An Examination of The Citizens Involvement Rate Optimal Ruling Pattern, Case Study: The City of Shiraz
IntroductionToday urbanization is one of the important challenges; its highest rates are in Asia, Africa and Latin America and 60 million people are added annually to the poorest countries of these areas (Stephens and Stterthwaire, 2008: 300). Urban environment is complex, dynamic and diverse and requires high capacity management and the urban governance has this capability. Good governance theory can institutionalize the concept of partnership and promotion of democratic values with features such as seeking participation, stability or sustainability, right and decision making, justice, efficiency and effectiveness, transparency and accountability, citizen-orientation and civic obligations and security (UN-Habitat, 2009: 12). In this model, the responsible of urban public administration is divided among three institutions of government, civil society and private sector all of which are parts of human development (Imani et al., 2002: 9). The pattern of good urban governance is defined as development participatory process whereby all stakeholders including government, private sector and civil society provide means of solving urban problems (McCarney et al, 1995: 8). In fact, ruling deals with individuals and organizations who are involved in decision-making process and implementation of decisions (Un- Habitat, 2009,126). One of the important aspects of good urban governance theory is participation aspect because the theory basis and principle is based on government of people; the government where people govern (Dekker and Kempen, 2004: 43). In this study, we focus on participation aspect due to the extension of urban governance in order to achieve good urban governance and study its rate in Shiraz urban management. The present paper examines objectives including level of citizen participation (in terms of subjective and objective aspects) and significant relationship between good urban governance criteria (including transparency and accountability, social justice, efficiency and effectiveness, civil rights, and social trust) and citizen participation in. Thus, the first question of present study can be raised as: Is there a significant relationship between urban good governance pattern and citizen participation in Shiraz?
MethodsThe present study tries to combine two branches of urban good governance and participation; such a research requires a view with ability of comprehensive approach. The study is applied-development and the research method is documentary, analytical and survey study. First class sources such as questionnaires were used in order to complete information; statistical population included citizens of Shiraz (Census of 2011). The sample size was estimated to be 400 subjects using Cochran method with 95% confidence level. Five-point Likert scale and T-test were used in order to investigate the participation and other factors. Pearson correlation test and SPSS software were used for final analysis of data. The preliminary questionnaire was referred first to a number of specialists in order to determine reliability and validity of measurement tools and finally validity of measurement tools was obtained through removing and modifying items by professors and academic experts. Cronbach alpha coefficient was used in order to investigate the reliability of indicators.
ConclusionThe results showed that participation in subjective dimension has very high in Shiraz city and there is very good vision to participation in studied city and participation platform is present in Shiraz city. But objective dimension of participation is at low level that was measured through citizen participation in institutions and social groups, the process of preparing plans, economic costs payment and monitoring and criticizing the performance of urban management. Fifth index is in the best situation among the indices (membership in institutions and social groups) .
After concluding the objective participation assessment, results of Pearson correlation test showed that there was a significant correlation between objective participation of citizens and citizen participation in urban management (R = 0.67). There is fairly strong and direct correlation between different aspects of objective citizen participation and urban good governance, so that Pearson correlation coefficient among four dimensions of citizens objective participation and urban good governance variable were "0.473", "0.601", "0.635" and "0.649", respectively.
Also, in determining the correlation between different aspects of citizen participation (both subjective and objective) and urban good governance it can be said that in case of good urban governance and Pearson correlation coefficients of 0.666, 0.642, 0.473, 0.601, 0.635, 0.649, a dimension of citizen participation that is highly changed includes willingness to undertake various activities in city (The citizen participation is one of the mental aspects). Good urban governance is not realized through mutual collaboration of city council, people and government and virtual participation and cooperation of three sides of urban management do not play any role in implementation of urban good governance.
Criteria such as citizen participation, accountability, effectiveness and efficiency, openness, accountability, transparency, rule of law, consensus orientation, equity, strategic insight and decentralization are raised. Given the important factors of improving governance, three components of citizen participation, accountability, effectiveness and efficiency are more effective on urban good governance.
Moreover, the position of good governance has been studied including principles such as participation, accountability, citizenship, transparency, effectiveness, rule of law in order to investigate people role in planning process for these projects and interaction between sides of government (officials, public and private sector).
Research results included reduced role of government and increased role of non-governmental organizations in social life administration and land and urban management; lack of internal and external conditions in order to implement urban good governance; implementing urban good governance depends on minimum governance, broad market and desirable policy; complex urban issues and problems related to poor urban management. Effective and more weighted citizen participation, accountability, effectiveness and efficiency of achieving good urban governance are considered as humanist urban paradigm for better governance and reduced problems of citizens. This study trieds to complete previous studies in order to apply this management though activating and highlighting citizens role in achieving urban good governance. The results of this study are in line with objectives of study and are summarized as follows; according to studies it was found that willingness to participation is very high from subjective dimension and there is a very good vision to participation in studied city and Shiraz provides participation platform. The objective dimension of participation is at a low level that is measured through citizen participation in social institutions and groups, process of preparing plans, economic costs payment and monitoring and criticizing the performance of urban management. Fifth index is in the best situation among indices.
Geographic Space, Volume:16 Issue: 54, 2016
237 - 260
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