in the blood of HD patients..Patients and
    Methods
    This study was carried out on 31 HD patients and 31 healthy persons, matched for age and sex, as control group. Blood samples were drawn before and after HD from arteriovenous fistulas, and once from the controls. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) in blood hemolyzate, Glutathione peroxidase (GpX) of whole blood and TAC of plasma were measured, respectively. Then, we investigated the association between TAC of plasma, measured by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and lipid peroxidation level with its related parameters, in HD patients..
    Results
    The SOD, GpX and CAT were decreased after HD (P < 0.05). Also, FRAP was shown to decrease after HD (P < 0.05). However, erythrocyte TBARS levels (μmol/gr of Hb) were increased after HD, in comparison with controls, and before HD (P < 0.05). There was a significant negative correlation between TBARS and antioxidant indices, such as SOD (r = -0.67, P = 0.001), GpX (r = -0.76, P = 0.001), CAT (r = -0.63, P = 0.001) and FRAP (r = -0.84, P = 0.001). The FRAP was significantly and directly correlated with uric acid (r = +0.62, P = 0.001), SOD (r = +0.72, P = 0.001), GpX (r = +0.87, P = 0.001) and CAT (r = +0.84, P = 0.001)..
    Conclusions
    The results of our study proposed that there is a loss or inactivation of antioxidant factors, coupled with increased lipid peroxidation during the procedure of HD, possibly through the dialyzer membrane, with probable consequences on the severity of illness..
    Keywords: Renal Dialysis, Lipid Peroxidation, Uric Acid, Superoxide Dismutase, Catalase, Glutathione Peroxidase
  • Atieh Makhlough, Marjan Makhlough *, Mohammad Shokrzadeh, Mozhdeh Mohammadian, Omid Sedighi, Mansooreh Faghihan Page 8
    Background
    Diabetic nephropathy is the most common cause of end stage renal disease (ESRD) in developed countries. Several trace elements were reported to be changed in diabetic nephropathy..
    Objectives
    The aim of this study was to investigate changes in serum levels of zinc, copper and chromium and their association with the incidence of ESRD in patients with diabetes..Patients and
    Methods
    This study was performed on 70 patients with type 2 diabetic nephropathy (macro and micro-albuminuria) and 70 healthy individuals. Samples were collected to survey metals by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Data was analyzed by SPSS18 using descriptive and inferential analysis methods..
    Results
    Mean ± SD levels of Zn, Cu and Cr were significantly decreased in blood samples of patients compared to healthy subjects (P < 0.01). Also the mean concentrations of Cu, Zn and Cr in drinking water of Sari were lower than the accepted limit. Only in one case, Cu was higher than the accepted limit, which was the possibility of contamination by water supply pipes..
    Conclusions
    Cu, Zn and Cr play a specific role in the pathophysiology of diabetic nephropathy. Meanwhile in these patients, low serum levels of Cu, Zn and Cr were not associated with factors such as drinking water. Possible causes should be sought in other factors like urine, intervention factors in absorption and utilization and individual conditions..
    Keywords: Diabetic Nephropathies, Zinc, Copper, Chromium, Atomic Absorption
  • Alireza Mehrazmay, Alireza Karambakhsh, Mahmood Salesi * Page 9
    Context: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are important tools for evidence-based health care decisions. It is, therefore, important that they be conducted and reported with the highest possible standards. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reporting quality of the RCTs published in nephrology urology monthly journal and to examine whether there was a change over time in the reporting quality..Evidence Acquisition: The quality of each report was assessed using the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) 2010 Statement checklist and a 5-point quality assessment instrument, i.e. the Jadad scale..
    Results
    Eighteen (14 Iranian and 4 non-Iranian) RCTs were published from 2012 to 2014 on topics including renal stone (16.6%), hemodialysis and transplantation (38.8%), and prostate conditions (11.1%). Interventions comprised surgery, drugs, and teaching method in 7 (38 %), 10 (55%), and 1 (5%) of them, respectively. According to the CONSORT checklist, the weakest reported items were registration number, identification as a randomized trial in the title, and settings and locations where the data were collected. The mean Jadad score of the reports was 2.72 ± 1.36 (54% of their maximum possible total score). According to the Jadad and CONSORT scales, there was an increase in the quality of reporting from 2012 to 2014..
    Conclusions
    This assessment shows low reporting quality scores in reports. Training courses for researchers, using standard reporting tools (e.g. CONSORT 2010 Statement checklist), and consultation with methodologists can improve the quality of published RCTs..
    Keywords: Nephrology, Urology, Randomized Controlled Trial, Checklist
  • Kamal V. Kanodia *, Aruna V. Vanikar, Lovelesh K. Nigam, Rashmi D. Patel, Kamlesh S. Suthar, Dinesh N. Gera, Hargovind L. Trivedi Page 10
    Background
    Renal biopsy is a well-established diagnostic modality for the assessment of kidney diseases in children. It can provide diagnostic precision and prognostic value and guide in therapeutic options for many renal diseases..
    Objectives
    This report describes the indication, histopathological patterns, and epidemiology of renal diseases in children in India..Patients and
    Methods
    This is a single-center study on renal biopsies performed between January 2008 and December 2013 in 346 children (age ≤ 14 years)..
    Results
    Eleven (3.17%) biopsies were inadequate, and 335 biopsies were considered for analysis. The mean age was 7.91 ± 3.04 years with a predominance of males (68.1%). Nephrotic syndrome (46.2%) was the most common indication, followed by urinary abnormality (41.19%), acute nephritic syndrome (10.74%), and chronic renal failure (1.79 %). Primary glomerulonephritis (GN) was predominant (81.79%), and secondary GN constituted 16.12% of the biopsies. Primary GN included mesangial proliferative GN (MePGN), IgM nephropathy, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, minimal change disease, IgA nephropathy, membranoproliferative GN, membranous nephropathy, crescentic GN, and post-infectious GN. Secondary GN revealed lupus nephritis, hemolytic uremic syndrome, amyloidosis, and hypertensive nephropathy. Tubulointerstitial nephritis was observed in 2.08%. The most common histological pattern of primary GN was MePGN (20%) and in secondary GN it was lupus nephritis (7.76%)..
    Conclusions
    The present study provides data on the epidemiology of renal diseases in children in India and will be helpful for developing a national registry and devising therapeutic guidelines..
    Keywords: Epidemiology, Glomerulonephritis, Nephropathy, Pediatric Renal Biopsy