فهرست مطالب

نشریه بحوث فی اللغه العربیه
سال پانزدهم شماره 2 (پیاپی 29، پاییز و زمستان 1402)

  • تاریخ انتشار: 1402/07/09
  • تعداد عناوین: 12
|
  • زهرا آقاجانی علی شاه، انسیه خزعلی صفحات 1-20

    فتحت التداولیه آفاقا واسعه جدیده عبر دراسه استعمال اللغه وعلاقتها بمستعملیها فی سیاقات محدده. وتنحدر منها نظریه الافعال الکلامیه التی تعد من ابرز نظریات الفلسفه اللغویه التی ارسی دعایمها اوستن فی العشرینیات، وهی تعادل قضیه الخبر والإنشاء لدی العلماء العرب. ومن هنا، جاء البحث بالاعتماد علی المنهج الوصفی التحلیلی، لمعالجه الابعاد التداولیه فی الآیات المرتبطه بالزواج. وتبرز اهمیه الموضوع فی ان استیعاب الخطاب القرآنی یفتقر إلی منهج یتناول اللغه باعتبار المتکلم والمخاطب والمقام. واهم ما توصل إلیه البحث ان الافعال الکلامیه توزعت بین المباشره وغیر المباشره، إلا ان الاولی المتمثله فی الامر والنهی، احتلت نسبه کبری من الآیات المدروسه؛ لاعتبار الزواج وما یرتبط به حکما وتشریعا إلهیا ذا اهمیه قصوی فی الإسلام، فلا بد ان یکون الفعل الکلامی ذا قوه إنجازیه تعبیریه إیحاییه؛ لیدفع المتلقی إلی الطاعه والامتثال. اما شروط الملاءمه، فهی توفرت فی الافعال الکلامیه: شرط المحتوی القضوی هو الامر بإیتاء المهر، وتحریم الزواج من ازواج الآباء وتحریم مناکحه المتصفین بالشرک رجالا ونساء حتی یومنوا، وعدم التصریح بخطبه المراه المعتده، والامر بإقامه العدل عند تعدد الزواج وغیرها. وهذه الافعال مطلوبه من المسلمین والمومنین رجالا ونساء؛ اما الشرط التمهیدی فهو تحقق لدی المخاطبین؛ لکونهم قادرین علی إنجاز الافعال المطلوبه، والمتکلم علی یقین من قدراتهم. وشرط الإخلاص بدیهی تحققه؛ لان الله لا ینطق عن لغو وهوی، فیرید حقا من المخاطبین ان یمتثلوا اوامره ونواهیه. والشرط الاساسی تحقق فی إرادته التاثیر فیهم؛ لینجزوا الافعال المحدده. والفعل التاثیری من الواضح ان یتحقق فی المجتمع الإسلامی لاسیما عند من یلتزم بحدود الله، فیحاول تطبیق الامور التکلیفیه والشرعیه علی حیاته.

    کلیدواژگان: القرآن الکریم، نظریه الافعال الکلامیه، آیات الاحکام، الزواج
  • صغری بدری، سید حیدر فرع شیرازی*، رسول بلاوی، محمدجواد پورعابد، خداداد بحری صفحات 21-36

    کل نص له رساله تقوم علی جمله من الاهداف والمقاصد التی یمکن ان تکون ظاهرا سطحیا او ضمنیه بعیده المدی؛ وعندما یتم إرسالها إلی المتلقی، تخضعاو الرد. المقبولیه تتعلق بموقف متلقی النص وعلی حسب رای دیبوجراند ترتبط ارتباطا وثیقا بمعیاری الاتساق والانسجام؛ فعلی المرسل ان ینسج نصه متماسکا متسقا لیحقق مقاصده ولکی یلفت انتباه المتلقی للنص، بغیه المشارکه فی فک شفرات النص وللحکم علی مدی التزام النص بمعیاری التماسک والاتساق؛ وبعباره اخری یکون مقبولا عنده او غیر مقبول. القصدیه نبع من النظریه التداولیه، ولقبول النص من جانب المتلقی، یجب ان یراعی مقتضی الحال فی الکلام او النص إلی جانب صحته النحویه والدلالیه؛ ولهذا یمکن ان نعدها من الملامح التداولیه. یتناول هذا البحث وصفا لمعیاری القصدیه والمقبولیه فی ضوء آراء دیبوجراند محاولا تحدید ابعادهما، مع تطبیقات لهذین المعیارین من القرآن الکریم. توصلت هذه الدراسه إلی نتایج، منها: ان مقبولیه النص القرآنی عند المتلقین تکون نتیجه لتحقق الفهم، وان تطبیق هذین المعیارین علی النص القرآنی یساعد علی فهمه بشکل افضل، وإن لا یزد فهما جدیدا.

    کلیدواژگان: القرآن الکریم، النص، دیبوجراند، القصدیه، المقبولیه، الاتساق والانسجام، التداولیه
  • فاطمه قادری*، حمیده مروتی صفحات 37-50
    یعتبر بعض الباحثین روایه الجازیه والدراویش کنزا تراثیا وفنیا طوت فی ثنایاها الکثیر من الرموز والدلالات. تتحدث الروایه عن حقبتین فی المجتمع الجزایری: الحقبه الاستعماریه ومرحله ما بعد الاستقلال، وتسعی إلی الحدیث عن الماضی والحاضر والتطلع إلی المستقبل بین مختلف الاحزاب داخل بنیه هذا المجتمع. قام رولان بارت بالتحلیل النصی فی قصه سارازین لبلزاک، باحثا عن مجموعه من الشفرات، منها: شفرات الحدث او الافعال، والشفرات التفسیریه او التاویلیه، والشفرات الضمنیه او الدلالیه، والشفرات الرمزیه، والشفرات الثقافیه او الحضاریه او الإحالیه. من هذا المنطلق، یهدف هذا البحث إلی تحلیل روایه الجازیه والدراویش لعبد الحمید بن هدوقه، وفق نظریه بارت، ومن خلال المنهج الوصفی التحلیلی والکیفی، وباختیار نماذج من الروایه؛ لیدرس صدی الدلالات الثقافیه فی الروایه الجزایریه المعاصره، وفق الشفرات الخمس لرولان بارت والکشف عن احداث الروایه والغازها ودلالاتها الضمنیه والصریحه وإشاراتها الثقافیه. تظهر نتایج الدراسه ان الروایه لها شفرات متشابکه، بعضها تتجلی فی عملیه تکوین الروایه، وبعضها تتمثل فی المعانی الضمنیه فی خطاب الروایه وتناقضاتها الثناییه وإحالاتها الثقافیه. ونظرا للاجواء السیاسیه السایده علی المجتمع الجزایری والتیارات المتصارعه التی ترید الحکم علیه، فإن الشفره الضمنیه فالرمزیه ثم الثقافیه تحتل حیزا کبیرا من الروایه لتدل علیها.
    کلیدواژگان: رولان بارت، الشفرات الخمس، عبد الحمید بن هدوقه، روایه الجازیه والدراویش
  • سودابه مظفری*، سمیه مدیری صفحات 51-68

    طریقه تجمیع الکلمات فی الجمله لها تاثیر کبیر علی النقل الصحیح للمفاهیم إلی الجمهور؛ فلذلک انشا اخصاء البلاغه فرعا یدرس هذا الامر یسمی بالاسلوبیه، والتی من خلال دراسه اسلوب کتابه المولف، تساعد علی اکتشاف غرضه الرییس من کتابه عمل معین؛ ومضافا إلی ذلک، فإنها تکشف عن جوانب الجمال فیه، ودور استخدام الاسالیب المختلفه، والمتنوعه فی إنشایه. وقد کان هذا الاتجاه محور اهتمام العدید من الباحثین فی العقود الاخیره. هذه الدراسه تهدف إلی المقارنه الاسلوبیه بین الآیات المختاره من السورتین الإنسان، وعبس، والتی تکون حول غزاره العطاء، والکراهه، والاشمیزاز، خلال المنهج الوصفی التحلیلی، مستمده من المنهج الإحصایی. تدل نتایج البحث علی ان اهم الاسالیب المستخدمه فی الآیات المختاره من السورتین، هو الاسلوب الخبری، والاسلوب الإنشایی، واسلوب النفی، والترکیب الوصفی، وعملیه الربط والتکرار، واسلوب التقدیم والتاخیر، واسلوب الحذف، والطباق والتقابل. ووصل البحث إلی ان الاسلوب الخبری هو الاکثر حضورا فی کلتا السورتین، کما تم توظیف الجمل الفعلیه فی هذا الاسلوب اکثر بالنسبه للجمل الاسمیه، والفعل الماضی هو الاکثر استعمالا (56%) فی سوره الإنسان، والفعل المضارع هو الاکثر حضورا (64%) فی سوره عبس. وتعود کثره استخدام الفعل الماضی فی سوره الإنسان إلی ان محتوی هذه السوره یدور حول المکافاه، والجزاء القطعی لعمل الابرار، والذی لا شک فی إعطایه، فیشجع الجمهور للقیام بذلک، وکثره استخدام الفعل المضارع فی سوره عبس تدل علی انه إذا بخل الإنسان فی الزمن الحاضر، او ​​المستقبل سیعامل معه مثله، ویودی إلی غضب الله ونقمته؛ فضلا عن ذلک، تنوع الاسالیب فی سوره الإنسان یلفت انتباه الجمهور إلی هذه الواقعه المهمه، ونتایجها المذهله.

