- پیاپی 16 (بهار و تابستان 1396)
- تاریخ انتشار: 1396/06/30
- تعداد عناوین: 10
- علمی - پژوهشی
صفحات 1-26نشانه شناسی دانشی است که از روش های آن برای نقد و تحلیل متون استفاده می شود و نقش مهمی در درک و شناخت معانی و لایه های پنهان متن دارد. عنوان آستانه و درگاه ورود به دنیای متن است که هر خواننده به ناچار باید از آن عبور کند و به همین جهت عنوان می تواند نقش مهمی در انگیزش خواننده به سوی متن داشته باشد. برخی از شاعران معاصر وسواس و دقت بسیاری در گزینش عناوین شعری خود به خرج می دهند و آن ها را آگاهانه برمی گزینند که ازجمله آنان می توان محمدعلی شمس الدین را نام برد. بنابراین نشانه شناسی عنوان می تواند ما را در درک و شناختی نو از شعر کمک کرده و تحلیل عمیق تری از آن ارائه دهد. این پژوهش در پی آن است تا قصیده (حفر علی یاقوت العرش) سروده محمدعلی شمس الدین، شاعر معاصر لبنان و از شاعران مقاومت جنوب را مورد تحلیل نشانه شناسی عنوان با تکیه بر کاردکرد بینامتنی قرار دهد و ارتباط عنوان با متن اصلی، کارکردهای عنوان در متن و سازوکارهای تولید معانی را در متن قصیده واکاوی کند. از مهم ترین یافته های این پژوهش عبارتند از: عنوان به مثابه متنی موازی با متن اصلی قرار گرفته و شاعر در تمام متن اصلی در پی آن است تا از رهگذر کنش های موجود در متن به جایگاه وصف شده در عنوان دست یابد که این خود مهم ترین پیوند میان عنوان و متن اصلی به شمار می رود. افزون بر این، عنوان در متن، کارکردهایی چون کارکرد بینامتنی، توصیفی، انگیزشی، صرفی و نحوی دارد و مهم ترین آن ها همان کارکرد بینامتنی قرآنی است که شاعر با کمک آن معانی مورد نظر خود را تولید کرده است. روابط همنشینی و جانشینی، کارکردهای عنوان، منظومه های واژگانی و تضادهای موجود در متن از مهم ترین ابزارهای تولید معانی در دست شاعر بوده اند.کلیدواژگان: نقد ادبی، شعر معاصر، نشانه شناسی، عنوان، محمد علی شمس الدین
صفحات 27-58امل دنقل و فرخی یزدی از شاعران برجسته و سرشناس معاصر مصری و ایرانی هستند که هردو به عنوان شاعرانی متعهد و ملتزم، اشعارشان را در خدمت بیان درد و رنج های مردم جامعه خود، قرار داده اند و در این راه از سلاح قلم به بهترین شکل استفاده کرده اند. آنان در اشعارشان برای بیداری مردم از خواب غفلت، فریاد اعتراض بر آورده و در برابر ظلم حکام جبار که مردم روزگارشان را به ستوه آورده اند، قد علم کرده اند. آن ها برای بیان اعتراض خود نسبت به اوضاع سیاسی و اجتماعی از مضامین یکسانی چون: اعتراض به نبود آزادی، انتقاد از بی کفایتی حاکمان، دعوت به قیام و مبارزه با خودکامگی استفاده کرده اند. در این مقاله سعی شده است با روش توصیفی -تحلیلی که اشتراکات موجود و شیوه واکنش دو شاعر برجسته در حوزه «شعر اعتراضی» بررسی شود و بر اساس بررسی های صورت گرفته در این مقاله، مشخص شده که امل دنقل و فرخی یزدی به عنوان دو شاعر متعهد، هر دو از مضامین یکسانی برای بیان اشعار خود استفاده کرده اند. نگارندگان در این مقاله بر آن هستند تا با معرفی دو شاعر و بررسی اوضاع سیاسی و اجتماعی حاکم بر عصر آنان، اشعار آنان را از زاویه «شعر اعتراضی» و به صورت تطبیقی بررسی کنند.کلیدواژگان: امل دنقل، فرخی یزدی، شعر اعتراضی، اوضاع سیاسی و اجتماعی
صفحات 59-87در ساختار نظام مند زبان، تاکید کلام، ابزاری هدفمند است که گوینده و نویسنده بلیغ از آن برای مفاهیم پر اهمیت خویش بهره می جویند. نظر به اینکه متون دینی کهن عربی با در بر داشتن مفاهیم مهم و کلیدی، با تاکیدهای فراوان همراه است، ضرورت دارد مترجم این متون از توانمندی لازم جهت انعکاس این تاکیدها در زبان فارسی برخوردار باشد؛ لذا این پژوهش به روش توصیفی – تحلیلی، اسلوبهای تاکید هر دو زبان عربی و فارسی را بررسی نموده، شباهت های تاکیدی این دو زبان را روشن ساخته، و با در نظر گرفتن تعدد ناپذیری قیدهای تاکیدی در جمله فارسی، راهکارهایی برای جایگزین کردن تاکیدهای متعدد جمله عربی، در جمله فارسی ارائه داده است؛ بدین ترتیب مترجم با پرهیز از مقابل سازی واژگان تاکیدی دو زبان که حاصل آن ترجمه ای تحت اللفظی و ثقیل است، می تواند تا حد امکان- به تعادل و برابری تاکیدی دو زبان مبدا و مقصد دست یابد.کلیدواژگان: برابر های تاکیدی، ترجمه، اسلوب های تاکید، زبان عربی، زبان فارسی
صفحات 89-125لامیه نویسی که از دوره پیش از اسلام با لامیه العرب شهرت و با لامیه العجم امتداد یافت، همواره مورد توجه شاعران بوده است. دو نفر از ایرانیان عربی سرای معاصر به نام محمد تقی حجت الاسلام و عبدالحمید سنندجی نیز به ترتیب لامیه الترک را در مدح امیرالمومنین علی (ع) و امام زمان (عج) و لامیه الکرد را در مدح حسنعلی خان حاکم سنندج و در استقبال از لامیه العرب و لامیه العجم سروده اند. از آن جا که جنبه شکلی در استقبال های شعری بر جنبه معنایی مقدم است، نقد موسیقایی نیز در این باب اهمیت می یابد. این نوع نقد در دوران معاصر مفهوم گسترده تری نسبت به گذشته پیدا کرده است، تعریف آن از بررسی شعر به عنوان کلام موزون و مقفی فراتر رفته است و چهار بعد موسیقی درونی، بیرونی، کناری و معنوی را در برمی گیرد. نگارندگان برآنند در قالب روش توصیفی، تحلیلی این دو قصیده را از لحاظ موسیقایی بررسی کنند تا مشخص شود کدام یک از دو شاعر بیشتر از افزاینده های موسیقایی بر مبنای نقد جدید استفاده کرده اند. از نتایج بحث این که هر دو شاعر، بحری متناسب با غرض شعر خود برگزیده اند و ائتلاف بین وزن و معنا را رقم زده اند اما هر دو قصیده در باب عروض با مشکلاتی مواجه شده اند. در بحث موسیقی کناری عیوبی بر لامیه الترک عارض شده است. صفات حروف پرتکرار در دو قصیده نیز نشان از ائتلاف لفظ و معنا دارد. هر دو شاعر نیز کوشیده اند با استفاده از صنایع معنوی، زیبایی موسیقایی حاصل از تلاش ذهنی و حدس فنی و استدلالی را نیز پدید آورند.کلیدواژگان: معارضه، موسیقی، لامیه الترک، لامیه الکرد
