The emergence of the theory of evolution in modern biology sparked considerable debate among scholars from around the world on the relationship between science and religion. Relevant to this debate is whether or not the text of the Qur’an is compatible with this (pseudo) scientific theory. The verse 59 of surah A’li Imrān (Q.3:59) that compares Jesus to Adam is one of the important documents that opponents and advocates of the evolutionary reading, refer to.
The present study aims to explain the similarity between Jesus and Adam based on the key words in the collection of human creation verses as a system. Insan, bashar, nafs, ruh, khalq, amr, and istifa are critically important concepts for analyzing and understanding the verse (Q.3:59) as a part of this system. The two basic principles in this method are the principle of near-synonymy, rather than full-synonymy, and the principle of the Qur'anic truth.
The similarities between Jesus and Adam are primarily creation from the soil, like all human beings, and secondly, having the "nafs" (soul) inspired by the "ruh" (spirit) which has the nature of "amr"(decree) of the Lord, which makes him different from other human beings. This process is mentioned in the Qur'an as "istifa" (divine selection)