    کلیدواژگان: الاسلوبیه، الجمالیه، القرآن الکریم، سوره الإنسان، سوره عبس
  • إلهام اکبری، علی خضری*، سید حیدر فرع شیرازی صفحات 69-86
    إن اللغه بنفسها مجرد اصوات ورموز تعبر عما یجول فی خاطر الإنسان وتعکس افکاره وخبایا ذهنه؛ ولکن لیس لدیها فاعلیه لتکون موهله للارتباط بالعالم الفیزیایی، إن لم یتم ربطها بالمعانی الذهنیه لإنتاج الخطاب. إن الاشکال التی نوظفها فی ترکیب وإنتاج الخطابات اللغویه، تتمیز باحتوایها علی اسالیب وادوات کثیره، مما تمنح البیان جمالیه خاصه. والاستعاره المفهومیه هی إحدی الاسالیب اللغویه الحدیثه التی ابدعها المنظران الاوروبیان لایکوف وجونسون، فهی تبرز فی احادیثنا الیومیه، وذلک للتعبیر عما یدور فی خلدنا ویوجد فی خفایا افکارنا. فهی مبنیه علی التصور الاستعاری الذی یبنی فی اذهاننا علی اساس المخططات الذهنیه، وتتیح لنا اسلوبا سلسا لإدراک المفاهیم الذهنیه والانتزاعیه. إن هذه الظاهره الحدیثه قد شغلت مساحه وافره من اشعار الشعراء المحدثین، ومن بینهم الشاعر العمانی، ناصر البدری، الذی استمد من هذا الاسلوب بجانب الاسالیب الجمالیه الاخری للافتنان فی التعبیر وإحکام الصنعه فیما یقول. وفی هذا البحث الذی اجریناه اعتمادا علی المنهج الوصفی التحلیلی، سنبین ان الشاعر قد قام برسم لوحات من الحزن الذی یخیم علیه من خلال الاستعاره المفهومیه، مما اعطی ذلک خصوبه لبیانه؛ وان الشاعر جنح إلی استخدام الاستعاره المفهومیه وذلک لیجدد اللغه ویبث الحیاه فی الکلمات التی تدل علی آلامه ومآسیه. لقد لجا الشاعر فی هذا الدیوان إلی استخدام الاستعاره الاتجاهیه والانطولوجیه والبنیویه، وباستخدامه لهذه الاستعارات اعطی الکلمات معانی جدیده وجعل لبیانه قوه، مما میزه عن سایر الکلام. واخیرا، معظم الاستعارات جاءت لتسلیط الضوء علی المفاهیم التی تحمل معانی الحزن والاسی وإثبات المعنی فی ذهن المتلقی وإقناعه.
    کلیدواژگان: الشعر العربی المعاصر، الاستعاره المفهومیه، نظریه جونسون ولایکوف، ناصر البدری، دیوان لا ماء فی النهر
  • حمید عباس زاده*، علی سالمی صفحات 87-102

    برزت المدرسه الشکلانیه علی الساحه النقدیه فی القرن العشرین، لتعید إلی الشکل قیمته التی طالما خسرها فی معرکته مع المضمون؛ ومن هذا المنطلق، یضع الناقد الشکلانی الشکل وحده تحت المجهر، لیستخلص من النظم القایم فی النص دلالاته وإیحاءاته. ترکزت هذه المقاله الوصفیه التحلیلیه بالمقاربه الشکلانیه الدلالیه الإحصاییه، علی قصیده القمر علی مزدلفه، للشاعره نازک الملایکه لدراسه بنیتها، ودلالاتها، وإیحاءات صورها الفنیه التی افرغت فیها الشاعره، تجربتها الروحیه لاستکناه دلالات الحج. خلصت المقاله إلی وجود تناغم بین شکل القصیده ودلالات الحج. استطاعت الشاعره رسم صوره جدیده عن الحج عبر آلیه التغریب؛ إذ الحج یعدو کونه مجرد مناسک دینیه وطقوس مقدسه متوارثه إلی مناسک روحیه إنسانیه، اجتماعیه تعالج قضایا الإنسان المعاصر، وهمومه وآلامه؛ لذلک ربطت الشاعره بین الماضی السحیق والراهن المعیش. فالحج لیس محاکاه ببغاویه لما جری فی الصدر الاول من الإسلام، بل إنه وثیق الصله بروح العصر ومستجدات الواقع المسکون بالوان المعاناه، إنه ملتقی یشهده المسلم لینضم إلی ابناء جلدته من المسلمین الوافدین من کل فج عمیق یقاسمهم همومهم. استخدمت الشاعره بنیه القصیده للإیحاء بالنقله النوعیه التی تحدث فی مناسک الحج وحدها؛ حیث یتدفق الحجیج من شتی ارجاء المعموره إلی ارض الوحی والرساله، متفرقین غرباء عن بعضهم، بعیدین عن روح الإسلام المحمدی الاصیل، ثم تلتقی هذه الجموع وتاتلف، وتستعید هویتها السلیبه، ثم ترسو سفینه الحج فی مرفا تنصهر فیه تلک الجموع لتعود جسدا واحدا، کما وصف الرسول الاعظم وکیانا موحدا واعیا مشترکا فی آلامه وتطلعاته.