صفحات 127-160نشانه شناسی اجتماعی، رویکردی کاربردی در بررسی متون است که دغدغه اصلی آن، درک نشانه های اجتماعی و رفتارهای معنادار است. با توجه به اهمیت به کارگیری نظریات علمی در فهم بهتر متون، سازه های گفتمانی هلیدی (اندیشگانی، میان فردی و متنی) را ابزاری برای بررسی یکی از داستان های کوتاه کنفانی با عنوان «القمیص المسروق» قرار دادیم که از حیث شمول دو قطب مثبت و منفی، جدال بین خدمت به وطن و خیانت و گذر قهرمان داستان از تردید به یقین برجسته می نماید. بر این اساس، در حوزه اندیشگانی، چگونگی بازتاب واقعیت در داستان مذکور، در حوزه میان فردی، نحوه تعامل شخصیت ها و در سطح متنی شیوه سازماندهی و انسجام دو حوزه پیشین، با روش توصیفی-تحلیلی بررسی شد تا به این سوال پاسخ داده شود که گزینش های زبانی در حوزه های مذکور به عنوان سازه های معناساز، چگونه در گفتمان شناسی داستان مذکور و کشف لایه های زیرین معنا عمل می کند؟ نتایج حاصل از بررسی جمله واره های این داستان نشان می دهد که در سطح اندیشگانی، چارچوب کنشگرانه متن در آغاز داستان با حضور پررنگ گفتمان «دیگری» همراه است که انسان فلسطینی را به حاشیه رانده و درگیر احساساتی ساخته است که وی را به سمت خیانت سوق می دهد، اما فهم حقیقت در پایان داستان از او کنشگری فعال می سازد که انتقام جویی از دشمن را در خود تقویت می کند. در سطح بینافردی، تعامل شخصیت های داستانی، روند گذر قهرمان داستان از تردید به یقین، در مواجه با خیانت را به نمایش می گذارد. و اما در سطح متن، «ارجاع»، «حروف افزایشی» و «تکرار» به ترتیب در سطوح دستوری، پیوندی و واژگانی، بیشترین کارکرد را تداوم معنایی و انسجام بخشی متن به خود اختصاص داده اند.کلیدواژگان: نشانه شناسی اجتماعی، هلیدی، داستان کوتاه القمیص المسروق، کنفانی
صفحات 161-202این جستار به ارائه نظریه کنش گفتاری آستین و تعاریف و تقسیمات وی و همچنین اقدامات تکمیلی سرل می پردازد. سپس خطبه های جنگ 34، 27، 25 و 179 را از دیدگاه نظریه کنش گفتاری بررسی کرده و تلاش می کند پنجره ای به روی تحقیقات کاربرد شناسانه و کنش گفتاری در متون ادبی بگشاید. به منظور نیل به این هدف، در ابتدا به برشماری کنش های گفتاری پنج گانه و مفاهیم مستقیم و غیرمستقیم آن پرداخته و با توجه به بافت، خطبه های مذکور از دیدگاه کاربردشناسی تحلیل می شود. از نتایج قابل ذکر، درصد بالای کنش عاطفی در میان آمار کنش های پنج گانه است که در خطبه های بررسی شده به ترتیب این ارقام را ثبت کرده است: 56%، و 60%، و 46%، و 80%. نسبت افزایش و کاهش پنج کنش گفتاری در خطبه های جنگ امام علی (ع) نسبت مشترکی است، به گونه ای که حداکثر کنش ها متعلق به کنش عاطفی است. کنش اظهاری در سه خطبه در جایگاه دوم و کنش ترغیبی در مرتبه سوم قرار دارد. کمترین میزان ثبت شده از آن کنش تعهدی و اعلامی است، زیرا امام علی (ع) در پی بیان تعهد خویش به امر خاصی نبوده است، کما این که ایشان در صدد بیان شرایط جدیدی نیست که مستوجب تعهد به آن باشد.کلیدواژگان: کاربردشناسی، کنش گفتاری، کنش غیربیانی، خطبه های جنگ
صفحات 203-224اشعار حافظ شیرازی و ابوالفتح بستی نمونه خوبی از متونی است که از بطن متون پیشین فرهنگ و ادبیات اسلامی متولد و تبدیل به فضایی شده اند، با ابعاد بسیار متنوع که در آن انواع مفاهیم حکمی و اخلاقی از دستورات قرآنی ریشه گرفته اند. هدف اصلی در این پژوهش، کشف و شناخت محورهای مشترک حکمی و اخلاقی شعر بستی و حافظ و نشان دادن انواع روابط ترامتنی این اشعار با قرآن کریم است. برای رسیدن به این هدف بر اساس نظریه ترامتنیت ژرار ژنت اشعار حکمی و اخلاقی هر دو شاعر مورد تحلیل و بررسی قرار گرفت و این نتیجه به دست آمد که هر دو شاعر در زمینه های (قصاص، دعوت به توکل به خدا، پرهیز از دلبستگی به خوشی های ناپایدار دنیا، پرهیز از ظاهربینی و قضاوت سطحی، پرهیز از معاشرت با افراد ناسالم، دعوت به شکرگزاری نعمت های الهی، التزام به صبر و بردباری و...) هم عقیده و دارای تشابه هستند؛ علاوه بر این حضور چشمگیرآیات قرآن کریم در جای جای این اشعار، روابط ترامتنی معتبری را تایید می کند و این ارتباط در جهت ایجاد نظام معنایی این اشعار، شامل روابط بینامتنیت و فرامتنیت در نظریه ترامتنیت ژرار ژنت است.کلیدواژگان: حافظ شیرازی، ابوالفتح بستی، فرامتنیت، بینامتنیت، اشعار حکمی
صفحات 225-243بیشتر منتقدان ادبی، شعر کلاسیک عربی را خالی از انسجام و وحدت اندام وار می دانند و بر این عقیده اند که چکامه های بلند عربی از انسجام لازم برخوردار نیست و سازمان نیکو و منظمی ندارد؛ اما عدم پیوستگی در کلیت قصیده بیان گر عدم انسجام در بخش های مختلف آن نیست. بدین معنا که اگر قصیده ای به چهار بخش تقسیم شود شاید میان بخش های مختلف آن وحدتی نباشد؛ اما میان ابیات هرکدام از این بخش ها انسجام و هارمونی خاصی برقرار است. پژوهش حاضر با هدف تبیین انسجام میان بخش های درونی قصیده کلاسیک عربی نگارش یافته است. ازاین رو ابیات توصیف گرگ بحتری، شاعر نامدار دوره عباسی، را به روش توصیفی- تحلیلی و بر اساس بخشی از نظریه انسجام مایکل هلیدی، معروف به انسجام پیوندی، نقد و تحلیل نموده ایم تا به کاربست این نظریه در اشعار توصیفی عربی به عنوان بخشی از چکامه های بلند عربی دست یابیم. شاعر در این ابیات به صورت منسجم و زیبا به توصیف نبرد خود با گرگ پرداخته و از ادوات ربطی به گونه های مختلف جهت انسجام بخشی به ابیات بهره جسته است. برآیند پژوهش نشان می دهد که بحتری با بهره گیری از عوامل انسجام پیوندی توانسته شعری منسجم بسراید که اجزای آن از آغاز تا پایان به هم مرتبط است و این پیوند و انسجام از رهگذر به کارگیری به جا و منطقی این ادوات به دست آمده است. در مجموع ادوات اضافی نظیر واو عطف و همچنین ادوات زمانی نظیر فاء نقش بزرگی در انسجام بخشی به این ابیات دارند.کلیدواژگان: انسجام پیوندی، مایکل هلیدی، بحتری، وصف گرگ
صفحات 245-272در این مقاله، درباره تاثیر فرهنگ و تمدن ایران بر غزل مذکر عربی بحث به میان می آید. عمده بحث مطرح شده در این مقاله به بیان نحوه تاثیرپذیری غزل مذکر عربی از فرهنگ و تمدن ایرانی اختصاص یافته است. ازآنجا که برخی، این نوع غزل را برگرفته از فرهنگ ایرانی می دانند، جستار حاضر با روش تحلیل محتوا و بر اساس مدارک موجود به بررسی انتقادی این مساله پرداخته و با استناد به شواهد، ضعیف بودن چنین ادعاهایی را اثبات کرده است. این مقاله گذشته از تبیین تاثیر اندک فرهنگ ایران بر غزل مذکر، بر آن است انعکاس برخی از مفاهیم و مضامین غزل مذکر عربی را بر غزل فارسی بیان کند و با تطبیق نمونه هایی از آن ها، تاثیرپذیری سخن سرایان پارسی را از غزل مذکر عربی نشان دهد. درنهایت با بررسی اشعار فارسی و عربی، این نتیجه حاصل می شود که مفاد اصلی توصیفات و مضمون آن ها تقریبا یکسان است، اگرچه کلمات و طرز بیان متفاوت است. لذا این فرض تقویت می شود که تاثیر و اثر دو فرهنگ ایرانی و عربی گاه با گسترش دایره مفهومی و گاه بدون تصرف صورت پذیرفته است. هدف این پژوهش نگاهی به جریان شکل گیری و تحول چکامه های عاشقانه دوره عباسی و بررسی میزان تاثیر ایرانیان در رواج این نوع غزل است. شاید راه یافتن ایرانیان در دستگاه حکومت و دارا بودن سوابق متمدن ازیک طرف و نفوذ رجال ایرانی در دستگاه های دولتی و معاشرت خلفا با آنان از طرف دیگر و تلاش در جهت همرنگ شدن با مظاهر تمدن ایرانیان، از علل مهم این اظهارات باشد. ولیکن همان گونه که ملاحظه خواهیم دید، زمینه چنین تغییر و تحولی در میان اعراب به دلایل مختلف، مهیا و مساعد بوده و فرهنگ ایرانی یکی از عناصر موثر در این نوع غزل بوده است.کلیدواژگان: غزل مذکر، ادب عربی، ادبیات فارسی، فرهنگ، تاثیر
