Today the use of electromagnetic waves has dramatically increased in modern industrial societies. This study aimed to investigate the effect of prenatal exposure to 2.4 GHz wireless frequency on forelimb development in an NMRI mouse in vivo.
A total of 21 female mice weighing 25-30 g were included in the present study. They were randomly assigned to three groups, namely control (n=7), sham (n=7), and experimental (n=7). After mating, the experimental group was exposed to 2.4 GHz radio frequency at a distance of 20-30 cm from the device, 4 h per day until the delivery. The sham group was placed at a distance of 20-30 cm from the device every day without exposure to electromagnetic waves, and the control group had a pregnancy period without any stress and electromagnetic wave exposure. After giving birth, the forelimbs were isolated from the infants and examined by stereological studies and RT-PCR for the evaluation of osteocalcin and RUNX2 gene expression.
Although, at first glance, there was no macroscopic teratogen effect in forelimbs in all groups, via a stereological method, we showed that bone and cartilage volume decreased in the experimental group compared to the other groups. We also found that the experimental group had lower expression of the osteocalcin and RUNX2 gene than the control and sham groups did. However, there were no significant differences between the control and sham groups in terms of bone and cartilage volume and gene expression.
Although teratogen effect of prenatal exposure to 2.4 GHz radio frequency on forelimbs was not demonstrated macroscopically, further studies showed negative effects on the forelimb bone, cartilage volume, and gene expression.
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