    کلیدواژگان: الحج، الشکلانیه، التغریب، الصوره الفنیه، الایقونه، نازک الملائکه
  • عبدالاحد غیبی*، شهلا حیدری صفحات 103-120
    ظاهره الازدواجیه اللغویه تتحدث عن وجود لغتین، الا وهما اللغه العامیه واللغه الفصحی عند فرد فی مجتمع واحد. فیستخدم الاولی فی تعاملاته الیومیه، والثانیه اثناء الرسمیات وخط الحدیث الکتابی. اتی تعریف الازدواجیه اللغویه لاول مره بهذا المعنی والمصطلح فی مقال قدمه العالم اللغوی، شارل فرغیسون، عام 1959م، بعدما لم یجد من ینقل اصل مصطلحها الفرنسی إلی الإنجلیزیه. ثم قدم الکثیر من الدارسین والباحثین دراساتهم التی تتطرق إلی موضوع الازدواجیه اللغویه فی المجتمعات المختلفه ومجالات التعلیم ودخولها فی الادب، واشاروا إلی سلبیاتها وإیجابیاتها. واما عن الازدواجیه اللغویه فی الحوار الروائی، فما هی إلا لتقریب المجتمع الروائی من عالم الواقع الذی یتحدث فیه الناس بشتی اللغات واللهجات. فلذا کان اختیار روایه دلشاد: سیره الجوع والشبع، للکاتبه بشری خلفان اکثر تناسبا لهذه الدراسه حسب المنهج الوصفی التحلیلی، فی عالم الروایه علی انه کیف تتجسد فیه الازدواجیه اللغویه وکیف یمکن ان یتفنن فیه الکاتب لنقل افکاره والتقرب من قرائه. فدلت النتائج بعد اختیار اربعه خصائص اشار إلیها فرغیسون، کخصیصه الوظیفه والاکتساب والمفردات والتراکیب الصوتیه، علی ان الوظیفه تحدد دور التوظیف اللغوی فی الشخصیات؛ وفی الاکتساب، تتبین اکتسابیه الفصحی عن طریق التعلیم، خلافا للعامیه التی تاخذ دور اللغه الام للفرد؛ وفی خصیصه المفردات، التشابهات بین المفردات العامیه والفصحی احیانا تشابهات جذریه؛ واما فی خصیصه التراکیب الصوتیه، فیتضح تطور الکلمات التی تکون من اصل فصیح، وتغیر شکلها ولفظها فی العامیه. وکل هذا لم یحدث فی الروایه إلا لاجل التعامل والتواصل مع القارئ بشکل اسهل واقرب لفهمه.
    کلیدواژگان: الروایه، الازدواجیه اللغویه، شارل فرغیسون، بشری خلفان، دلشاد: سیره الجوع والشبع
  • سعید بهمن آبادی، علی اکبر فراتی*، کوثر بهمن آبادی صفحات 121-140
    إن الحجاج جهد لغوی یهدف إلی التاثیر علی المتلقی وانبعاث مشاعره واحاسیسه ومراعاه مقتضی حاله عبر القوی العقلانیه والاستدلال المنطقی واللغوی، کما ان الحجاج یعد عملیه فکریه تتخذ من الخطاب الملفوظ او المکتوب وسیله لإیصال الحجه، بحیث یهدف إلی إقناع المخاطب والتاثیر فیه وفی سمعه لرای او اعتقاد ما. وإن المناظرات الکلامیه او اللغویه من النصوص التی تستعمل فیها الآلیات الحجاجیه لإقناع المخاطب والتاثیر فیه وإلزامه علی الإفحام. فی هذا الاثناء، ان مناظره الإمام رضا (j) مع راس الجالوت، والتی تعالج نبوه النبی الاکرم (-)، تعتبر خطابا حجاجیا فی حد ذاته. تاتی المقاله علی المنهج الوصفی التحلیلی، لمعالجه المناظره المذکوره، اعتمادا علی نظریه الحجاج وآلیاتها المختلفه، وتهدف إلی دراسه الآلیات الحجاجیه وتقنیاتها اللغویه والبلاغیه اللتین تم الترکیز علیهما فی هذا البحث، وإن اشیر إلی الحجج الفلسفیه التی تعد من الحجج المنطقیه المتمثله فی الحجج النقلیه والعقلیه. فلقد رصدت هذه الدراسه اکثر اسالیب الإقناع حضورا فی مستوین اثنین: اللغویه والبلاغیه، وتوصلت إلی ان التقنیات اللغویه والبلاغیه والحجج النقلیه والعقلیه تشکل حجر الاساس فی مناظره الإمام (j) مع العالم الیهودی، وذلک لإثراء آرائه وإقناع المتلقی وتکریس الرساله النبویه لاجل تبیان مرتکز حجاجی اسست علیه الاسالیب الإقناعیه والحجاجیه. فإن الاسالیب اللغویه التی تتمثل فی المناظره هی الترابطات الکلامیه مثل "واو العاطفه، وثم، وإن، وان": وهی قد ساهمت کثیرا فی إقامه الاتصال بین الحجج ورصفها فی إقناع المتلقی؛ واما الاسالیب البلاغیه، فهی اسالیب التقدیم والتاخیر، والحصر والاستفهام والکنایه، مما ادت دورها الحجاجی فی هذه المناظره.
    کلیدواژگان: التداولیه، نظریه الحجاج، مناظره الإمام الرضا (ع)، راس الجالوت
  • خدیجه زارعی، حسین چراغی وش*، سید اسماعیل قاسمی موسوی صفحات 141-158
    الاستبدال فی النص معناه تعویض واستبدال عنصر لغوی بعنصر لغوی آخر. یقسم هالیدای وحسن الاستبدال إلی ثلاثه اقسام، هی: الاستبدال الاسمی، والاستبدال الفعلی، والاستبدال القولی؛ کما انهما یقسمان الاستبدال القولی إلی ثلاثه اقسام وهی: استبدال الخطاب المنقول، الإحاله باسم الإشاره والإحاله المشترطه وبما ان الاستبدال کعنصر هام من عناصر الانسجام النصی قد ادی إلی خلق التناسق فی رساله المعاش والمعاد؛ فإننا تطرقنا إلی دراسه دور الاستبدال فی التناسق النصی فی هذه الرساله علی اساس نظریه هالیدای وحسن وذلک فی منهج وصفی-تحلیلی-إحصائی. وعلیه فإن نتائج هذا البحث تشیر إلی ان للاستبدال القولی دور اهم من بین اقسام الاستبدال وکذلک بین سائر ادوات الاتساق فی رساله "المعاش والمعاد" کما ان الاستبدال عبر الخطاب المنقول، له دور اهم من بین اقسام الاستبدال القولی؛ ففی هذا النوع من الاستبدال یراجع المولف فی استبدال الجمل، اسلوبه فی النص وکذلک سیاق النص؛ کما اننا نشاهد نوعا آخر من الاستبدال القولی وهو الإحاله باسم الإشاره؛ یعنی عن طریق استبدال اسمی الإشاره "هذا" و"ذلک" عن الجمل التی سبقتهما وهذا اسفر عن تناسق النص والانسجام  بین الجمل إلی جانب اتقاء التکرار الممل فی النص وکذلک التعبیر بالإیجاز. وفی الاستبدال القولی من الإحاله المشترطه قد ذکرت جمل لتکون مفسره لما قبلها وتسفر هکذا عن انسجام النص وتناسقه. فی الاستبدال المفسر یجد المولف تفسیرا للجمل السابقه عن طریق الافعال والظروف التفسیریه  وهکذا یخلق علاقه بین جملات النص، فإن هذا النوع من الاستبدال هو  استخدم للاستدلال وکذلک  للتعبیر عن المساوات. کما ان الجمل الاستبدالیه قد رافقت الإقناع والاستدلال فی رساله المعاش والمعاد وهذا ما لعب دورا هاما فی الاتساق الدلالی فی النص.
    کلیدواژگان: الجاحظ، رساله المعاش والمعاد، الاستبدال، الاتساق
  • محمود شهبازی*، سید ابوالفضل سجادی، احمد امیدعلی صفحات 159-174
    ما تتجرد عنها وجوبا او جوازا. ویبدو فی بادیء النظر ان هذه الصور مترادفه یمکن إحلال بعضها للآخر. والحقیقه لیس کذلک، بل کل صوره منها تمثل معنی لطیفا ودلاله دقیقه تدرس علی ضوء معانی النحو التی تم تاسیسها بید عبد القاهر الجرجانی، والتی تکشف عن الفروق بین مختلف التعبیرات فی اللغه. هذه المقاله ترید ان تدرس الفرق بین ضروب الحال ترکیزا علی الحال التی تقترن بالواو او تتجرد عنها بالاعتماد علی المنهج الوصفی التحلیلی وتمخضت عن هذه لنتائج: اقتران الحال بالواو فیما یجب یعود إلی صیاغه اللغه وفیما یجوز یعود إلی دلاله اللغه ونظم الکلام فی رای الجرجانی. یحصل الفعل المضارع حالا متلبسا مع عامله؛ وإن دخلت علیه الواو تدل علی استمرار الفعل المضارع إلی زمن التکلم. الحال المفرده تمثل الاهتمام بالحال، وما یقابلها من الحال الجمله الاسمیه المتصدره بضمیر ذی الحال تمثل الاهتمام بالفاعل. تفید الجمله الاسمیه حالا ان الحال کانت اصلا ثابتا مستقرا، إن اقرنت بالواو؛ وإن سقطت الواو منها تلازم العامل والاولی آکد من الثانیه. تدل الجمله الفعلیه المتصدره بالفعل الماضی حالا علی ان الحال حصلت قبل عاملها وانتهت عند اقترانها بالواو، وسقوط الواو منها یدل علی التلازم والتزامن بین الحال وعاملها کان الحال هی العامل وعلی العکس. تلعب الواو الحالیه مع "لم" و"لما" نفس الدور الذی لعبت مع الفعل الماضی حالا لقلبهما المضارع ماضیا.
    کلیدواژگان: النحو، معانی النحو، واو الحال، صور الحال، الفروق
  • احمد عبیات، عیسی متقی زاده*، فرامرز میرزائی، حیات عامری صفحات 175-192
    تسعی النظم التعلیمیه إلی توظیف الادوات الحدیثه فی المواقف التعلیمیه بطرق متعدده لجعل الدروس اکثر فاعلیه وکفاءه، واضحت مسایره هذه التطورات الهائله والسریعه ضروره لا یمکن التغافل عنها. ومن بین إستراتیجیات التعلیم لمواکبه رکب التحول المعرفی، برزت المسرحیه باعتبارها اداه معاصره لتنمیه المتغیر النحوی لمهاره المحادثه فی اللغه العربیه بسلاسه کبیره. وهدفت الدراسه إلی التعرف علی فاعلیه توظیف المسرحیه فی تنمیه المتغیر النحوی لمهاره المحادثه لدی الطلاب الإیرانیین فی مرحله البکالوریوس، واستخدمت المنهج شبه التجریبی، وتم اختیار مجتمع الدراسه بطریقه قصدیه. فتکون مجتمع الدراسه من (30) طالبا وطالبه فی مرحله البکالوریوس، وتم تطبیق الدراسه علی الفصل الخامس من العام الدراسی (2020 2021م)، بجامعه طهران، وتم توزیع مجتمع الدراسه عشوائیا إلی مجموعتین: المجموعه التجریبیه تکونت من (15) طالبا وطالبه تم تدریسهم مسرحیه صاحبه الجلاله، والمجموعه الضابطه تکونت من (15) طالبا وطالبه تم تدریسهم بالطریقه الاعتیادیه المنتهجه فی الجامعات الرسمیه الإیرانیه. واعتمد الباحث لجمع البیانات علی مجموعه من الادوات، بما یشمل الاختبار والمقابله والملاحظات. وللخروج بتحلیل تلک الادوات، استعمل مجموعه من الاسالیب الإحصائیه ضمن برنامج (SPSS) تمثلت باستخدام الإحصاء الوصفی (موشر المتوسط والانحراف المعیاری) والإحصاء الاستدلالی (اختبار کولموجوروف سمیرنوف واختبار لیفین واختبار التغایر)، وتم إعداد الادوات والتحقق من صدقها وثباتها. واظهرت نتائج الدراسه وجود فروق ذات دلاله إحصائیه عند مستوی الدلاله (0.05) بین متوسطی درجات المجموعه التجریبیه والمجموعه الضابطه فی الاختبار البعدی لصالح المجموعه التجریبیه التی درست المسرحیه، وکشفت الدراسه عن فاعلیه استخدام المسرحیه فی تنمیه المتغیر النحوی لمهاره المحادثه لدی متعلمی اللغه العربیه من غیر الناطقین به.
    کلیدواژگان: کان واخواتها، الدلاله، الجمله الاسمیه، الجمله الفعلیه
  • محمد کبیری* صفحات 193-204
    یمتاز القرآن الکریم بنص ادبی تشع مفرداته بدلالات سیمائیه، حیث یتلقی منها المتلقی ما یتلاءم ونسبه جهوده ومعرفته فی استخراج تلک الدلالات السیمیائیه والإیحائیه ضمن نسق موحد من المعانی والمفاهیم التی تکون الفکره الاساسیه فی کل موقف قرآنی. فنجد کل مفرده فیه تحظی بدلالات إیحائیه متستره خلف المعانی الظاهره للمفرده ونلتمس ترابطا بین تلک الدلالات المتنوعه للمفرده القرآنیه التی تتضح ضمن سیاقها القرآنی. هذا، وتعتبر الدراسه السیمیائیه مضمارا فاعلا فی الکشف عن الدلالات المتستره فی النص القرآنی الذی یحفل بمعان جزئیه تتکامل فی سیاق متناسق یتلقیها القارئ منها معنی ومفهوما کامل الملامح یعبر عن فکره مرکزیه یتمحور علیها النص القرآنی. بناء علی ذلک، یسعی هذا البحث إلی دراسه ما دل علی الحیوان فی قصه بنی إسرائیل من المفردات والالفاظ القرآنیه، لنبین ما حفلت به من دلالات سیمیائیه؛ وذلک علی اساس المنهج الوصفی التحلیلی، وبالاعتماد علی مراجعه آراء المفسرین للقرآن الکریم. وقد کشفت الدراسه عن هذه الدلالات السیمیائیه لالفاظ الحیوان فی قصه بنی إسرائیل، وکانت دلالات توثقها علاقه تظهر بین ما لتلک الالفاظ من معان لغویه اولیه وبین ما للقصه من فکره محوریه اساسیه؛ فنجد بین المعنی اللغوی والإیحائی انسجاما وترابطا یقع ضمن إطار من سیاق النص القرآنی فی کل موقف وحدث من القصه. وعلی هذا الاساس، وجدنا ان الفاظ الحیوان فی قصه بنی إسرائیل تدل علی دلالات سیمیائیه تمثلت فی التبیین والکشف عن الحقائق، والاستعجال والتسرع، والإحیاء والنشور، والتفجیر والتفجر لشق الطریق، والمخادعه والمحایله، والغفله والنسیان، وهی دلالات ذات صله بکل موقف من مواقف القصه، کما هی دلالات لا یتبینها المتلقی مباشره، بل بعد تمعن فی نظام مترابط بین المعانی اللغویه وما یرتبط بفکره النص والموقف القرآنی.
    کلیدواژگان: القرآن الکریم، السیمیائیه، السیاق، الحیوان، بنو إسرائیل
|
  • Zahra Aqajani, Ensieh Khazali Pages 1-20

