Evolution and Continuity of Fatimid Government Based on Max Weber's Theory of Traditional Authority

Article Type:
Research/Original Article (دارای رتبه معتبر)

Fatimid caliphate, which covered a huge area of the western lands of the Islamic world in the 3rd to 6th centuries (A. H) was established based on a religious- political movement relying on the theological instructions of Shia Ismailites, believing in the important principle of imamate written by Ismail (died in 145-138-133 AH), the son of Imam Sadiq (died in 148 AH) and after him Muhammad ibn Ismail (198 A. H). This research is to analyze the development, evolution, continuity and finally the fall of the Fatimid caliphate through the sociological approach and based on Max Weber's theory of traditional authority. The present research was done via the descriptive-analytical method and the historical data was matched with the traditional "Weber" theory of authority. The findings of the research indicate that after two centuries of efforts by Ismaili claimants, the traditional authority of the Fatimid Caliphate was finally developed in North Africa. After the conquest of Egypt and the construction of Cairo, the political authority of the caliphate was institutionalized, and thrugh the expansion of the administrative and military organizations, Fatimid government was established with the characteristics of the patrimonial (inherited father)-bureaucratic system. The continuation of the political and administrative goovernment due to the weakness of the caliphate and the competition between the military and court led to the initiation of Fatimid sultanism period, and it concluded into the taking power of military ministers and the domination of the army forces over the government. The end of the patrimonial-bureaucratic system of Fatimids was simultanous with the political division of the caliphate and the development of the Ayyubid government (658- 567 A. H/1173- 1260 A. D).

Hostory of Islam, Volume:24 Issue: 93, 2023
29 to 62
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