The Relation between "Enjoyment and Felicity" from the Perspective of Epicuruse and Mulla-Sadra
Enjoyment is one of the main motivations of human in his deeds; on the other hand, felicity is the goal of morality. The relation between 'enjoyment' and 'felicity' is one of the decisive discussions of the philosophy of ethics. This article will present a comparative study between the theories of two scholars with different inclinations (the hedonist Epicuruse and Mulla-Sadra as the representative of Islamic philosophy) in this subject. Epicuruse believes felicity is identical with enjoyment; but 'enjoyment' for him is not just sensual enjoyments or dissipation rather it is 'lack of misery'; and he believes the path to felicity is moderating the tendencies and avoiding unnecessary enjoyments such as luxury and domineering because these tendencies and likes are more the origin of misery rather than happiness. According to the ethical theory of Mulla-Sadra – which is a religious-philosophical theory – the real felicity may be achieved through getting close to God's essence. Unlike Epicuruse, he does not see human one-dimensional rather he believes human has a soul in addition to his body; this soul has its corresponding enjoyments as well and the highest and deepest enjoyments of human's soul may be achieved through getting close to God. The path to this felicity has two steps: first purification and refinement of the carnal soul from vices and second trying to achieve knowledge of God. The result of this research is two points: first the normal potentiality and knowledge of human is not enough for recognition of the real felicity and second the real felicity is together with experiencing the maximum enjoyment which is due to getting close to God.
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