تحلیل مولفه های پسامدرنیسم در آثار داستانی جبرا ابراهیم جبرا (با تکیه بر رمان های البحث عن ولید مسعود و یومیات سراب عفان)صفحات 273-306پست مدرنیسم اصطلاحی است که برای توصیف نظریه هایی در زمینه فلسفه، ادبیات، هنر و علوم مختلف به کار گرفته می شود. برخی علت پیدایش آن را بحران های ناشی از پیشرفت های عصر مدرن، افراط در عقلانی کردن امور، دیوان سالاری و سیطره تکنولوژی بر انسان دانسته اند که نه تنها آزادی انسان را اعتلا نبخشید، بلکه موجبات محدودیت بیشتر او را فراهم ساخت. نویسندگان در این مقاله به بیان و نقد ویژگی های شاخص مکتب پست مدرنیسم در آثار داستانی جبرا پرداخته اند و در پی پاسخ گویی به این سوال بوده اند که این تحولات چه تاثیری در آفرینش هنری رمان های او داشته است؟ فرضیه پژوهش بر این مدعا استوار است که جبرا با تاثیرپذیری از گرایش های پسامدرنیسم توانسته شیوه های بیان نوینی را در ابعاد مختلف داستان نویسی ابداع کند. این پژوهش به روش تحلیلی – توصیفی تدوین شده است و از مهم ترین دستاوردهای آن می توان به حضور غلبه محتوای وجود شناسانه بر محتوای معرفت شناسانه، چند صدایی و چند روایتی بودن رمان، رئالیسم جادویی و بینامتنیت اشاره کرد.کلیدواژگان: پست مدرنیسم، جبرا ابراهیم جبرا، رمان، فلسطین، بینامتنیت
Semiotics of the Title of the Ode (Hoffaron alla yaghut e al-arsh) Written by Mohammad Ali Shams al-DinPages 1-26Statement of the ProblemContemporary critical studies are largely interested in the title as it is a prominent gateway to the original text the reader may pass through to enter the text. The title is the key to the text and the mechanism through which the reader reads the text, uncovers hidden layers and unpacks it. Therefore, if the reader, in the contemporary text reading enters the original text ignoring the title, a great amount of text knowledge is lost. Since contemporary poetry is not readily available to the reader, it requires mechanisms that the title is the most important of which. Hence, the present research intended to analyze semiotics of the title of the ode Hoffaron Alla Yaghut e al-Arsh focusing on Quran intertextuality.
Theoretical FrameworkTitle semiotics in a poetic text consists of some concepts that theoretical literature makes this method. The concepts include:a. Sign and Semiotics: Everything that implies and indicates something else is called a sign. Semiology deals with three concepts of signifier, signified (referent), and signification. The signifier is a sound representing a word; the signified is the meaning passed along by the signifier; and finally, the relationship between signifier and the signified is signification.
Ferdinand de Saussure asserts that there may be a knowledge pondering signs contribution in the life of the society; this knowledge is part of social psychology, and consequently, a part of general psychology. It is called semiotics.
Roland Barth, the structuralist and post-structuralist semiotician, claims that linguistics embraces semiotics; although, he has been largely touched by Saussure. He adds that the signs enjoy language and speech patterns even in a non-linguistic context.
b) Title: It is a linguistic sign placed the work by which the work is named. In other words, it specifies the work contextuality. The title is a fundamental means an analyst is equipped with to discover and paraphrase (interpret) the text for diving into the underlying layers. It may clarify text ambiguities through uncovering semantic and coded structures.
c) Intertextuality: Each text is an intertextual one as no text is created in vacuum. A reader interprets a text by the aid of intertextuality. Consider a text is generated in vacuum, if any possible, the reader is disconnected of the text such that it would have never found the opportunity of being read.
Research MethodologyThis is a descriptive-analytical study focused on title semiotics. In semiology analysis of the intended ode title, some mechanisms including collocation and substitution, the relationship between signifier and signified, lexical (descriptive) systems, differential relationships, as well as functions like intertextuality, have been used in the ode as means of meaningfulness. In the ode title analysis, the title morphological, syntactic, and lexical implications were initially specified; next, the findings were essentially considered as the foundation for title analysis respecting text. In semiotics analysis of text and title, also concentrated on the prior findings, the implications, various functions, and poet meaningfulness tactics were determined.
Research Results The title (Hoffaron alla yaghut e al-arsh) is not only an independent text parallel to the original text, but also, original text reading is impossible without understanding the title and the implications.
