Serum Klotho Level and its Related Factors Among Male Opioids Addicts With Normal Renal Function Compared to Healthy Male Non-smokers and Smokers in Tabriz, Iran

Article Type:
Research/Original Article (دارای رتبه معتبر)

Klotho is an aging-suppressor gene that encodes a single-pass transmembrane protein and acts as a hormone. In this study, we aim to investigate the serum α-Klotho level in male opioids addicts with normal kidney function compared to healthy male non-smokers and smokers in Tabriz, Iran.


Participnts were 87 men with normal kidney function referred to Sina Educational Research and Treatment Center in Tabriz, Iran (29 opioids addicts, 29 healthy non-smokers, and 29 healthy smokers). Blood samples were collected to measure the soluble a-Klotho level using an ELISA kit. Furthermore, blood creatinine (Cr) and hemoglobin (Hb) levels was measured. Body mass index (BMI) was also calculated for all participants.


In addicts, BMI, Hb, and Cr levels were significantly lower than in healthy non-smokers and smokers, but their Klotho level was higher (P>0.05). The Klotho level in healthy smokers was significantly lower than in healthy non-smokers and addicts. The Klotho level of healthy smokers decreased as the pack year increased, but the duration of opioid addiction had no significant association with the Klotho level. There was no significant difference in the Klotho level between control groups (non-smokers and smokers) and men with addiction to different types of opioids.


The Klotho level in male opioid addicts is significantly higher than in smokers. There is a significant negative correlation between BMI and Klotho levels among men with normal BMI and overweight. Further studies are recommended in these fields.

International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Forensic Medicine, Volume:13 Issue: 3, Summer 2023
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