فهرست مطالب

منابع آب و توسعه - سال چهارم شماره 1 (پیاپی 13، بهار 1395)
  • سال چهارم شماره 1 (پیاپی 13، بهار 1395)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1395/04/04
  • تعداد عناوین: 20
|
|
  • Fatemeh Barzegari Banadkooki, Mojgan Atashkar, Leila Yaghmaei*, Ahmad Fatahi Ardakani Page 0
    In arid and semiarid regions of the world, the major concern of the agricultural sector is to produce more food using less water, i.e., increase water productivity. This study examined the productivity and water demand function for wheat farmers in Abarkooh during the agricultural season of 2007-2008. Abarkooh is the biggest wheat producing region of Yazd province. Data on water, pesticide and fertilizer use, seeds, area under cultivation and labor was gathered by questionnaire in 2007- 2008 year. There was considerable increasing in wheat production in this time step. Therefor this agricultural year was selected for this study. The data was analyzed using Eviews and the Cobb Douglasproduction function. Results showed that the average productivity at the middle and final consumption measurements for water were 0.82 and 0.33, respectively. R2 results showed that the function can determine changes in production. The flexible price of water demand was less than 1. This means that the demand function lacks flexibility therefore irrigation water use will not decrease for wheat as the price of water increases.
    Keywords: Final Productivity, Cobb, Douglas, Production Function, Mean Productivity, Water Demand
  • Babak Mehravaran, Hossein Ansari, Ali Asghar Beheshti, Saeed Reza Khodashenas Pages 1-8
    Geosmin and MIB have been identified to be the major taste and odor-causing compounds in drinking water. Conventional treatment processes in water treatment plants, such as aeration, coagulation, flocculation, chlorination and/or ozonation, and adsorption have been found to be ineffective for removal of MIB/geosmin. The grassy or fishy odor is highly dependent on the enormous growth of algae in the warm months. In Kardeh dam reservoir, Geosmin is the major cause of odor in water. The main sources of the Geosmin in this reservoir are from entrance of the Urban and rural sewages, industrial wastewater, and agricultural effluents, that provides the nutrients for alga growth. Investigation of the numerous techniques shows that based on the technical and economic considerations a combined approach is the only effective procedure applicable for Kardeh Dam. In the combined procedure algae is removed first by using a combination of ultrasound waves and aeration by a super deep aerator in a biphasic water and air process. Then, final purification was done by adsorption in column filters containing coal and activated carbon in the overflow output Pulsators.
    Keywords: Aeration, Adsorption, Activated carbon, Air Lift, ultrasonic, Kardeh Dam
  • Ehsan Moradi*, Alireza Soleymani, Gholamreza Zehtabian, Hassan Khosravi Pages 9-22
    Nowadays, the rapid growth of population causes excessive exploitation and also utilization beyond the natural resources capacity and leads to soil and water resources degradation, As a result, knowledge of soil and water resources is important. The main purpose of this research is quantitative and qualitative study of water resources in Kerman plain and also evaluation of soil quality changes in this plain. After collecting the data relating to water level, geological map of study area, and also qualitative indices of soil and water including electrical conductivity (EC), water acidity (pH), etc, interpolation and the map of each factor was provided by the use of GIS. The results showed that groundwater quality has been suitable in the southeast of the study area because of the groundwater recharge by the rivers. But, salinity (EC) has increased towards Kerman city and the center of the plain, so that the maximum of the groundwater salinity was observed in Zangi Abadi, Karim Abad, and Akhtyar Abad. Groundwater depletion was not the same in all regions of the plain, so that the groundwater level has increased in the northeastern of the plain. Also the evaluation of soil quality index showed that the total amount of soil organic carbon does not exceed one percent in most cases. In Mahan, phosphorus concentration has increased significantly in soil surface layers (0-15) compared to other depths.