The Quranic intertextuality in the title has conveyed the poet dedication to his late friend to addressee from the onset. In addition, the Quranic semantic signification in the title as a set of "present" concepts calls for a set of "absent" concepts contrasting the title implications such that the text is basically founded on such contrast. Morphological, syntactical, descriptive, and motivational functions in addition to intertextuality are of the most important title functions in the ode studied here.
The relationship between the title and the original text, lexical contrast between the great universe (as described in the title) and the earth, intertextuality, selecting signed words and putting them together based on collocation and substitution are the remarkable mechanisms of Shams al-Din in meaning production.Keywords: Literary criticism, Contemporary poetry, Semiotics, Title, Mohammad Ali Shams al-Din
Pages 27-58IntroductionAn examination of the literature of every era requires familiarization with the conditions and circumstances of the societies in which literary and poetry lived. Given the political, geographic and religious situation of Iran and Egypt, the two countries have had a destiny destiny, and foreigners and Western countries have always been proud of these two countries. Over the course of the past century, as the unprecedented developments in the global arena began to take place, the intelligentsia of these societies sought to criticize the political situation in these countries and the social conditions of the people and They chose the field of literature as their gateway and showed anger result suppression national anger by protesting the situation of society in the form of literature and It was used as a dynamic and influential motive in community activity and, as a result, influenced by political, social, cultural and economic trends.
Among them is Amal Dunqal and Farrokhi Yazdi, whose "protest poetry" was featured in the form of their lyric poems.
Protest poetryProtest poetry, defiance and rebellion against fuss and grumbling, having this deep sense of consciousness that remains unnecessary and necessary in the continuation of this situation, and with the certainty of the possibility of a change. This kind of poem often expresses suffering and oppression and then protest, anger and rebellion, but to be effective, efforts must be transformative and armed with a revolutionary theory with social content. In this case, he will find himself a popular poem. This poem can help by motivating, mobilizing, creating ethnic and patriotic consciousness, and the general tendency of the general thought to rise to the question of struggle, and consequently, reforming the regime or the victory of the revolution.
Theoretical Framework and research questionsAmal Dungal and Farokhi Yazdi are prominent Egyptian and Iranian contemporary poets
Both as committed and committed poets, they put their poems in the service of expressing the suffering of the people of their community. They used the same themes to protest themselves against the political and social situation, such as protesting the lack of freedom, criticizing the lack of protection of rulers, inviting insurrection, and the fight against tyranny.This article seeks to answer these questions1. What is the reflection of the social and political situation in the poetry of the two poets? 2. What is the phenomenon of defeat in its poetry? 3. What topics and concepts do people use to awaken people?
Importance and necessity of research Since this research is in the field of comparative literature, it leads to audience acquaintance with the thoughts and other literatures of nations and The beauty of the various literatures of different societies is manifested. Familiarity with contemporary literature and comparative research is the necessity of such an inquiry.
MethodIn this article, we have tried to investigate the existing commonalities and the method of reaction of two prominent poets in the field of "protest poetry" through the descriptive-analytical MethodConclusion1Amal Dunqal and Farrokhi Yazdi, both of which do not regard all problems of the society solely by the ruling system, but by the critical analysis of social conditions, believe that people also contribute to the creation of these problems; therefore, instead of their poems and Different faces point to this issue.
2. Both poets have used various aspects of rhetoric to express issues, which has been affecting the reader more than before.
3. The poetry of the two poets in the field of political and social issues is very abundant And at the very core of such themes as freedom, calling for people to freedom, protesting ignorance and neglect of the people and their silence, criticizing the lack of opportunity of rulers of the time, oppression, invoking the uprising and fighting autocracy, ... takes up.
4. Love in the homeland in the poems of the world has become the color of wrath and wrath, while Frokhi honors his past life and loves the mythical characters of Iran as a symbol in his homeland poetry.
5. In his poems, Amal Danzah refers to the looting and looting of the national wealth of the country by the colonialists and the indigenous peoples. Farrokhi's goal was to oppose the United Kingdom and to expel this colonial state from the country, and in the second phase, to overthrow the governments of the United Kingdom in Iran.
6. Both poets, as well-known and fighting poets, always considered rulers of time and their agents responsible for the misery and backwardness of their countries.Keywords: Amal Dunhul, Farrokhi Yazdi, Protest Poetry, Political, Social Situation
Pages 59-87IntroductionThe emphasis is one of the important subjects which have a serious effect in speech`s eloquence. The speech will be effective when it is proportional with situation of the addressee. The addressee has sometime empty mind, sometime is uncertain, and sometime is denying. The eloquent should give a lecture effectively and the translator should translate the lecture without decrease these effects as he can. So that the true reflection of emphasis methods is very important in translation, and addressee`s effect is changed, if it is no equivalents of emphasis methods in basis and destination languages and this is a challenge that the translator faces in the translation process.
Theoretical FrameworkIn every language, there are several ways in which the speaker or the author emphasizes the concept. These emphasis on grammar and rhetoric has been introduced. Therefore, in the present study, the emphasis of the two languages in the context of the contrastive linguistics has been studied in order to investigate the equivalence of the two Arabic and Persian languages. A corroborative response is a strand of contrastive linguistics that examines the differences and similarities of two or more languages at a moment's point. contrastive linguistics can be closely linked to translation, since language similarities and differences in transliteration are obvious. In the translation process, the interpreter occasionally finds similarities and differences between the source language and the destination, which was not known to him before translation. Therefore, this research has been conducted in the circle of grammar, rhetoric, contrastive linguistics, and translation.
MethodThis descriptive-analytic study has considered the emphasis of the two languages of Arabic and Persian. Highlighting their similarities, and considering the non-multiplicity of emphasizing constraints in Farsi, this study provides some solutions for replacing the multiple emphases Arabic, in Persian.
Results and DiscussionIn both Arabic and Persian, the emphasis is on a wide range of subjects, but adapting and reversing these emphases is not necessarily possible in all cases. Similar emphasis in Arabic and Persian languages simply emphasizes the equilibrium by translating from Arabic to Persian and vice versa, and replacing the emphasis text of each of these two languages rather than the emphasis of another language. Translators try to put the variate Arabic emphasis methods in destination language by emphasis Persian adverbs, while with the variety of emphasis in Persian, they can equalize the emphasis in the source and destination text, as far as possible, with innovation.
ConclusionThe emphasis in both Farsi and Arabic is very much appreciated and the emphasis in the Persian language is limited to the emphasis that the majority of translators cite, and in Persian, as in Arabic, each verbal unit can emphasize. The Arabic-Persian syntaxes make it possible to translate Arabic emphases into the Persian language itself. Present participle, future verb, subject in the form of the pronoun, indefinite subject, Swear, etc. are used in both languages to express the emphasis. When the Arabic sentence has several emphasis, the translator can reflect the emphasis purport of Arabic speech with innovation by using signs, synonyms, etc which are the emphasis tools in Farsi.Keywords: Emphasis equals, Translation, Emphasis style, Arabic language, Persian language
Pages 89-125IntroductionLamiae writing has earned reputation with Arabian lamiae since the pre-Islamic period and continued with Ajam lamiae. Two contemporary Iranians, Mohammad Taqi Hojjat Al-Islam and Abdul-Hamid Sanandaji composed Turk lamiae in praise of Amiral-Mumenin Ali (AS) and Imam Mahdi, and Kurdish lamiae in praise of Hassan Ali Khan, the governor of the Sanandaj city respectively.
