Damage of Phytonemus pallidus (Banks) (Acari: Tarsonemidae) on commercial greenhouse strawberry (Short report)

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Article Type:
Brief Report (دارای رتبه معتبر)
Abstract:

Phytonemus pallidus (Banks) reported for first time from New York in 1898. At present, cyclamen mite has a worldwide distribution on cultivated strawberry plant in different states of USA, South American countries, Japan, Taiwan, Korean republic, South Africa and European countries like The Netherland and Turkey (Denmark, 2016). Host ranges of cyclamen mite has been reported on African violet, begonia, gerbera, ivy, chrysanthemums, geranium, fuchsia, larkspur, petunia, snapdragon (Denmark, 2016).This mite is exotic pest to strawberry plants in Iran. For the first time this mite found on Parvous, Queen Eliza, Kurdistan, Aromas, Camarosa, and Selva strawberry varieties in Kurdistan province of Iran (Kamangar et al., 2016). After that, the mite also collected on different weed species such as Senecio sp., Lamium amplexicaule, Polygonum lapathifolium, Amaranthus sp., Plantago sp. Sencio vulgaris, Veronica persica and Malva sylvestris in Kurdistan province (Mansour Ghazi, 2018). The first invasive cyclamen mite damages on greenhouse strawberry observed on sabrina and camarosa varieties in range of 16-22 degree Celsius and above70% relative humidity during autumn season in several greenhouses of strawberry in Hashtgerd vicinity of Alborz province. Developmental stages of this mite consist of egg, larvae, pharate female, adult male and female. Male and female of cyclamen mite easily distinguished through fourth pair of legs which tarsus of male terminated  with strong claw, used for holding and carry pharate female stage for mating  while tibia and tarsus segments of fourth pair of legs in female, combined  together ending with two long and short setae. Color of larvae and pharate female are whitish whereas female and male changed into yellowish color. The main damages of cyclamen mite caused by injecting toxin to newly emerged leaves, petioles of leaf, sepal of flower, changing color of infested plant parts into brown, reduce growth, protect fruit formation and death of infested plants finally. Sometimes, these symptom of injuries initially may confused with phytoplasma diseases on strawberry plants. Results of biological control studies of cyclamen mite by two phytoseiid predatory mites (Neoseiulus californicus (McGroger), N. cucumeris (Oudemans) revealed that, 76% control achieved on active P. pallidus stages only (Easterbrook et al., 2001). Most of sign of cyclamen mite injuries observed around heating system and hot air blowing direction on Camarosa and Sabrina strawberry varieties in the greenhouses in Hashtgerd vicinity of Alborz province. Free strawberry seedling from cyclamen mite infestation protect cultivated plants from further severity mite damages during growing and harvesting periods.

Language:
Persian
Published:
Applied Entomology and Phytopathology, Volume:89 Issue: 1, 2021
Pages:
125 to 126
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