Mesopotamian Gnostic thoughts and Iraqi Ghali movements in the Umayyad era(The duality of creation, beyond good and evil, mystery and salvation)

Article Type:
Research/Original Article (بدون رتبه معتبر)

With the fall of Babylon and the domination of Cyrus, Mianrodan, which was the platform for the formation of ancient civilizations, became the decision-making center of Iranians to the extent that it is called the heart of Iranshahr. In this way, the thoughts and opinions of the Aryans were mixed with the opinions of the natives of the Semitic, Syrian and Hellenic civilizations in Mesopotamia. Mesopotamia or the heart of Iranshahr, which was called during the Islamic period of Iraq, witnessed various movements and intellectual currents against the Umayyad caliphate, some of whose teachings were in conflict with the foundations of Islamic thought. The occurrence of such thoughts and currents raises the basic question of how these thoughts got into the opinions of the intellectual, religious and political movements of Muslims. Our hypothesis is based on the fact that the most prominent and lasting aspect of the aforementioned eclectic thoughts were the Gnostic and mysterious thoughts and opinions that continued until the arrival of Islam in this region and appeared again in Iraq during the Umayyad rule. The findings of this research by adopting methods of analysis based on the historical genealogy of the intellectual and religious doctrines of these movements have shown that the totality of the intellectual, religious and social life of these movements in the form of social movements with a radical approach such as Sabiyeh, the followers of Hamzah Bin Amara, the statement And Mughiryeh, which appeared in Iraq during the Umayyad period, was a combination of elements and components of Tanui, esotericism, mystery, saving and ghalian thoughts, which were influenced by intellectual sources, eclectic opinions and thoughts of Gnostic and Tanui currents with Mesopotamian sources have been

Journal of Mesopotamian Political Studies, Volume:2 Issue: 3, 2023
319 to 339  
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