One of the critical aspects of aesthetic in the works of poets is the musical space of their poems that has a broader sense than in the past. In this study, the researchers try to analyze the musical structure of these two works by studying different types of music in the new critics such as inner, outer, side, and spiritual music. Some questions answered in this study include what was the art of the poet about music? How is the fitness of content with weight, frequency of words, and musical additions in these works?
Theoretical FrameworkThe classical rhetoric and the new rhetoric have differences in the type of analyzing texts. The classical rhetoric is considered as the rhetoric of examples and evidence which analyzes the cases as separate entities, thesis, and its judgment is not always accurate. In the old rhetoric, except for the connection and separation of the rhetorical analysis, it doesnt go beyond one sentence while in analyzing the works of a poet, his poetry should completely be examined or the works of a poets should be thematically analyzed or at least a whole poem should be analyzed. This way can somehow understand the beauty of a poet's work or compare it to another. In the new rhetoric, this problem is to be solved. A more general pint of view in criticizing is held so that the judgement be more comprehensive. Poetry music is one of the artistic arenas of poets, which is very important in the Arabic poetry. In the new rheology, in addition to reviewing the weight and rhyme points, other aspects of music such as spiritual music and inner music are also considered. The results of the whole analysis of are held as factor in criticizing musical quality of a piece. Therefore, in the forthcoming analysis, we have tried to examine the music of poetry with a comprehensive look at the two odes.
MethodIn the study of the poetry, bursts of poetry were analyzed and their defects were investigated. With regard to the internal music, two elegies are analyzed in beauty discussions of elegies about repetition, pun, derivation, and specification. In the analysis of the lateral music, the letters are identified and the defects are expressed. In the spiritual music, synchrony, similarity and conflict are reconsidered and devices such as symmetry, conflict, and arranging features are analyzed in the two Lamiae elegies.
Results and DiscussionMohammad Taghi Hojjat al-Islam has composed his elegy in a simple measure. This measure is composed of two measures: Tafeileh of Mostafelon and Faaelon, and is fitted to some topics such as praise, pride, exclamation, and paradoxical feelings such as love, hate and Etc. This sea with the complete see, after the long see which composes one-third of the Arabic elegies is placed in the second order. This see must be used in some elegies with many verses to influence on the aim of praise to excite the addressee and affect his feelings. So, one can say that Lamiae Al-Turk that praises Amir Almomenin Ali and Emam Zaman and composed in some sea with many sections and many verses [158 verses], is fitted to the aim of the elegy. In spite of the ability of following the poet measure, has caught up in the trouble of avoiding twice. Abd Al-Hamid Sanandeji also has established his elegy on the same measure and since his elegy is panegyric, the fitting of measure and content have been observed. He also has the trouble of Tahrid. Sanadejis share of this repetition of this incompleteness is 4 cases.
Considering the internal music, two elegies are analyzed in the beauty discussions of elegies about repetition, pun, derivation, and specification. Repetition is challenged in three levels of method, words, and letters. During this process, it is obvious that poetry has used the repetition capacity for highlighting well some praise concepts. Even using seeming letters suggests that poet speaks of his proud moral features proudly and wants to mention their virtues of all. Pun is another type of repetition, but in different dimensions it is used 27 times in Hajjat Al-Islams elegy. Derivation appeared 20 times in this elegy and so it shows that in spite of the affectation of the internal music additions in poetry has used Hojjat Al-Islams elegy in his poetry. Abdol Hamid Sanandeji also didnt ignore the musical aspect in his elegy whose verses are less than Hojjat Al-Islams. even according to the statistics about pun, he has used more than Hojjat Al-Islams and repetition in his poetries also is prominent and there is fitting among frequently letters and their meanings and content of elegy according to what Hassan Abbas wrote in the book features and meanings of the Arabic letters. Letter in two elegies is L and because of this, it is called as Lamiae. Sanandejis elegy is adjusted to all the rules for letters and rhymes, but Hojjat Al-Islams elegy encounters with two problems of assurance and depletion. In the spiritual music, synchrony, similarity, and conflict are reconsidered and devices such as symmetry, conflict, and arranging features are analyzed in two Lamiae elegies. In this area, also according to the acquired data, AL-Kurds Lamiae has more percent and implies Sanandejis success in using these terms in AL-Kurds Lamiae elegy.
ConclusionResults showed that both poets have coalition between weight and meaning by the selection of extensive sea that has many sections and is appropriate for praise, but both odes faced with Tahrid fault.Considering music, two defects, i.e., guarantee and temptation, prevail over the Turk lamiae. According to the survey in spiritual music, al-Kurdish lamiae is superior to the Turk lamiae.Keywords: Conflict, Music, Al-Turk lamia, Al-Kord lamiae
The Social Semiotics in Ghassan Kanfani's Al Ghamis Al Masrugh Short Story Based on Halliday's ApproachPages 127-160IntroductionThe interconnection of language and the social organization have been considered by linguists and socialists so much that the common issues of the role-based linguists and the social linguists, the sociology of language, the discourse analysis, and the language issues have been concerned with the social behavior not separated from the social structure. Halliday, the pioneer of organized grammar firstly introduced the social semiotics, he found language as the social sign in which meaning was encoded by social facts.
The Social SemioticsSemiotics is the general study of signs in the commonest concept. "Being social is equal to culture, hence the social semiotics is the study of society or culture like the organization of meanings that bilaterally communicate with language; the social culture produces language which enters the worldwide of signs and the ideological organization of society to reproduce the social culture and organization" (Ahmad, 2001, p. 51). In this respect, Halliday set up "the principles of language theory as the social signs. The main elements of social semiotics are the social-cultural texture, signs, text, setting, the pragmatic kind of lingual organization and the discourse foundations" (Halliday, 1978: 111).
The Analytical Processing of the IssueActions, thoughts and receptions make up a major part of our everyday experiences in life; an important role of the language is to classify these dispersed experiences as linguistic symbols. Halliday, in the systematic role-play order, portrays this role as representing or thinking. (Fowler, 2012: 63-64). Regarding the meta-role, "the main point is the collection of lingual choices of the author and a writing that can be expressed in another way. Such interpretation lets the researcher recognize the suitable and unsuitable, the lingual choices" (Ahmad, 1989: 89). In this research, we emphasize the narrator's choices and his emphasis on the temporary organization of language by using the verb process. There are three changeable components: the main process that associates with the verb group dividing into three main processes and three subdivisions. Every process depicts the kinds of verbs. Therefore, the objective process includes all of the verbs that depict an event. The subjective process bears human's perceptions and the connective process contains the specific, changeable branches. However, the subdivided processes are recognized more clearly than the three main processes, because they connect to the three regions of behavior, speech, and an absolute existence.
a) The Social DistanceThe social distance deals with the sharing control. "If one cause controls the other more in the bilateral relations, such relations are called cohesive, but if they are at the same level such as friendship and enmity, it is called non-cohesive. Hence, their past relations are important, they manifest the social structure that is effective in the communicative styles" (Halliday, 2014, p. 141). Accordingly, the study of the dominative discourse of characters in the story approves the bilateral (cohesive and non-cohesive) relations in the aforementioned story.
b) CohesionHalliday has found "cohesion as the conceptual meaning that depicts the meaningful relations in the text" (Balhoot, 2011, p. 211). He claims that "a being text or everything that makes a text means the presence of grammatical (reference, replacement, deletion) tools, the (contrary, repetitive and synonym) words, and the connectives (additional, causative, superlative, time) that are the network of meaningful relations between sentences, clauses, and discourse"( Aghagol Zadeh, 2013, p. 160).
c) ReferenceReferral is an element that can be interpreted by referring to another element and its meaning is determined by the discovery of its reference. From Heledia's point of view, "pronouns, references, dashes, and alphabets are the most important reference elements that are divided into two types of intranets and outsourced text". (ibid, 122). "The external reference is based upon the external texture, it means that the author doesnt find any reader reference in the text, and he requires the information outside the text". (Sadieh, 2014: 3). In this story, the external reference is only exerted in one case which is discussed in the body of the essay in details.
