Three-dimensional Construction of Muqarnas based on Hossein Lorzadeh's Views
Research/Original Article (دارای رتبه معتبر)
Understanding two-dimensional drawings of muqarnas and three-dimensional constructing of it, is a controversial issue among historians and architects. Remaining documents from the past about muqarnas is limited to two-dimensional drawings and constructed samples, while the documents that show how three dimensional muqarnas is constructed based on two dimensional drawings are insignificanr. Hossein Lorzadeh (1906-2004) is one of the last architects who have studied the techniques of making muqarnas based on master-student system, and has explained it in his written works. The purpose of this paper is to explain the Lorzadeh’s method for three-dimensional construction of muqarnas and tries to reproduce muqarnas computer graphics based on his oral works and teachings. Due to numerous differences between the viewpoints of Lorzadeh and those of other academic researchers of muqarnas, review of literature of muqarnas research and comparing it with Lorzadeh's teachings is vital. This can show us the origins of many mistakes (i.e. misunderstandings) in constructing of muqarnas. Most of technical terms used in muqarnas construction and two-dimensional design are used in a wrong way; that is why other applications which follow cannot be correct and reliable. In order to show such misunderstandings, in this paper Lorzadeh's principles in the field of muqarnas have been derived from different sources in the first place, and then these principles have been compared with the principles which can be found in academic sources. Through such a critical reading, the paper shows the differences among the viewpoints of Lorzadeh and those of other academic researchers, which can be considered as the origin of misunderstanding in this field. The research method of this paper desk research as well as conducting interviews with the students of Lorzadeh. Moreover the main concepts of muqarnas are summarized according to the views of Lorzadeh as well as his major ideas on muqarnas through qualitative research method. To update the two-dimensional and three-dimensional computer drawing method, AutoCAD and CorelDraw software packages have been used, and by means of a sample, the application of Lorzadeh's ideas have been shown in practice. During the three-dimensional construction process, the rules and results have been derived from Lorzadeh's ideas on three-dimensionality, which can solve the problems found in other plans and researches. These results are as follows: (1) height of "qatar" which is important in final proportions of muqarnas and depends on designer's experience in the field of muqarnas, (2) “background" is an important part of design that has been ignored in much research. This mistake makes final muqarnas abstract from background, and thus cannot create an artistic harmony between them, (3) two-dimensional drawing, which is the first thing at hand while encountering a construction problem of muqarnas, and finally, (4) transmission of lines in “nimkar” muqarnas, relative limits of choices and discretion of the architect. This final part is important in order to make a harmony between background and muqarnas, and designer and constructor ought to assist each other to make artistic muqarnas.
Journal of Architecture and Urban Planning, Volume:12 Issue: 25, 2020
5 to 24
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