    Keywords: Quantitative, Qualitative Parameters, GIS, Geostatistics, Kerman Plain
  • Haniyeh Asadi*, Hamidreza Moradi, Seyed Hamidreza Sadeghi Pages 23-33
    The present study was conducted to study the effect of storage coefficient on estimating the output hydrograph in a watershed which lacks basic data, using time- area method and Clark’s model. To this end, the time area histogram was determined by ArcGIS and the topographic map of the area. Then, using rain gauge data and time-area method, the output hydrograph was estimated. In the next step, the obtained results were compared with the observed output hydrograph. The Clark instantaneous unit hydrograph was also estimated by using storage coefficient in order to simulate the hydrograph in Kasilian watershed. As for the unit hydrograph, the statistical values of root mean square of error, bias in peak discharge, coefficient of efficiency, and relative errors in peak discharge, time to peak and base time were 1.64, 0.90, 0.76, 11.38, 33.33 and 15.38%, respectively. The results showed that Clark’s model was more efficient compared to time area method which is indicative of the effect of storage coefficient on flood routing in Kasilian forest watershed. Therefore, this method can be used to accurately estimate the output hydrograph in forest watershed when there is a lack of basic data.
    Keywords: Instantaneous Unit Hydrograph, Forest Watershed, Time, Area Method, Storage Coefficient
  • Hassan Zabarjadi*, Hamid Sadati, Reza Ghazavi Pages 34-46
    Groundwater quality is one of the most important issues in managing of water resources in many arid and semi-arid regions.Changes in the ground water quality endangers agricultural development.The main aim of this study was torange spatial distribution of electrical conductivity (EC) and total dissolved solids (TDS) in groundwater resources in razan- Qahavand plain Using geostatistical Methods.Kalmogorov-Smiranov test in SPSS software was used to evaluate normality of data. Between different interpolation methods, the best one was selected via MAE, MBE, RMSE and R2. Ordinary kriging and local polynorman interpolation method were the best methods of interpolation for EC and TDS respectively. The results of the study showed that the quality of water for drinking, according to Schoeller diagram, is divided into five groups of good (8.72 percent), accepted (46.09 %), inadequate (26.7 %), bad (18.59 %) and temporarily drinkable (0.51 %).
    Keywords: Water Quality, Geostatistical Methods, Electric Conductivity, Total Dissolved Solid, Razan–Qahavand Plain
  • Hoda Ghasemieh*, Javad Momeni Damaneh Pages 47-62
    Geosmin and MIB have been identified to be the major taste and odor-causing compounds in drinking water. Conventional treatment processes in water treatment plants, such as aeration, coagulation, flocculation, chlorination and/or ozonation, and adsorption have been found to be ineffective for removal of MIB/geosmin. The grassy or fishy odor is highly dependent on the enormous growth of algae in the warm months. In Kardeh dam reservoir, Geosmin is the major cause of odor in water. The main sources of the Geosmin in this reservoir are from entrance of the Urban and rural sewages, industrial wastewater, and agricultural effluents, that provides the nutrients for alga growth. Investigation of the numerous techniques shows that based on the technical and economic considerations a combined approach is the only effective procedure applicable for Kardeh Dam. In the combined procedure algae is removed first by using a combination of ultrasound waves and aeration by a super deep aerator in a biphasic water and air process. Then, final purification was done by adsorption in column filters containing coal and activated carbon in the overflow output Pulsators.
    Keywords: Aeration, Adsorption, Activated carbon, Air Lift, ultrasonic, Kardeh Dam
  • Mahboobeh Moatamednia*, Ahmad Nohegar, Arash Malekian, Maryam Saberi, Kamal Karimi Zarchi Pages 63-78
    Rainfall-runoff relationship is one the most complicated issues in hydrological cycle and its accurate estimation is one of the most important concerns in water resources engineering and management. Nowadays, researchers have focused on the application of intelligent systems for forecasting of river discharge due to their high performance and addition no need for many data and complex relationship. Therefore, the multi-layer perceptron and radial basis function approaches were used in this research for river flow prediction of Kasilian watershed. Some variables such as precipitation, temperature, evapotranspiration, relative humidity and discharge in daily time scale over 42 year period were considered while 40 different scenario structures were assessed for river flow prediction. The results showed that among 5000 available models for estimation of river flow, the multi-layer perceptron including nine input variables and arrangement of 9-5-1-1 has better performance than radial basis function. The MSE, RMSE and MAE of the model in training stage were 0.19, 0.43 while in validation and testing stages was 0.0 2, 0.15 and 0.02 and 0.03, 0.16 , 0.03 respectively.