ConclusionThis study presents the text of the story entitled Al Ghamis based on the discourse analysis. Here, we take into consideration: transferring the objective concepts, the analysis of discourse principles in the inter-individual and textual levels mong the elements of cohesion, the element of repetition, the references of the pronouns and incremental letters, play the most role in the coherence and semantic continuity of the various clauses.Keywords: the social semiotics, Halliday, Al Ghamis Al Masrugh short story, Kanfani
Pages 161-202IntroductionPragmatics is a branch of the science of semiotics, and in 1970s it has been structured around a set of applied studies, including the dialogical analysis and textual analysis (Mazeed, 2010).
One of the most important theories in pragmatics research is the theory of speech acts. This theory is used in various studies, including research on people's daily conversations, as well as research on the use of speech acts in various literary, religious, and other texts. By using this theory and examining the extent of the use of speech acts, one can find some hidden angles of the speaker's intention. Hence, we used this theory to examine sermons 34, 27, 25, and 179 of Imam Ali (peace be upon him), which are related to sermons related to Muawiya's war.
Theoretical FrameworkPragmatics is not limited only to linguistic levels of phonetics, grammar. In other words, it is not limited to a certain aspect of linguistics, but it can cover all levels (Elengar, 2005). Pragmatics does not capture only the apparent meaning of the phrase but it can also capture the implicit concepts of the speaker's intention during his communication with the audience.
John Langshow Austin was the founder of the speech act theory, and John Searle was able to complete this theory by dividing speech acts into five categories, and making changes to his master's theory. He categorizes five groups of speech acts as follows: verdictives, exercitives, commissives, behabitives, and expositives.
John Searle, also, has two types of direct and indirect speech acts. On the other hand, context is important in the theory of speech acts.
Therefore, in order to conduct the research from the point of view of speech acts, it is necessary to study and analyze the context. Scientists divide context into two types: linguistic and paralinguistic contexts. Since many studies of Nahjul-Balagheh have focused on linguistic context (although they did not necessarily have this title), in this study, linguistic context is not an issue, yet the focus is on the physical context including situational and social contexts to analyze speech acts.
MethodThe method of this research is descriptive-analytic. Initially, it refers to the theory of speech acts and its principles. The following sermons are then analyzed based on this theory.
Findings and DiscussionFor the sermons 34, 27, 25, and 179, in the light of this theory, we used the table of speech acts including utterances, apparent or direct acts, indirect or indirect acts, as well as non-verbal acts. Through lexical methods (through action verbs), the structure of the sentence, and the sentence context, we will come to the non-verbal acts of the utterances.
By examining the sermons which are related to the battle against Muawiyah and finding the number of speech acts in sermons and calculating their percentages, it was found that these sermons contain commissive, expositives, behabitive, and exercitive acts. The order of the percentage of the speech acts mentioned in the sermon, except in sermon 24, is the same. The behabitive in these sermons has the highest rank.
At first glance, it seems that verdictive act in the war sermons has the first place because the atmosphere of the war is such that the speaker encourages people to fight against the enemy. Since people of Kufa showed their weakness in defending their homeland, Amir al-Muminin's grief from this weakness led to use this act more than any other acts.
On the other hand, the third kind of speech act is verdictive in sermons of 34, 27, 25, and 179 with respectively of 14, 17, 29, and 7 percent. In addition to the low percentage of this speech act, the remarkable notion about this act is that 95% of the speech acts have multiple interactions with non-verbal acts. In other words, utterances, in addition to assertive acts, include non-verbal acts. This point indicates that Imam Ali (AS) does not encourage people to directly engage in jihad, and the context of the word is such that Imam will use this way to guide the people.
The minimum occurrence is for commisives and expositives, since Imam Ali (AS) was not in a position to express his commitment to a particular matter, nor did he seek to express a new condition that would entail a commitment.
ConclusionCalculating and comparing the statistics of the volume of speech acts as well as the direct and indirect acts of the utterances in a few sermons from Imam Ali (AS) tell us the hidden points of these sermons. One of the things that can be achieved by comparing and interpreting speech acts is the speaker's and audience's thoughts. The high or low percentage of a speech act represents the perspectives of speakers and audiences which may not be explicitly stated. In particular, these percentages are repeated with a very little change in all of these sermons. The context and condition of the people of Kufa have not been significantly different in all of these sermons, and their weakness in performing their duty makes the order of application and the percentage of their useKeywords: Pragmatics, Speech act, Non-verbal act, Sermons of war
Pages 203-224IntroductionShamseddin Mohammad Shirazi known as Hafez is one of the famous poets of Iran and the world, and a well-known figure in the Persian poetry. Hafez's sonnets have romantic aspects, like Saadi's sonnets, as well as some mystical aspects, like the sonnets of Attar, Maulana, and Iraqi. Wisdom and ethics in Hafez's poetry have a special place. Although the main source of Hafiz's psyche is mysticism, in these poems, moral recommendations have a special effect. In addition to illustrating the role of deep and original mystical concepts, he portrays the effects of social ethics and ethical imperatives, in which morality has come to the service of mysticism in order to reinforce human relationships, and provide a suitable platform for the plentiful journey of earthly humans. The main reason for Hafez's attention to these poetic themes is that he is a Muslim poet and believer, and his life has grown specifically with the Quran. He is a faithful believer who, with a particular mindset, sets aside the superficial layers of things and uses deep Quranic concepts and teachings.
Abu Al-Fattah Ali bin Mohammad-bin-Husaynbn-Yousef-bin-Mohammad-bin-e Abdul Aziz Al-Bosti is also one of the scholars and poets of Zhulassinin, the beginning of the Ghaznavid era, and the late 4th century AH. He was born in Bost, a city in Afghanistan, in 330 AH. After receiving basic education in literature and hadith, he was engaged in teaching in that city. He wrote poetry in both Arabic and Farsi and is the owner of a poetry book. Bosti is a well-known scholar adorned with ethical attributes such as contentment, freedom, and temperament. In his poems, he expresses moral and didactic meanings. The main reason for the plurality of these poetic themes in Bosti poetry is that he was a member of scholars, jurists, and hadith experts, and was familiar with Islamic concepts, especially the Quran, and used this knowledge to advance his poetry. Therefore, the ethical and didactic poems of the two poets, albeit formally different in appearance, share the same fundaments, which is the result of the common thoughts of both poets as a source of belief.
Theoretical FrameworkIn this research, the intertextual and transtextual relationship between Hafez and Bosti are discussed, based on the theory of the Gerard Genet.
MethodThe method applied in this study is content analysis.
