The marine environment has been recognized as a source of diverse natural compounds. Astaxanthin is the main carotenoid in crustaceans, including shrimp. Shrimp waste is considered a cheap source of natural astaxanthin. A study was performed to compare the extraction yield of astaxanthin in Penaeus semisulcatus and Penaeus merguiensis waste using sunflower and sesame oils. Furthermore, the Box-Behnken design optimized the astaxanthin extraction conditions of sunflower oil from Penaeus semisulcatus waste. The results showed that the extraction yield of astaxanthin with sunflower oil from Penaeus semisulcatus wastes (13.43 ± 0.17 μg/g) was significantly different (p <0.001) compared to sesame oil and Penaeus merguiensis. Moreover, it was shown that the maximum yield of astaxanthin extracted (14.74 ± 1.6 μg/g of waste) with sunflower oil from Penaeus semisulcatus waste was produced under ideal circumstances comprising heating duration of 120 minutes, oil: waste ratio (v/w) of 2, the heating temperature of 70 °C, and waste size 80 mesh. A regression equation for astaxanthin yield was obtained as a function of heating temperature, time of heating, oil-to-waste ratio, and size of shrimp waste.
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