    Pragmatics developed with Oxford University philosophers of language and, in particular, with the efforts of John Austen and Searle. It focused on the practical use of language and opened new horizons for contemporary linguistics, especially as it worked to restore the external considerations and circumstances of language through the theory of speech acts with its various classifications. This theory occupied a large proportion of recent studies. Contemporary scholars and researchers paid attention to it and tried to apply it to various texts, especially the Holy Qur’an.Although pragmatics is a modern linguistic approach, it has roots in the Arab heritage, especially in the issue of news and creation, which is equivalent to Austin's theory of speech acts. Scholars detailed the discussion about it in their books, with attention to some pragmatic terms such as the principle of intent, context, the speaker, and the addressee. Al-Jurjani’s theory of systems is about linking words to the meanings and intent of the speakers, taking into account the state of the addressees or matching the speech to the case in rhetoric. This indicates that the ancients, especially the fundamentalists, knew the pragmatic lessons in their own terms, such as the explicit and implicit meanings, the utterance and the concept, and the positivist or metaphorical indication, which is equivalent to direct and indirect verbal acts. In addition, their attention was not focused on structural structures and internal relations only, rather they derived judgments and legitimacy by taking care of all aspects of language, as in pragmatics.The speech act theory is a subfield of pragmatics that studies how words are used not only to present information but also to carry out actions. The speech act theory was introduced by Oxford philosopher J. L. Austin in How to Do Things with Words and further developed by American philosopher J. R. Searle. It considers the degree to which utterances are said to perform locutionary acts, illocutionary acts, and/or perlocutionary acts.This descriptive-analytical study addresses the pragmatic dimensions in the verses related to marriage in the Holy Quran. The importance of the topic is that understanding the Quranic discourse requires a methodology that studies the language in terms of the speaker, the addressee, and the position. The research studied the phenomenon of verbal verbs found in the verses related to the provisions of marriage, such as polygamy, giving the dowry, not declaring the engagement of the woman in the waiting period, not marrying the husbands of the fathers, and not marrying the idolaters, both men and women. The research relied on a pragmatic analysis of pragmatic tools, grammar, morphology, rhetoric, jurisprudence, and reasons for revelation. The results of the present study showed that:1) Verbal verbs came in the verses related to the provisions of marriage in the form of direct and indirect verbal verbs, but the first came in many verses studied in the research. The reason for it is that marriage is a divine rule and legislation of utmost importance in Islam, so direct verbal verbs should be used more in Quranic discourse.2) Among the direct verbal verbs that are more employed, are the directive verbs represented in two verbs: ordering and forbidding. They have a stronger force and influence on the souls of the addressees of the explicit indication, especially since they are issued by God Almighty. Marriage and what is related to it is considered of great importance, and therefore it is not surprising that the verbal act has a strong performing power to prompt the receiver to comply with the command of the speaker.3) The verses related to rulings can be included under the classification of rulings according to Austin, which are represented in the various rulings issued by the judge or ruler, as is the case in the noble verses given by the Lord of the Worlds. As for Searle, they fall under-declarations or declarations, and these verses may fall under directive verbs. They carry within themselves an order, a prohibition, a call, and so on, which are verbal acts chosen by God Almighty with the aim of bringing about a change in the status quo. They are also used to influence the same addressee so that he accomplishes a necessary action in the future. In this case, the power of achievement or the degree of intensity is different according to the importance of the verbal act.4) The effective act shows its impact on the submission of the true believers to the commands of God Almighty, and their compliance with it concerning establishing justice between spouses, giving women their dowries, and not declaring the engagement of the woman in the waiting period, and so on. It is clear that this act should be achieved in Islam, especially among the sincere believers who adhere to what God has commanded, trying to apply mandated and legal matters to their daily lives.

    Keywords: The Holy Qur'an, the Theory of Speech Acts, Verses of Rulings, marriage, Conditions of Suitability
  • Soghra Badri, Seyyed Heydar Far Shirazi *, Rasoul Balavi, MohammadJavad Pourabed, Khodadad Bahri Pages 21-36

