The Role of Participants in the Text According to de Beaugrande and its Adaptations in the Quranic Texts

Article Type:
Research/Original Article (دارای رتبه معتبر)

In the middle of the 20th century, a new approach emerged in linguistics that focused on the whole text and not the sentence. Robert de Beaugrande proposed seven criteria for recognizing the text, which were: 1) Cohesion, 2) Coherence, 3) Intentionality, 4) Acceptability, 5) Situationality, 6) Intertextuality, and 7) Informativity.These seven criteria consist of:Two cases are related to the text itself: the criteria of Cohesion and Coherence.Two cases are related to users of the text: the producer of the text and its recipient. That is, they include the criteria of Intentionality and Acceptability.And three of them are related to the external context of the text: Situationality, Intertextuality, and Informativity.According to de Beaugrande, the text is a meaningful unit that is formed for the purpose of communication. It does not necessarily consist of several sentences, but it may consist of several sentences or several single words or include elements that do not meet the conditions of a sentence (for example: road signs, announcements, telegraph, and so on). According to his definition, traffic lights such as ‘no stopping’ are texts like a huge novel of three hundred pages, so he considers each one as a text regardless of its length or size.Intentionality includes the position of the text creator to produce a text that has coherence and cohesion and thus pursues a goal. According to de Beaugrande, the text is a means to achieve a goal. To this end, the text must have the necessary cohesion and coherence. This criterion is related to the sender or the speaker of the text who sends his text with the intention. Every written speech or non-written text contains a purpose, which can be clear or ambiguous. The purpose of every linguistic event is to convey a specific meaning and purpose to the receiver, so every text has a message. There is no text without a message. Of course, to get the message better, you should pay attention to the whole text.It seems that a large part of the interpretation of the Qur'an is to understand the sender's intention and the interpreter tries to inform the receiver of the producer's (speaker's) intention after each verse. He divides his verses into similes and analogies, and considers the understanding of similes to be dependent on the provision of conditions, the failure to comply with which will cause deviation and misunderstanding in the message of the text.Some researchers of Qur'anic sciences consider the Qur'an as a connected whole, and the condition of mastery and reaching the correct understanding depends on familiarity with all the verses. They consider this fact as the basis for understanding its generalities. For this reason, most of them divide the Qur'anic purposes into two categories: direct (express) and implicit (indirect) purposes. On the other hand, as long as we look at the Qur'an as a coherent and integrated text, then we can divide its purposes into main and secondary purposes, and among the main purposes, we can point to the guidance of man and the call to worship God as the most frequent purposes of the Qur'an.According to de Beaugrand, Intentionality is closely related to the criteria of Cohesion and Coherence, so if the sender meets these two criteria in his text, he will reach his goal. As a result, the Qur’an is the open text that carries within itself messages sent in several types, some of which are brief, some are general, and some are detailed in their statement. This diversity coincides with the shifts of the human mentality in time and place through the ages, as it is the miracle that remains in all its details until the end of the world and its goal is to enable the delivery of divine goals and purposes.Acceptability means that the text is accepted and answered according to a set of standards, rules, and consumer premises. This is a standard related to your location in the country. This criterion is closely related to the criteria of consistency and harmony, and in addition to that, sound and acceptable texts are those that take into account the horizon of the reader’s expectations and respond to his reading, artistic, aesthetic, emotional, and subconscious desires. The sequence may cause the message to be ambiguous and the receiver unable to understand it. The acceptance factor is relative to the recipient. The Arabs were known as the owners of the language and the masters of the language, so their souls were in the Qur’an, and whoever deviated from it accused the holy prophet (PBUH) of magic and madness, and the Qur’an called them to challenge in many places. And when they were unable to come up with a verse like it and were perplexed about it, they embraced Islam. One of the most important types of evidence of their acceptance of the Qur’an was their use of the verses of the Qur’an as witnesses for their writings in the investigations of morphology, grammar, and rhetoric. The Arabs understood that the Holy Qur’an is miraculous in its style, clarification, information, guidance, wording, meaning, and impact on the addressee.

Research in Arabic Language and Literature, Volume:15 Issue: 2, 2023
21 to 36  
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