Results and DiscussionThe main purpose of this article is to discover the common didactic and ethical aspects of Bosti and Hafez poetry and to show the various types of theoretical relations of these poems with the Holy Quran. The results show that the poems of Hafez Shirazi and Abu Al-Fathh are good examples of the texts born and specialized in the background of ancient Islamic literature, with a variety of dimensions in which various types of didactic and ethical concepts are derived from Quranic commands.
Conclusions and SuggestionsFrom the sum of what was said about the common didactic and ethical axes of Bosti and Hafez poetry, and the various types of relations of these poems with the Holy Quran, the results showed that both poets shared the same stance in the issues such as retribution, invitation to trust God, avoiding attachment to happiness, the instability of the world, the avoidance of superficiality and judgment, the avoidance of socializing with human beings, the invitation to thank the blessings of God, the commitment to patience and tolerance, etc.
In addition, the most important text which make the poems of Hafez and Bosti related directly or indirectly is the Holy Quran. In these poems, a variety of Quranic discourses have been re-envisioned, indicating their polyvocality, which also affirms the transtextual affairs. This connection is aimed at creating a semantic system of these poems, including interpersonal relations and genericity in the theory of Gartner's Gramont.
Based on the intertextual relationship, we find that Hafez and Bosti, due to deep acquaintance with the Islamic teachings and the Quran, adorned some of their expressions, phrases, and arguments by presenting the verses of this holy book. The interconnected nature of the texts in this section of Hafez and Bosti poems is based on the Quranic verses. The presence of these Quranic words, in addition to reflecting the content of poetry, showed the structure of the poet's beliefs.
Based on the transtextual relationship, which is based on the interpretive relations of the texts, the transtextual relationship between the didactic and ethical poems of Hafez and Bosti was confirmed. The presence of concepts related to the practical commandments of the Quran in Hafez and Bosti's poems, in addition to reflecting the supremacy of the confirmation of foundation and origin of the Quran, shows the commitment of both poets to the Islamic beliefs and reveals this fact that The Holy Quran is a hypertext. The full understanding of a significant part of the didactic poems of Hafez and Abu Al-Fath is dependant on understanding the references to the Quran verses.Keywords: Hafez Shirazi, Abu Al-Fath Bosti, transtextual, intertextuality, the Quran
Pages 225-243IntroductionMost of the literary critics consider Arabic classical poetry as lacking cohesion and organic unity and believe that long Arabic odes do not have the necessary cohesion and do not have a good and ordered organization. But lack of cohesion in an ode as a whole does not indicate lack of cohesion in its various parts. That is, if an ode is divided into four parts, maybe there is no unity among its different parts but there is a special cohesion and harmony between the verses of each of these parts. The present study has been written in order to explain the cohesion between the internal parts of classical Arabic ode. Therefore, the verses describing wolf by Buhturi, the well-known poem of the Abbasid period, are criticized and analyzed through descriptive-analytical method and based on a part of Cohesion Theory of Michael Halliday, known as conjunctive cohesion, in order to obtain the application of this theory in Arabic descriptive poetry as part of long Arabic odes.
Theoretical FrameworkThere is a kind of cohesion called conjunctive cohesion. In this method, conjunctive devices create cohesion between textual propositions larger than a word, and establish linkage between the last and the next propositions (Khatabi, 1991). Hence, conjunctive cohesion means a semantic and logical relationship between the sentences of the text. Conjunctive cohesion is divided into four types of additive, causal, adversative, and temporal (Lotfi Pour Saedi, 2006).
Therefore, there is a significant difference between this type of cohesion and other types of cohesion; because in this type of cohesion the connection between two sentences and two sections or narrative clauses is direct (Zanad, 1993). Some of these devices have an incremental function and add additional information and knowledge to the text and make the sentence more meaningful than the previous sentence. Sometimes, they also create an opposite and contradictory meaning in the text and are brought against the previous subject; but some of them are added to the text in order to create a result and they create a causal relationship between textual propositions or cause the creation of a temporal relationship in the text (Khatabi, 1991).
Research MethodThe present study tries to criticize and analyze this part of the ode through the descriptive-analytical method and according to Michael Hallidays theory (Born in 1925) and the four factors of conjunctive cohesion, and measure the application and reflection of conjunctive elements in these verses and indicate their frequency, function, and implications.
Research Findings and Discussion- If we look at the most famous descriptive odes of classical literature, we will see that these odes have various types of additive relations. In the verses describing the wolf by Buhturi, this type of cohesion is seen in a beautiful manner; such that all the things in this part of the ode have been described correctly and completely and the reader is persuaded. These verses, using the functions of additive relation, have been able to look as a painting panel with inclusiveness of the elements, and provide a comprehensive picture of the battle scene to the audience.
- Any text may consist of a series of contradictory propositions and events that the writer expresses using adversative conjunctive elements. This subject is less used in descriptive texts due to the correlation and coherence of the descriptive elements; because the increasing use of this relation is when the text consists of different interactions and in some cases, these actions may be against each other. Although the verses describing the wolf by Buhturi have a set of semantic and structural contrast, these contrasts have less appeared in the text layout, and the poet has less used the devices of adversative relation.
- When the descriptive verses of Buhturi become dramatic with a moving aspect, a causal relation is created in them; and when he is merely describing and expressing the features of things, the causal relation becomes low in that; given the dominance of the descriptive element on the dramatic and narrative elements in these verses, the amount of using causal relation is lower in these verses.
- Buhturi, in his verses describing the wolf, after describing the night and the state of hunger and emaciation of the wolf, describes his battle with the wolf, in which temporal devices are seen increasingly. In addition, the description of his battle with wolf requires using a temporal relation because every event involves time. Therefore, in this part, we can see a sequencing and temporal continuity between the verses. So, the poet in this part has no way other than using the devices of temporal relation; for example, the words Somma, Fa, and Vav have been used many times.
ConclusionFrom what has been mentioned in this study, the following results can be obtained:In these verses, the poet has described his battle with the wolf coherently and beautifully and has used conjunctive devices in different methods in order to give cohesion to the verses. The overall result of the research shows that Buhturi, using the factors of conjunctive cohesion, has been able to compose a cohesive poetry that its elements are related from the beginning to the end, and this link and cohesion has been achieved through a proper and logical use of these devices. Overall, additive devices such as reference Vav and also temporal devices such as Fa have a great role in giving cohesion to these verses.Keywords: Conjunctive cohesion, Michael Halliday, Buhturi, Description of the wolf
Pages 245-272IntroductionThis article discusses the impact of Iranian culture and civilization on the Arab masculine sonnet. This article, besides explaining the little impact of Iranian culture on masculine sonnet, has shown the reflection of some of the concepts and themes of the masculine sonnet of Arabic on the Persian sonnet and, by bringing examples, it shows the influence of Persian speakers on the Arab masculine sonnet. The purpose of this research is to look at the development and implementation of the Abbasid era romance and to examine the impact of Iranians on the prevalence of this type of sonnet. Since many scholars consider the masculine sonnet to be originated from the culture and civilization of Iran, they believe that the transformation that took place in the Arabian sonnet is the result of a clash of Iranian culture, which has had a tremendous impact on the propagation of masculine sonnets, and this tendency to the beautiful beloved that exists the Arab writers has originated from Iran's civilization and culture, therefore, the present study seeks to examine negative attitudes towards Iranian culture in terms of content and critique, in order to determine the effect of Iranian culture. From this aspect, the impact of Iranian culture on this literary genre should be explained to provide an answer for rejecting the allegations brought against Iranian culture.