    In the middle of the 20th century, a new approach emerged in linguistics that focused on the whole text and not the sentence. Robert de Beaugrande proposed seven criteria for recognizing the text, which were: 1) Cohesion, 2) Coherence, 3) Intentionality, 4) Acceptability, 5) Situationality, 6) Intertextuality, and 7) Informativity.These seven criteria consist of:Two cases are related to the text itself: the criteria of Cohesion and Coherence.Two cases are related to users of the text: the producer of the text and its recipient. That is, they include the criteria of Intentionality and Acceptability.And three of them are related to the external context of the text: Situationality, Intertextuality, and Informativity.According to de Beaugrande, the text is a meaningful unit that is formed for the purpose of communication. It does not necessarily consist of several sentences, but it may consist of several sentences or several single words or include elements that do not meet the conditions of a sentence (for example: road signs, announcements, telegraph, and so on). According to his definition, traffic lights such as ‘no stopping’ are texts like a huge novel of three hundred pages, so he considers each one as a text regardless of its length or size.Intentionality includes the position of the text creator to produce a text that has coherence and cohesion and thus pursues a goal. According to de Beaugrande, the text is a means to achieve a goal. To this end, the text must have the necessary cohesion and coherence. This criterion is related to the sender or the speaker of the text who sends his text with the intention. Every written speech or non-written text contains a purpose, which can be clear or ambiguous. The purpose of every linguistic event is to convey a specific meaning and purpose to the receiver, so every text has a message. There is no text without a message. Of course, to get the message better, you should pay attention to the whole text.It seems that a large part of the interpretation of the Qur'an is to understand the sender's intention and the interpreter tries to inform the receiver of the producer's (speaker's) intention after each verse. He divides his verses into similes and analogies, and considers the understanding of similes to be dependent on the provision of conditions, the failure to comply with which will cause deviation and misunderstanding in the message of the text.Some researchers of Qur'anic sciences consider the Qur'an as a connected whole, and the condition of mastery and reaching the correct understanding depends on familiarity with all the verses. They consider this fact as the basis for understanding its generalities. For this reason, most of them divide the Qur'anic purposes into two categories: direct (express) and implicit (indirect) purposes. On the other hand, as long as we look at the Qur'an as a coherent and integrated text, then we can divide its purposes into main and secondary purposes, and among the main purposes, we can point to the guidance of man and the call to worship God as the most frequent purposes of the Qur'an.According to de Beaugrand, Intentionality is closely related to the criteria of Cohesion and Coherence, so if the sender meets these two criteria in his text, he will reach his goal. As a result, the Qur’an is the open text that carries within itself messages sent in several types, some of which are brief, some are general, and some are detailed in their statement. This diversity coincides with the shifts of the human mentality in time and place through the ages, as it is the miracle that remains in all its details until the end of the world and its goal is to enable the delivery of divine goals and purposes.Acceptability means that the text is accepted and answered according to a set of standards, rules, and consumer premises. This is a standard related to your location in the country. This criterion is closely related to the criteria of consistency and harmony, and in addition to that, sound and acceptable texts are those that take into account the horizon of the reader’s expectations and respond to his reading, artistic, aesthetic, emotional, and subconscious desires. The sequence may cause the message to be ambiguous and the receiver unable to understand it. The acceptance factor is relative to the recipient. The Arabs were known as the owners of the language and the masters of the language, so their souls were in the Qur’an, and whoever deviated from it accused the holy prophet (PBUH) of magic and madness, and the Qur’an called them to challenge in many places. And when they were unable to come up with a verse like it and were perplexed about it, they embraced Islam. One of the most important types of evidence of their acceptance of the Qur’an was their use of the verses of the Qur’an as witnesses for their writings in the investigations of morphology, grammar, and rhetoric. The Arabs understood that the Holy Qur’an is miraculous in its style, clarification, information, guidance, wording, meaning, and impact on the addressee.

    Keywords: the Qur’an, the Text, Intentionality, Pragmatics
  • Fatemeh Ghadery *, Hamideh Morovati Pages 37-50
    The novel Al-Jazieh wa Al-Daravish by Abdul Hamid bin Hadouqa is a symbolically rich work of literature that reflects the colonial and postcolonial circumstances in the Algerian society and discusses the past, present, and future outlooks of different parties in that society. In the present study, the novel is analyzed in terms of the five codes set by Roland Barthes in his book S/Z (1970). The codes include proairetic, hermeneutic, semic, symbolic, and cultural codes. The research addresses the contemporary Algerian culture at the level of those codes by shedding light on the events, enigmas, stated and implied pieces of evidence and cultural associates of the novel.Using a descriptive-analytical method as well as a qualitative survey, this study seeks to detect the instances in the discourse of the novel Al-Jazieh wa Al-Daravish that are based on the five codes postulated by Barthes (1970). The instances are then analyzed and interpreted according to Barthes’ theory and the available semiotic features so as to achieve explicit and implicit clues to the understanding of the text.Roland Barthes is a pioneer in the field of literary criticism that has performed a structural analysis of the novella Sarrasine by Balzac. In his book S/Z, he proposes a set of five codes of creating meaning. Considered to be of the same weight, the codes are of proairetic, hermeneutic, semic, symbolic, and cultural types. These codes lay the grounds for the analysis of the discourse in the novel Al-Jazieh wa Al-Daravish.This code pertains to the actions in the novel which are as follows:a) Imprisonment of Al-Tayeb and his recollections, suggesting the occurrence of murder. He recalls such characters in the novel as Al-Jazieh, Al-Ahmar, Al-Shambit, and Al-Akhzar, the village where the story happens, Al-Tayeb’s proposal to Al-Jazieh, and the struggle of Al-Ahmar and Al-Shambit to take that girl.b) Return of Ayid to the village and his facing with what has happened there. This provides the audience with new insight and complementary information.c) Communication of Ayid to some characters and his detection of why Al-Ahmar was murdered,d) Proposing of Al-Shambit to Al-Jazieh for his son,e) Al-Shambit’s murder or death, andf) Acquittal of Al-Tayeb and the disclosure of Al-Jazieh’s real identity, namely Algeria.This code addresses the enigmas in the text and the responses to them. There are, indeed, numerous enigmatic instances, such as ‘who are Al-Jazieh and Al-Daravish?’, ‘why are these two names collocated in the title?’, ‘why is the novel divided into two times rather than two chapters?’, ‘why is Al-Tayeb put to the jail?’, ‘is he guilty or innocent?’, and ‘how are Al-Ahmar and Al-Shambit murdered?’. All these enigmas are gradually decoded as the novel goes on.This code refers to the implications of the novel. There exist many such implicit concepts some regarding the characters and some about places and objects. A noticeable one is the book title, where Al-Jazieh implies Algeria and Al-Daravish connotes Sufism. The other names, such as Al-Tayeb, Al-Ahmar, Al-Shambit, and Al-Ayed have implications, too. They refer to Islam, socialism, the West, and Algerian immigrants, respectively. Similarly, mountainous village, mountain, willow, and sewing a bornoz by Al-Akhzar imply resistance and the rejection of foreigners by the nation. This code can be detected through the dual contrasts in the text. Found in a high number, such contrasts may be categorized in a few groups as follows:a) The alliance of the worshipper and the worshipped (i.e. Al-Jazieh and Al-Daravish) encoded just once but salient throughout the novel,b) The contrast of the past and present or future tenses, which has frequent evidence such as the first- and second-time divisions in the novel, andc) The contrast of resistance and compromise, which is frequently encoded such as the contrast of life and death.This code is considered as the voice of awareness in the text and denotes the cultural concepts encoded there. It includes the names of the major characters of the story, each of whom arises from a certain cultural context and represents a certain mode of thought or action. Al-Jazieh is a mythical, traditional, and cultural name in Algeria that symbolized this country in the novel. The other names suggest the different political movements that seek to seize the power in the country. Al-Tayeb arises from the Islamic culture, Al-Ahmar symbolizes socialism, Al-Shambit and his son represent the pro-west people, and Al-Ayed is the reminder of the immigrants returning home. The novel also depicts some Algerian customs and ceremonies.The studied novel includes a set of intertwined codes some of which are disclosed as the text proceeds to shape up the story. Some of the codes also show up within the implicit parts of the discourse, through binary contrasts, and in cultural references. The specific political circumstances in the Algerian society and the attempts of conflicting parties to take the government are encoded in a major bulk of the novel. The codification is mainly fulfilled with semic codes, cultural codes, and then symbolic codes.
    Keywords: Roland Barthes, the Five Codes in the Novel Al-Jazieh wa Al-Daravish, Abdul Hamid bin Hadouqa
  • Soudabeh Mozaffari *, Somayyeh Modiri Pages 51-68

