Lipid abnormalities are major risk factors of death from cardiovascular disease (CVD). As well as, lipid markers are time-dependent covariates that change with aging. Previous cohort studies have only investigated baseline measurements of lipid markers on CVD mortality.
The study sample consisted of 4,148 individuals aged over 40 years. Total cholesterol (TC), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), and HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) were measured in five phases. A joint model analysis was used to investigate the association between each longitudinal lipid markers and CVD mortality in men, women and pooled sample. All analysis was performed using the survival and joint modeling packages in R 3.3.3.
Totally, 233 CVD deaths occurred during a median follow-up of 12.4 years. For men, CVD mortality increased by 28% (confidence interval [CI]: 14%,44%) for a 10% increased in TC. For women, CVD mortality increased by 43% (CI: 22%, 68%) and 21% (CI:7%, 37%) for 10 % increase in TC and LDL-C and decreased by 18% (CI:7%, 27%) for a 10% increase in HDL-C.
Association of lipid markers with CVD mortality is different in men and women, such that high levels of TC and LDL-C and low levels of HDL-C are risk factors of CVD mortality in women, but only TC is a risk factor of CVD mortality in men.