Akhavan Al-Safa views on geometry and its Usage on Islamic architecture of Iran
Article Type:
Research/Original Article (دارای رتبه معتبر)

The Akhavan's writings are a collection of diverse and coherent topics about various sciences and skills including geometry and architecture. The remaining fifty-two treatises of scholars of these writings cannot be placed in a single framework. The Akhavan did not pursue a single issue and in accordance with social need, offered innovative and astonishing analyzes of various subjects such as geometry. The main goal has been the intellectual reform of society, especially in the field of reason, philosophy and religion and according to some thinkers, this group has advanced thinking. Geometry in Akhavan’s view of the science is the knowledge of quantities, dimensions, and quantity of types and properties. The origin of geometry is an important point in this view, and according to the Greek philosophers, geometry is divided into two parts of intellectual and sensory. The triangle has been used as a basis for entering into rational geometry and theoretical foundations. The purpose of prioritizing geometry over other sciences and placing it after number science is to guide students from the senses to the senses, as well as to promote students from the physical dimension to the spiritual dimension. Geometry is the structural basis of the universe in the metaphysical world. The Akhavan's view is manifested in the form of creating a geometric order between shapes in order to achieve a unified whole of geometry in architecture. This order can exist as a geometric order of squares, circles and rectangles. Creating visual order in the viewer's perception using points and lines as the axis of symmetry has been introduced as a solid thinking in creating basic order. Creating visual balance in vision and visual perception in vertical lines is important according to the criteria of placing the inherent nature of the human body in its dimensions and dimensions. According to the analysis and geometric studies performed in the research, it is clear that attention to mathematics as a logical and intellectual science has been of great priority to the Akhavan. According to the Akhavan's interactive approach in addressing the sciences and the needs of the day, mathematics and geometry have been one of the most practical and widely used sciences in relation to architecture and education. Mathematics and its sub-sciences, such as geometry, have been named by the intellect as the truth of existence, which is addressed in the philosophy of the perfect man. According to this view, paying attention to the skill of architecture in meeting the practical needs of individual and social life of the people of the time has been one of their main challenges. The teaching of geometry in this article has been done in a way that can be easily understood and followed by the literature of its time. This has been done better in dealing with architects who have also had a higher level of knowledge than ordinary people. In this study, by examining the architectural landmarks in the period before the fourth century AH, when the presence and formation of Islamic scholars such as the Akhavan were intensified, it was proved that based on the basic geometric principles obtained for use in architecture, buildings of the previous period were weak in this regard since the fourth century AH. Among other things, in most of these buildings, the models of the past, such as the Sassanid period, are strongly seen, which show the weakness of scientific computation in the uses and needs of the day. After the fourth century AH, with the presence of Islamic scholars such as the Akhavan in various skills such as architectural skills, recognizing the rise of geometric skills in creating architectural buildings in the field of design and execution can be completely analyzed geometrically. The results of the research include geometric principles that have been presented by the Akhavan Al-Safa to an industry such as architecture. According to the results of the research, the Akhavan Al-Safa has considered geometry theoretically to include philosophical sciences, jurisprudence and numerical laws of mathematics. In the practical part, in order to communicate with industries and the ability to respond to functional issues, the principles of drawing have been used in order to apply geometry and its learning by the architectural industry. These drawing principles are in the simplest proportional drawing modes for scale adaptation to architectural themes. The result of this applied geometry is order, integrity, readability, and a complete response to individual and social needs in the form of an architectural structure that the Akhavan Al-Safa, as Islamic mathematicians, has emphasized.

Culture of Islamic Architecture and Urbanism Journal, Volume:7 Issue: 2, 2023
51 to 76
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