    The method of assembling words and creating an appropriate sentence plays a major role in better understanding the required content. In recent years, researchers, especially rhetoricians, have been interested in studying the style of texts and analyzing it from different angles. Therefore, they established a branch that studies this matter called ‘stylistics’, which helps to discover the main purpose of writing a specific text. The term ‘stylistics’ appeared for the first time in the nineteenth century, and was widely used in the early twentieth century. ‘Style’ in rhetoric is the method of selecting words and composing them to express meanings with the aim of clarification and influence. Stylistics is a linguistic critical approach based on the study of the literary text (a linguistic study) to extract the most important constituent elements of the literariness of literature. The primary task of stylistics is to examine the type of word choice and to study why one word is preferred over the other, and it is one of the areas of modern linguistics that analyzes literary styles.The present study deals with the comparative stylistics in the Holy Qur’an, and for this reason, surahs Al-Insan and Abas were chosen. The common feature of this comparison is the revelation of verses from God about caring for the needs of others, and the different feature of this comparison is the abundance of giving in surah Al-Insan (verses 5 to 22), and hatred and disgust in surah Abas (verses 1 to 10). Therefore, different methods are used to express the original purpose of the specific verses of the two surahs. The role of the methods in the aesthetics of God's words is studied through the descriptive-analytical approach derived from the statistical method.The research concluded that the most important styles used in the selected verses of the two surahs (Al-Insan and Abas) are: the declarative style, the composing style, the negation style, the adjective composition, the process of linking and repetition, the introduction and delay method, the omission style, counterpoint, and opposition. In both surahs, the declarative style is the most used style. In the declarative style, verbal sentences were used more in relation to nominal sentences, and among its types in terms of tense, the past tense is used the most (56%) in Surah Al-Insan, and the present tense is used the most (64%) in surah Abas.The verbs of command and prohibition were not used in both surahs, and this is consistent with their contents that describe the righteous, the frowning people, and how they work. The frequent use of the past tense in Surah Al-Insan is due to the fact that the content of this surah revolves around the reward, and the definite penalty for the work of the righteous, which there is no doubt about giving it, and in this way, it warns and encourages the audience to do so. The frequent use of the present tense in surah Abas depicts the story in the mind of the audience in a way as if it is happening in the present time, and it can be concluded that if a person is stingy, refuses to give, and doesn’t help the poor and needy, in the present or future time, he will have such a fate, and certainly, it will cause in God's wrath and dissatisfaction. In fact, the story of miserliness and the way a person turns away from the questioner were mentioned in the verses of surah Abas as a model for miserliness and the way they behave, for which we can also find evidence at the present time, and perhaps in the future. In this case, God by using more of the present tenses, warns that their behavior will always lead to this end.Also, the number of styles used in surah Al-Insan (109) is about twice the number of styles used in surah Abas (47). The use of adjective structures of all kinds includes the singular participle, the semi-sentence, and the descriptive sentence. And by presenting what is due to be delayed, the audience's attention is drawn to an important incident, its amazing results, and how they lived in Paradise.

    Keywords: Stylistic, Aesthetic, The Holy Qur’an, Surah Al-Insan, Surah Abas
  • Elham Akbari, Ali Khezri *, Seyed Heidar Fare Shirazy Pages 69-86
    In the past, the metaphor was considered one of the most beautiful and familiar improvements used among poets without the general public, but when Lykov and Johnson put forward their theory in their book entitled the metaphors with which we live, the scope of metaphor expanded, its meanings changed, and it emerged from the circle of literature. They have shown that our everyday expressions are full of metaphors and are rooted in our experience and culture and that the bulk of our normal conceptual pattern is metaphorical in nature. Since Al-Badri lived in an era of social and political setbacks, disappointment and despair were reflected in his writings with abundant use of conceptual metaphors. His Divan revolves around abstract concepts such as despair, hope, the yearning for freedom, and so on. The conceptual metaphor was the right way to present such concepts in a tangible way for the recipient to interact with them and for the poet to reach his goal. The purpose of this study is to show the conceptual metaphors used in Al-Badri’s Divan and how they are manifested in the poet’s poetry.In this research, we show the most important patterns of conceptual metaphors manifested in the Divan La mae fi Al-nahr. The study uses a descriptive-analytical approach since it focuses on the semantic and aesthetic fields of conceptual metaphors in Al-Badri’s Divan.Al-Badri sought to condemn social and political setbacks in various ways but ended up being imprisoned. Since literature is a mirror of social reality, Badri has made his poetry to serve his people and sought to negotiate through his politeness to reflect the events around him. The contradictions that exist in Arab and Omani societies and the injustice inflicted on the rulers on the people, oriented Nasser Al-Badri to express the pain and suffering of the people through conceptual metaphors of three types: directional, ontological, and structural. The poet employs directional and space-directed metaphors in his Divan oriented between the misery and collapse of the Arab nation. Diagnostic metaphor has allowed us to understand a large number of experiments related to non-human entities by inanimate human traits. Employing structural metaphors, he crystallized mental concepts using concrete and tangible concepts.Conceptual metaphors in the Divan reflected the poet's experiences, interests, and culture and revealed to us how he saw his society and the surrounding environment. It can be said that he was the mouthpiece of his nation. So, by describing and explaining the metaphors used by the poet, it is easy for us to see his thoughts and vision of things. The poet listed concepts and his bitter experiments in a vessel that allowed us to physically perceive them. Badri often employed ontological metaphors in his Divan as his name shows to show the poor conditions prevailing in his country and his loss of hope and passion for life. Al-Badri employs directional metaphors a lot, which indicates the poet's ability and prophecy to embody his extractive concepts and perceptions. In most of the poems in which the directional metaphor was mentioned, the metaphors came from top to bottom. This decline can be considered the result of the poet's use of structural metaphors that were often manifested when he felt fear of loss.
    Keywords: Contemporary Arabic Poetry, Conceptual Metaphors, Johnson, Laykov’s Theory, Nasser Al-Badri, Diwan La mae fi Al-nahr
  • Hamid Abaszadeh *, Ali Salemi Pages 87-102

    Artworks analysis in periods was influenced by surrounding factors like the author’s life and political, social, and cultural situation, which can affect the analysis of the original text and structure. The emergence of Russian formalism at the beginning of the 20th century in literary criticism was the end point of that extroverted approach and the beginning of text research away from its margins. In this case, both the external factors and contexts and the structural components of the work should be used for a better understanding. Formalists tried to free the text from peripheral issues by focusing on the structure of the literary work and its centralization and to find out the text’s message by examining its governing order. Therefore, the distinction of the work of art from other works should be found in its connection with the outside world, the artist, and the audience and in the form of the work itself. Formalists believed that the criteria for evaluating the literary and artistic aspects of the work should be found in the literary text. This research used the formalist approach to analyze the ode of the Iraqi poetess Al-Qamar Al Muzdalifah. In this ode, the poetess tried to depict the image of Hajj rituals and its high epistemic themes in an artistic and thought-provoking tableau of three perspectives in harmony with the spiritual journey of the pilgrims in this spiritual journey. The conscious use of verbs in processing Nazik's idea of Hajj is noteworthy. Verbs express vivacity, dynamism, and transformation, transformed in line with pilgrims' inner and intellectual transformation. The verbs are first absent (he and they), then change to the addressee (you), and finally to speech (I and we). Pilgrims experience this transformation process in Hajj rituals as strangers to each other at the beginning. Then, they communicate and then join and unite. The poetess arranged the poem’s structure to represent the unique transformation that occurs in the Hajj rituals. Pilgrims from all over the world gather in the land of revelation and prophecy, alien from each other and far from the truth of pure Muhammadian Islam. Then, these people join together in these rituals and regain their lost identity. The rites end when the large groups of pilgrims return to their lands as a single and conscious body with common goals and pains. In this descriptive-analytical study, the ode is divided into three parts, and each part is analyzed based on the theory of Russian formalists. The authors studied the words and imagery of the poet using the defamiliarization technique to bring highlights to the reader's eyes based on aesthetic principles. Formalist analysis of the ode shows that the poetess tried to eliminate the reader’s habit and give a new and updated interpretation of the ancient ritual of Hajj by lexical and expressive defamiliarization. Pilgrims go from self-loss and alienation to self-belief and familiarity in a journey of knowledge and reach a common understanding with their fellows. Ultimately, they return to their land as a united nation until another season and visit. Conceptually, the flow of verbs in the ode aligns with the cognitive evolution of Hajj. Nazik used defamiliarization, metaphorical, and virtual images in her imagery. In the alienated images, Hajj goes beyond a set of religious, imitative, and inherited rituals and becomes a spiritual, human, and social opportunity as a salve for the concerns and sufferings of contemporary man. Therefore, the poetess linked the distant past and present reality to show that the Hajj ritual is not a parrot-like imitation of the beginning of Islam and has a deep connection with the spirit of our time. Considering the significant contribution of the humanitarian dimension in this ode, humans, the female element, nature, and dark and light colors play a prominent role in the depictions. Nature is not lifeless, soulless, and devoid of intelligence and understanding. The moon is mystic and beautiful, with lots of secrets. Pebbles either smile or evoke the scent of the Prophet's footsteps. Continuous questions and calls created a heated and dynamic atmosphere.

    Keywords: Hajj, image, Formalism, Defamiliarization, Artistic Image, Nazik Al-Malaika
  • Abdolahad Gheibi *, Shahla Heidari Pages 103-120
    The phenomenon of diglossia refers to the coexistence of two languages, colloquial and classical, within a society. The colloquial language is used in everyday interactions, while the classical language is reserved for formalities and written communication. The term "bilingualism" was first introduced by linguist Charles Ferguson, who borrowed it from French and applied it to English. In fictional discourse, diglossia is employed to create a sense of realism within the fictional society. For this research, the novel of "Dilshād, Sirat al-Juw' al-Shaba'" by Bushrā Khalfān was selected as the most suitable material for analysis using a descriptive and analytical approach. The findings, based on the four characteristics identified by Ferguson, indicated that language usage in the characters of the novel was determined by their roles and functions and the acquisition of the official language was a result of education. Furthermore, the study revealed that there were linguistic similarities between colloquial and classical words with the roots of words being derived from the classical language, while their form and pronunciation underwent changes in spoken conversation.
     
