A Critical Analysis of the Impact of Iranian Culture on the Masculine Arabic Sonnet
IntroductionThis article discusses the impact of Iranian culture and civilization on the Arab masculine sonnet. This article, besides explaining the little impact of Iranian culture on masculine sonnet, has shown the reflection of some of the concepts and themes of the masculine sonnet of Arabic on the Persian sonnet and, by bringing examples, it shows the influence of Persian speakers on the Arab masculine sonnet. The purpose of this research is to look at the development and implementation of the Abbasid era romance and to examine the impact of Iranians on the prevalence of this type of sonnet. Since many scholars consider the masculine sonnet to be originated from the culture and civilization of Iran, they believe that the transformation that took place in the Arabian sonnet is the result of a clash of Iranian culture, which has had a tremendous impact on the propagation of masculine sonnets, and this tendency to the beautiful beloved that exists the Arab writers has originated from Iran's civilization and culture, therefore, the present study seeks to examine negative attitudes towards Iranian culture in terms of content and critique, in order to determine the effect of Iranian culture. From this aspect, the impact of Iranian culture on this literary genre should be explained to provide an answer for rejecting the allegations brought against Iranian culture.
It seems that factors such as Iranians’ penetrating into Arabs’ governments, their rich background, affinity with governors and the influence upon the governors, and their attempt to coincide with the Iranian manifestations are some key reasons for these statements.
However, as we will see, the context of such an alteration among the Arabs for various reasons was well-prepared and the Iranian culture has been one of the most effective elements in this type of sonnet.
Theoretical Framework
A) Definition of the Masculine SonnetThe poet's look at the beloved and the description of his features in various periods of Arabic literature dates back to numerous poet's works. Among such works, the poet's view of a hero other than women in the poem (beautiful beloved) was one of the most amazing elements of Arabic poetry throughout the history of literature. In the Abbasid period, a new champion reigns in the sonnet that has another social position. The sonnet of this period is about young boys as beautiful beloved, their features and their shapes. This is called masculine sonnet. Therefore, the expression of love for boys was one of the new disadvantages of the sonnet in this age. This issue is so prevalent in the poetry of this period that it is difficult to find a female beloved, and most of thethe characteristic mentioned for the beloved in poetry are characteristics of a male youth including warier, brave, lover, passionate. The emergence of this technique (masculine sonnet) in the field of Arabic poetry was not abrupt and sudden; a number of factors contributed to its emergence, including 1- the community, 2- politics, 3- apostates, and 4- Abbasid caliphs.
B) The Impact of CultureThe study of Iranian culture through works written in Islamic and Arabic literature is not only a matter of Iranian culture, but also a unique and difficult way of understanding many of the unknown issues of Arabic literature. Many issues can be found in the history of Arabic literature and culture, especially in the period of development and expansion, which cannot be discussed except in the light of the debates of the same type (the influence of Iranian culture on masculine sonnet). The issues are mostly debated in the context of comparative literature of the two languages. To find answers to the literary and historical issues of the past, one should go through Iran's culture and civilization. The "impact" of the culture of a nation on another nation is the result of a kind of social intercourse and intellectual relationship that provides communication and recognition over the years and which in turn have similar representations in both literatures or in two literary techniques. Chronologically, it can be formulated that the early phenomenon acted as a contributing factor and the later phenomenon has been an effective factor. Our measurement of "impact" in this article is the quality of impact that is directly or indirectly derived from the individual or social character of a nation.
MethodThe present study was based on the content analysis method using the available evidence to critically examine the issue of the impact of Iranian culture on masculine sonnet. Using evidence, the weakness of such claims has been proved. For this reason, famous books have been studied in this field, and finally, several examples of the weakness of these ideas were presented. Then, based on various evidences, these views were used in order to explain the impact of the Iranian culture on this literary genre. It is a response to the rejection of some of the charges brought to the Iranian culture.
ResultsArabic civilization was the product of the activities of several different nations which became a unit under the rule of Islam. In this blended mix, Iranians had a more important role. As many scholars believe, the emergence of the masculine sonnet came up with an Iranian character. It is evident from the Arabic poetry that it is originated from the Iranian civilization and culture. The background of such a change among the Arabs was provided for various reasons and the Iranian culture has been one of the most influential elements in this type of sonnet. The Romantic concepts of Arab poets are considered by the Persian poets. Therefore, according to the available evidence, it can be said that to a certain extent, Persian poetry has been influenced by the masculine sonnet of the Arabic language; therefore, there have been similarities between the poems of the two languages in terms of the developments of individual and social life of the Persians and Arabs. By examining the lyrics of this period, it can be understood that the main contents of the descriptions, and the lyric's content are almost the same, although the words and the way of expression is different. Therefore, the assumption is strengthened that the impact of the two cultures is sometimes extended with the development of a conceptual circle. The Persian male sonnet is under the influence of the Arabic sonnet regarding some concepts and notions. Many concepts of the Arabic sonnet have contributed to the wealth of the Persian sonnet.
Article Type:
Research/Original Article
Journal of Arabic Language & Literature, No. 16, 2017
245 - 272
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