A Stylistic Comparison in the Holy Qur’an and Its Role in the Aesthetics of the Verses (Surahs Al-Insan and Abas as Case Studies)

Article Type:
Case Study (دارای رتبه معتبر)

The method of assembling words and creating an appropriate sentence plays a major role in better understanding the required content. In recent years, researchers, especially rhetoricians, have been interested in studying the style of texts and analyzing it from different angles. Therefore, they established a branch that studies this matter called ‘stylistics’, which helps to discover the main purpose of writing a specific text. The term ‘stylistics’ appeared for the first time in the nineteenth century, and was widely used in the early twentieth century. ‘Style’ in rhetoric is the method of selecting words and composing them to express meanings with the aim of clarification and influence. Stylistics is a linguistic critical approach based on the study of the literary text (a linguistic study) to extract the most important constituent elements of the literariness of literature. The primary task of stylistics is to examine the type of word choice and to study why one word is preferred over the other, and it is one of the areas of modern linguistics that analyzes literary styles.The present study deals with the comparative stylistics in the Holy Qur’an, and for this reason, surahs Al-Insan and Abas were chosen. The common feature of this comparison is the revelation of verses from God about caring for the needs of others, and the different feature of this comparison is the abundance of giving in surah Al-Insan (verses 5 to 22), and hatred and disgust in surah Abas (verses 1 to 10). Therefore, different methods are used to express the original purpose of the specific verses of the two surahs. The role of the methods in the aesthetics of God's words is studied through the descriptive-analytical approach derived from the statistical method.The research concluded that the most important styles used in the selected verses of the two surahs (Al-Insan and Abas) are: the declarative style, the composing style, the negation style, the adjective composition, the process of linking and repetition, the introduction and delay method, the omission style, counterpoint, and opposition. In both surahs, the declarative style is the most used style. In the declarative style, verbal sentences were used more in relation to nominal sentences, and among its types in terms of tense, the past tense is used the most (56%) in Surah Al-Insan, and the present tense is used the most (64%) in surah Abas.The verbs of command and prohibition were not used in both surahs, and this is consistent with their contents that describe the righteous, the frowning people, and how they work. The frequent use of the past tense in Surah Al-Insan is due to the fact that the content of this surah revolves around the reward, and the definite penalty for the work of the righteous, which there is no doubt about giving it, and in this way, it warns and encourages the audience to do so. The frequent use of the present tense in surah Abas depicts the story in the mind of the audience in a way as if it is happening in the present time, and it can be concluded that if a person is stingy, refuses to give, and doesn’t help the poor and needy, in the present or future time, he will have such a fate, and certainly, it will cause in God's wrath and dissatisfaction. In fact, the story of miserliness and the way a person turns away from the questioner were mentioned in the verses of surah Abas as a model for miserliness and the way they behave, for which we can also find evidence at the present time, and perhaps in the future. In this case, God by using more of the present tenses, warns that their behavior will always lead to this end.Also, the number of styles used in surah Al-Insan (109) is about twice the number of styles used in surah Abas (47). The use of adjective structures of all kinds includes the singular participle, the semi-sentence, and the descriptive sentence. And by presenting what is due to be delayed, the audience's attention is drawn to an important incident, its amazing results, and how they lived in Paradise.

Research in Arabic Language and Literature, Volume:15 Issue: 2, 2023
51 to 68
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