    Introduction
    Language serves as a medium for expressing thoughts and communicating with others, allowing individuals to share their innermost ideas with the external world. It is through language that people understand and connect with one another. Language can be divided into two parts based on its usage: colloquial or dialectal language for everyday needs and interactions and formal language for official purposes. Linguists refer to the language used in everyday speech as colloquial or dialectal. The individuals proficient in both forms of language utilize them accordingly, employing the formal language for official situations and transactions within their educational community, while using the colloquial language in their daily lives as needed. The necessity of interacting with society often compels individuals to learn both forms of language. This distinction in language usage within a society and by individuals is known as diglossia. Additionally, individuals, who possess fluency in two completely different languages often due to the need to communicate with people outside their country, are referred to as bilingual.
    In this research, the novel of "Dilshād, Sirat al-Ju' wal-Shaba'" was selected to explore the conflict between eloquent language and vernacular language as explained by Ferguson's theory. The following questions were addressed:
    How does diglossia manifest in the world of the novel, particularly in "Dilshād, Sirat al-Ju' wal-Shaba'," resembling the dynamics observed in the real world?
    How can the conflict between eloquent language and vernacular language be explained based on Ferguson's theory in the mentioned novel?

    Materials and Methods
    This research employed a descriptive analytical approach to examine the linguistic duality between colloquial and classical language in the above-mentioned novel. To accurately understand the meanings of slang terms, the author was contacted through Facebook for clarification. A comprehensive understanding of both languages was necessary to analyze the vernacular language in comparison to the eloquent language. To ensure proficiency in the desired accent used in the novel, a short course was undertaken prior to conducting the research. This course encompassed listening, written, and spoken aspects of the vernacular language. Extensive literature in this field was also consulted during the study.
     
    Research
    Findings
    The novel shed light on the existence of linguistic duality between colloquial and classical language, which was thoroughly investigated in the following features: 
    Function
    Among the 9 characteristics mentioned by Ferguson, "Function" is considered the most significant both by Ferguson himself and his followers. This is because certain situations and occasions necessitate the use of spoken language alongside the official language. According to Ferguson, eloquent language is regarded as the superior language, while the vernacular language serves a specific function.
     
    Acquisition
    Ferguson posits that colloquial language is acquired naturally, unlike eloquence, which requires deliberate learning. Critics argue that the vernacular language is akin to one's mother tongue acquired effortlessly through interactions with family and community members.
     
    Lexicon
    The lexicons of eloquent language and vernacular language often share commonalities, primarily in terms of root forms and occasionally in form and structure. However, there are instances where these linguistic elements differ in appearance and even meaning.
     
    Phonology
    Phonological variations exist between eloquent language and vernacular language, including differences in dialect and pronunciation. In this regard, attentive listening to the pronunciation of words becomes crucial. For instance, to study the Omani accent in eloquent language, it is necessary to compile words and carefully observe their pronunciation before conducting analysis.
     