It seems that factors such as Iranians penetrating into Arabs governments, their rich background, affinity with governors and the influence upon the governors, and their attempt to coincide with the Iranian manifestations are some key reasons for these statements.
However, as we will see, the context of such an alteration among the Arabs for various reasons was well-prepared and the Iranian culture has been one of the most effective elements in this type of sonnet.
A) Definition of the Masculine SonnetThe poet's look at the beloved and the description of his features in various periods of Arabic literature dates back to numerous poet's works. Among such works, the poet's view of a hero other than women in the poem (beautiful beloved) was one of the most amazing elements of Arabic poetry throughout the history of literature. In the Abbasid period, a new champion reigns in the sonnet that has another social position. The sonnet of this period is about young boys as beautiful beloved, their features and their shapes. This is called masculine sonnet. Therefore, the expression of love for boys was one of the new disadvantages of the sonnet in this age. This issue is so prevalent in the poetry of this period that it is difficult to find a female beloved, and most of thethe characteristic mentioned for the beloved in poetry are characteristics of a male youth including warier, brave, lover, passionate. The emergence of this technique (masculine sonnet) in the field of Arabic poetry was not abrupt and sudden; a number of factors contributed to its emergence, including 1- the community, 2- politics, 3- apostates, and 4- Abbasid caliphs.
B) The Impact of CultureThe study of Iranian culture through works written in Islamic and Arabic literature is not only a matter of Iranian culture, but also a unique and difficult way of understanding many of the unknown issues of Arabic literature. Many issues can be found in the history of Arabic literature and culture, especially in the period of development and expansion, which cannot be discussed except in the light of the debates of the same type (the influence of Iranian culture on masculine sonnet). The issues are mostly debated in the context of comparative literature of the two languages. To find answers to the literary and historical issues of the past, one should go through Iran's culture and civilization. The "impact" of the culture of a nation on another nation is the result of a kind of social intercourse and intellectual relationship that provides communication and recognition over the years and which in turn have similar representations in both literatures or in two literary techniques. Chronologically, it can be formulated that the early phenomenon acted as a contributing factor and the later phenomenon has been an effective factor. Our measurement of "impact" in this article is the quality of impact that is directly or indirectly derived from the individual or social character of a nation.
MethodThe present study was based on the content analysis method using the available evidence to critically examine the issue of the impact of Iranian culture on masculine sonnet. Using evidence, the weakness of such claims has been proved. For this reason, famous books have been studied in this field, and finally, several examples of the weakness of these ideas were presented. Then, based on various evidences, these views were used in order to explain the impact of the Iranian culture on this literary genre. It is a response to the rejection of some of the charges brought to the Iranian culture.
ResultsArabic civilization was the product of the activities of several different nations which became a unit under the rule of Islam. In this blended mix, Iranians had a more important role. As many scholars believe, the emergence of the masculine sonnet came up with an Iranian character. It is evident from the Arabic poetry that it is originated from the Iranian civilization and culture. The background of such a change among the Arabs was provided for various reasons and the Iranian culture has been one of the most influential elements in this type of sonnet. The Romantic concepts of Arab poets are considered by the Persian poets. Therefore, according to the available evidence, it can be said that to a certain extent, Persian poetry has been influenced by the masculine sonnet of the Arabic language; therefore, there have been similarities between the poems of the two languages in terms of the developments of individual and social life of the Persians and Arabs. By examining the lyrics of this period, it can be understood that the main contents of the descriptions, and the lyric's content are almost the same, although the words and the way of expression is different. Therefore, the assumption is strengthened that the impact of the two cultures is sometimes extended with the development of a conceptual circle. The Persian male sonnet is under the influence of the Arabic sonnet regarding some concepts and notions. Many concepts of the Arabic sonnet have contributed to the wealth of the Persian sonnet.Keywords: The masculine sonnet, Arabic literature, Persian literature, Culture, Impact
A Critical Study of the Components of Postmodernism in the Fiction of Jabra Ibrahim Jabra (Based on the novels Bahth an Walid Masud and Yawmiyyat Sarab Affan)Pages 273-306IntroductionPostmodernism is a term which has been used to describe theories related to philosophy, literature, arts, and other different sciences. Some scholars believe that postmodernism emerged as a consequence of the crisis of the modern age developments, excessive intellectualization of affairs, bureaucracy and the dominance of technology over man which has limited the freedom of man rather than help it thrive. The familiarity of Arab world with postmodern fictions dated back to the translations of postmodern writers like Borges. The main reason of this approach is the alteration and change experienced by Arab world in the past decades. Providing some grounds of doubt about many of the past political and idealistic values , and also the grand narratives as dubious ideologies.
Question and hypothesis of researchThe authors have critically presented the distinguishing characteristics of postmodernism in the fiction of Jabra trying to answer the question how these developments have influenced the novels of Jabra. Having been influenced by postmodernist tendencies, it was hypothesized that Jabra has developed new methods in different aspects of novel writing.
Since postmodern fiction is not essentially a congruous movement, it is difficult to determine precisely the characteristics of postmodernism in the novel, but some of its prominent features in novels and stories include: ontological content, adaptation, unconsciousness in the narrative of events, collapse, collage, intertextuality, magical realism, multiple endings, multifaceted.
MethodThis is a descriptive-analytical research. First, the definition and significance of character in the world is explained, and then, within the body of the research, some theoretical backgrounds are provided in each section, followed by the analysis of the examples.
a) The novel Al Bahethan Waleed MassoudJabra wrote the novel Al Bahethan Waleed Massoud in 1978, which is a turning point not only in Palestine literature, but also among his works. The content of the story is about the disappearance of a Palestinian person called Waleed Massoud whose friends are going to solve the mystery of his disappearance with past evidence.The story's characters are: Javad Hasani, Kazem Ismail, Ibrahim Haj Nofal, Mary Safar, Marwan, Jesus Nasser, Tariq Roof, Wesal Roof, Jannan Thamir, Hisham and other subordinates. The techniques used by the author in this novel include the phonetic nature of the novel, return to the past, the stream of consciousness, the inner monologue, the dialogue, and so on. The story begins with the mysterious disappearance of Walid Massoud, Palestinian successful banker and author who is resident in Iraq. Inside his car, found on the Jordanian-Iraqi border, an audio recorder was found that Massoud spoke to in the turbulent way of thinking, and stream of consciousness of his childhood memories of Palestine, his wife, his distressed thoughts and his relations with women and also grief of the death of Marwan whom killed by Israeli soldiers.
b)The novel "the journals of Sarrab Affan"
The novel was first published in 1992. The story is about the love of a girl named Sarab Afan to a writer named Nael Imran. It begins when Sarab writes her memories and speaks of her love to her beloved writer. The turning point of the story is when Sarab met him in the street accidentally. The main characters of the story are Miyat Afan and Nahal Imran, and the other characters are Ali Afan, Tala, Abdullah Rami and his other friends. The techniques and methods of this novel include polyphony, stream of consciousness, internal monologue, and so on.
Results and DiscussionThe findings of this analytical-descriptive study highlighted the presence of components such as the dominance of ontological content over epistemological content, polyphony, multiple narrators, magical realism and intertextuality.Keywords: postmodernism, Jabra Ibrahim Jabra, novel, Palestine, intertextuality