    Discussion of Results and
    Conclusion
    Diglossia as described by Charles Ferguson explores the usage of two languages within a society: the official written language and the colloquial language. In this article, 4 characteristics were selected from the 9 features identified by Ferguson and a novel was examined to determine its alignment with these characteristics. The chosen features included acquisition, lexicon, phonology, and results.
    In the analyzed novel, the vernacular language was predominantly used in conversations, while the eloquent language was employed in non-conversational situations. The findings based on the selected characteristics indicated that the function of language usage was determined by the characters' roles and the acquisition of the official language was primarily through education.
    Furthermore, the examination of word characteristics revealed that there were rooted similarities between colloquial and eloquent words. Additionally, the phonetic structures of words demonstrated that the roots of these words originated from the eloquent language.
    In conclusion, the novel exemplified the existence of diglossia, showcasing the coexistence and distinct usage of colloquial and eloquent languages. The study confirmed the influence of function on language occupation within the characters of the novel with the official language being acquired through education. The analysis also highlighted the underlying similarities between colloquial and eloquent words, while emphasizing the influence of eloquent language on the phonetic structures of words.
    Keywords: novel, Diglossia, Charles Ferguson, Bushrā Khalfān, Dilshād, Sirat al-Juw' wal-Shaba'
  • Saeed Bahman Abadi, Ali Akbar Forati *, Kosar Bahman Abadi Pages 121-140
    The dawn of a new era has brought significant advancements in various linguistic domains, particularly in the field of argumentation theory. This theory encompasses the analysis and synthesis of arguments, evidence, and reasoning, making a substantial contribution to scholarly investigations and compilation of knowledge on this subject. The renewed interest in rhetoric and its relevance in contemporary linguistic studies can be attributed to the favorable circumstances created by the field of pragmatics. As a result, there is now a renewed focus on the strategies of argumentation and their role in shaping discourse. Rhetoric primarily emphasizes the argumentative goal and persuasive source within human communication. The main objective of the new rhetoric, a theoretical framework centered on argumentation, is to examine linguistic strategies that aim to evoke emotions and captivate intellectual faculties through the presentation of arguments. Moreover, it aims to shed light on the circumstances that give rise to arguments within discourse. The function of argumentation holds a prominent position among linguistic functions, being equally significant as other language functions, such as notification, communication, and human language. The debate surrounding Imam Reza can be characterized as an oral discourse (speech), in which the speaker endeavors to convey his/her intellectual findings to the audience through the use of linguistic connections and various methods of evidence, reasoning, and persuasion. The effective utilization of linguistic devices plays a crucial role in governing the discourse and its argumentative aspects. Additionally, its secondary objective is to enhance the speaker's ability to exert influence over the listener or recipient, compelling them to acknowledge and accept the deliberate meanings that emerge through the introduction of intentions and thoughts into their discourse. The theory of argument suggests that the comprehensive persuasive structure of speech is achieved through the aesthetic aspects and the influencing and interactive properties of mechanisms or instruments. Berleman was the pioneering advocate of the theory of argument in contemporary rhetoric studies with subsequent collaboration from Titka to establish the framework of this theory. There are multiple definitions of the theory of argument, but one prominent interpretation is that it pertains to the examination of discourse strategies that facilitate the cognitive process of embracing propositions that are presented or enhancing the level of acceptance towards them. Therefore, the objective of an argument is to encourage intellectual openness to acknowledge the viewpoints put forward or to enhance the level of acknowledgment. Both individuals believe that the most effective argument compels the audience to take action at the appropriate moment. Thus, the argument that has the greatest impact on the recipient, both in terms of theoretical understanding and behavioral response, is considered the most effective. Acknowledging the information offered corresponds to the theoretical impact, while engaging in the necessary action corresponds to the behavioral impact.Argumentation is a communicative endeavor that seeks to influence the audience, evoke emotions, and align with the prevailing circumstances by employing rational prowess and utilizing logical and linguistic reasoning. It is a cognitive process that utilizes verbal or written communication to present evidence in a persuasive manner, aiming to lead the audience to adopt a specific viewpoint or belief. Verbal or linguistic debates encompass works that employ argumentative strategies to convince and exert influence over the audience. The debate between Imam Reza and the Exilarch, regarding the prophethood of Prophet Mohammad (PBUH), can be classified as an argumentative discourse. Upon analyzing the debate text, it is advisable to divide it into two distinct sections. The initial section encompasses the arguments articulated by Imam Reza as documented in credible sources about the Exilarch. He represented one of the two opposing perspectives in the argument. Through a comprehensive analysis of Imam Reza's debates with scholars from other religious backgrounds, it becomes evident that he effectively persuades his audience on certain occasions by substantiating his beliefs with references to empirical evidence. Indeed, it can be observed that Imam Reza occasionally derives advantageous outcomes from this particular approach in a benevolent manner. However, the second section becomes apparent through the intellectual arguments employed by Imam Reza during his theological discourse with the Jewish scholar. Imam Reza effectively utilized rational reasoning to compel his audience, leaving them with limited alternatives but to embrace his assertions and be persuaded by his objectives. Therefore, based on the aforementioned discourse, it is evident that Imam Reza has employed various modes of argumentation in his debates, including narrative and intellectual arguments. Moreover, he has derived advantages from these arguments on several occasions, showcasing the profound extent of his erudition in the field of rhetoric. The present study aimed to examine the aforementioned discussion by utilizing the theory of argument and its various techniques as a framework for description and analysis. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the argumentative strategies, linguistic features, and rhetorical approaches that were the central focus of this research endeavor. Philosophical arguments, which fell under the category of logical arguments, were identified as a form of discourse that combined narrative and rational elements. This study examined the prominent forms of persuasion in the discourse between Imam Reza and the Jewish scholar with a focus on linguistic and rhetorical strategies, as well as narrative and intellectual arguments. The findings indicated that these techniques served as fundamental elements in enriching their perspectives, persuading the audience, and substantiating their claims regarding the prophetic mission. One notable finding from the study was the usage of conjunctions, specifically waw and Thoma, for linking purposes, as well as inna and anna, in the discourse. These linguistic devices played a significant role in the persuasive aspect of the debate as they established connections between arguments and reinforced their coherence. The debate also employed various rhetorical strategies, including introduction and delay, limitation, questioning, and irony, all of which served their argumentative purposes in this discourse.
    Keywords: Pragmatics, Theory of Argument, Debate of Imam Reza, Exilarch (leader of the Jewish community)
  • Khadigeh Zareei, Hossein Cheraghivash *, Seeyd Esmaeil Ghasemi Mossavi Pages 141-158
    Al-Jahiz (160-255 A.H /776-839 A.D) is one of the biggest writers in the history of Arabic literature and is considered one of the supporters of freedom in language and literature, consistency between words and meanings, consideration of the requirements of the context, editing, and refining the texts along with clarity and brevity of meanings. He has left famous writings in various fields, and one of his works is Al-Rasael al-Siyasiah (the political letters) which includes eleven treatises. The eleventh one is ‘Risalat Al-Ma'ash wa Al-Ma'ad’ in which he explains the concept of politics and its principles. Al-Jahiz wrote the treatise to Qazi Muhammad Abi Daoude in 17 parts, and he talked about all good and bad works, what to do, what should be avoided in politics, etc. In fact, this treatise is a guidebook for the reader in politics, ethics, and education.This treatise is scientifically valuable and is a clear text without any unintelligible words. In addition, the author's intellectual and scientific maturity is clearly evident in his rhetoric and excellent writing style in this work. In this selected work of literature, Quranic verses, hadiths, poetry, and wisdom are quoted, which Al-Jahiz mentioned as evidence, examples, and rational arguments along with various persuasive methods. It is a coherent and continuous text and its structures, signs, verbs, proverbs, the use of coherence and continuity tools, etc. had a profound effect in creating a coherent and continuous text.Text linguistics is one of the new fields of linguistics in which the text itself is assumed as the semantic unit, not the words or sentences separated from the whole text. Halliday considers the text as a functional semantic unit in language and believes that when a person hears a section bigger than a sentence, he can easily understand whether it is an independent and coherent unit of meaning or intersecting and incoherent sentences. Of course, in Halliday and Hassan’s view (1976), the text is not considered with the same nature as a sentence, and text is not a bigger sentence, but the type of the text is different and it cannot be defined by its length compared with the sentence. Accordingly, the sentence is under the influence of grammatical and structural rules, but the text is sequent of the context and coherence rules.However, in Halliday and Hassan’s model in text linguistics, the text is considered a specific semantic unit with the purpose of coherence and harmony. The text, whether written or oral, is a linguistic communicational act and the texture is also a linguistic phenomenon that achieves coherence and continuity, to provide the understanding of deep relationships in the text’s structures.Coherence is one of the main elements in the text that is related to the internal coherence of the text and the phonetic tools and aims to create elements of coherence and interrelationship of the text. Interrelationships form the text structure and provide its continuity. In other words, the term ‘coherence’ refers to the relationships and tools that create a connection between the internal components of the text and connect the text to its situational context. Some of these tools such as reference, substitution, deletion, etc. create textual coherence. The referential or lexical coherence, on the other hand, is formed through repetition and contrast.Substitution is one of the most important cohesion factors in the text of Resalat Al-Ma'ash wa Al-Ma'ad. This term means replacing an element with another in the text and also means the relation between linguistic elements such as words or phrases in the text. According to Halliday and Hassan, the types of substitution are nominal substitution, present substitution, and sentence substitution which is divided into three types: quotations, conditional sentences, and justifying sentences. Examining the substitutions in Resalat al-Ma'ash wa Al-Ma'ad showed that there are two main types of quotations which is a subset of sentence substitution: quotation from others and quotation from the author himself. Quotation from others includes quoting adages, poems, sages’ and savants’ words, and quoting from the Holy Prophet (PBUH) and the Holy Quran. On the other hand, quotations from the author himself played a greater role in the coherence of the text of the treatise in the form of referring to an earlier speech with the demonstrative Daleka (that) and referring to the topic that was just raised with the demonstrative Hada (this).The substitution with the conditional clause itself includes substitution with the conditional Mamma (what), Mān (who), Law-La (if it weren’t), and Lam’ma (when). Considering the third type of substitutions, i.e. justification sentences, the following subsets can be referred to: with the verb Yajib (should), with Robbama (maybe), and with Methl Al-Dhee (such as). Examining and analyzing these types with examples in the text of Resalat Al-Mash wa Al-Ma'ad, the following results were obtained:Any kind of cohesion tool played an important role in the text and turned it into a strong texture and structure in which every element was related to others and succession was one of the most important cohesion-creating elements in Resalat Al-Mash wa Al-Ma'ad.The text of this treatise was a continuous text in which elements such as referencing pronouns, inflections, repetition, deletion, and substitution had an important role in it.In this treatise, Jahiz created a connection between the sentences with substitution, but his text was not repetitive, platitudinous, or vulgar. Concision was one of his stylistic features, and substitution was one of his important tools.The substitution was used alongside the persuasion and argumentation in this text which strengthened the semantic relationship between the substituted sentences.Substitution in many cases was used to repeat a specific theory or emphasize a topic, explanation, or description of previous phrases and summarizing sentences.The accuracy in choosing quotations from others and the brilliance of morphological, grammatical, and rhetorical coherence in these quotations, along with the beauty of the words Jahiz chose were among the elements that created beauty and at the same time coherence in Resalat Al-Mash wa Al-Ma'ad.The percentage of substitutions’ frequency of quoted sentences was higher than other substituted sentences in this treatise and its role in creative coherence was more prominent, and at the level of sentences, two demonstrative pronouns Daleka (that) and Hada (this) had a prominent role to replace previous sentences and topics.
    Keywords: Al-Jahiz, Resalat Al-Mash Wa Al-Ma'ad, Cohesion, Substitution
  • Mahmood Shahbazi *, Seyd Abolfazl Sajady, Ahmad Omidali Pages 159-174
  • Ahmad Abiyat, Esa Motagizadeh *, Faramarz Mirzaei, Hayat Ameri Pages 175-192
    Educational systems aim to employ all modern methods in educational situations in multiple ways to make educational lessons more effective and efficient. Following up on these sensitive and rapid developments has become a need that cannot be ignored. Among the strategies of educational methods to keep pace with the cognitive transformation, the play has emerged as a contemporary tool that contributes to enhancing the grammatical variable of conversational skill. Communicating with flexibility and smoothness is required for non-native Arabic learners. Teaching the play can help non-native Arabic language learners become more fluent in the language and become critical, analytical, and creative thinkers. It can also help students question, interpret, communicate, and explore. Learning the features of the modern language, specifically grammatical and morphological rules, and using expressions to speak clearly, precisely, and concisely are all benefits of teaching the play to non-native Arabic language learners.
    Plays can promote all four skills, cultural awareness, linguistic awareness, and motivation. They are valuable tools in language classes. When used well, this kind of training can significantly increase proficiency. The study present investigated the effect of using the play in strengthening the grammatical variable of conversational skill among Iranian learners at the bachelor’s level. The study adopted the quasi-experimental approach. The sample of the study consisted of 30 male and female students at the bachelor’s level. It was conducted in the fifth semester of the academic year (2020-2021) at the University of Tehran. The participants were divided into two groups: the experimental group consisted of 15 male and female students who had undergone teaching the play ‘Her Majesty’, and the control group consisted of 15 male and female students who were taught in the usual way at the university.
    The researcher utilized a set of tools to collect the data, including tests, interviews, and observations, and used a set of statistical methods using the SPSS program, which were represented by the use of descriptive statistics (mean and standard deviation index) and inferential statistics (Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Levene's test and covariance test). The tools were prepared and their validity and reliability were verified. The study demonstrated the impact of digitally utilizing Tawfiq al-Hakim’s play Her Majesty on the performance of both male and female students in acquiring the grammatical variable of speaking skill. The study concluded that there were statistically significant differences at the significance level (0.05) between the average scores of the participants in the experimental and control groups in the pre- and post-test. The reason for this effect is attributed to several factors. Using the play helps increase the ability to understand and comprehend grammatical rules, and the play helps to employ the grammatical database that students possess so that they express it in a specific way through which they try to use what they have learned to embody ideas and present them in a correct way. The play is a powerful tool for creating more participation in learning environments. It also contains a series of attractive dialogues and multiple characters and events. These are among the most important issues in which the researcher sees the importance of distinguishing the play from other educational methods, as it contributes to increasing students’ ability to learn.
    Keywords: Teaching Arabic To Non-Native Speakers, Conversation Skills, The Play ‘Her Majesty’, The Grammatical Variable
  • Mohammad Kabiri * Pages 193-204