    Keywords: Multi, Layer Perceptoron, River flow prediction, Radial Basis Function, Kasilian watershed, Rainfall, Runoff Modeling
  • Maryam Mirakbari*, Esmaeel Dodangeh Pages 79-91
    Hydrological droughts are characterized by the combination of the multi correlated attributes of severity, duration and frequency. This study aims to investigate hydrological drought by considering daily streamflow discharge and Q7,10 index applied to the Gilvan watershed. An integrated Severity-Duration Frequency, (SDF), analysis of hydrological drought is proposed by applying copula functions. The drought periods were extracted in terms of 7,10, and characterized by attributes of severity and duration. Various univariate marginal distributions were fitted to the drought severity and duration data sets; with Gamma and generalized Pareto distributions being selected for the drought severity and duration respectively, in accordance with the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. To model the joint distribution of drought severity and duration, two classes of bivariate Archimedean and Elliptical copula functions were fitted to the aforementioned data sets, with Frank copula being selected as the best copula, based on the performance evaluation criteria. The selected copula was then used for multivariate analysis of droughts. The results of fitting Frank copula to the severity and duration data sets, imply that, the most extreme hydrological drought in the region is characterized by the severity of 1045.36 m3/s, with a duration of 134 days and return period of 2.36 years.
    Keywords: Copula, Joint distribution Function, Bivariate Frequency Analysis
  • Mohammad Mirzavand*, Hoda Ghasemieh Pages 92-102
    Assessment of groundwater vulnerability to determine the vulnerability potential factor is deemed to be a basic step in water resources management. In this regard and for the purpose of current study, the DRASTIC model is applied to critically assess the vulnerability of Kashan plain aquifer. In this method, seven hydrogeological parameters, effective in aquifer vulnerability, were prepared based on Raster maps and combined thereafter. Following that, Zone vulnerability to nitrate pollution measured for Kashan plain aquifer were determined. The influence of given parameters was also investigated by implying the Single-Parameter sensitive analysis as well as Wilcoxon Rank-Sum Non parametric statistical test. The result of sensitive analysis indicates that in most of the cases, the effective and theoretical weight of parameters not only lacks any coincidence in the current model but surprisingly some cases have considerable differences. Moreover, the result of various vulnerability zones demonstrates that the study area for three categories of Low, Average and High which were 59.29, 17.82 and 22.89 percent before the correction of model are eventually converted to 48.37, 28.05 and 23.56 after the model correction.
    Keywords: Aquifer Vulnerability, DRASTIC Model, GIS, Kashan Plain
  • Vahid Rashidi, Mohammad Mirzavand Pages 103-118
    The aim of this study is to compare the performance of different time series models for the purpose of modeling as well as monthly rainfall forecasting in Ilam province. In this regard, monthly rainfall data were collected from 8 rainfall station from 1993 to 2011. After preparation of data, R software was used to predict the height of rainfall in 8 rainfall station (2004 to 2011) using monthly height of rainfall data (1993 to 2004). In this study, 5 models (AR, MA, ARMA, ARIMA, and SARIMA) with 12 different structures were examined. Due to the fact that the factors of trend, seasonal and jump are deterministic components in nature, there would be no need for the insertion of modeling. However, the modeling of random component is considered to be highly essential in modeling and water resource management. Therefore, the time series of rainfall was decomposed and the random component modeled accordingly. The results indicates that in 37.5% of data ARMA(1,2), in 25% of data ARMA(2,1) and in 12.5% of data for each of the models of AR(1), ARIMA(1,1,2) and SARIMA(1,1,1)(1,1,1)[12] the best performance occurs in monthly rainfall forecasting. In other words, any given change in data might dramatically trigger the volatility in best time series. So, it is extremely important, first, to assess the all-time series models for any area as well as any hydrological parameters and then, to select the best model for the purpose in question.
    Keywords: Rainfall Forecasting, AR, MA, ARMA, ARIMA, SARIMA
  • Mohammad Nazeri Tahrudi*, Keivan Khalili, Zahra Nazeri Tahrudi, Marzeyeh Abbaszadeh Afshar Pages 119-128
    One of the most important techniques in climatology studies are various interpolation methods. Moreover, in order to prepare integrated maps and predict unknown values, interpolation methods are needed. Estimating the groundwater level in most parts of the area is costly and difficult and applying interpolation methods can solve this problem. Thus, to draw groundwater maps, one can use different Piezometric wells to estimate other regions by interpolation methods. In this study, ten Pizometric wells of Bazargan Keshmeshtape area located in West Azerbaijan have been used to interpolate groundwater level in 2011 and 2012. Then, using GS software, Kriging, advanced interpolation and Inverse distance methods, the groundwater level was interpolated in two years. The results showed that the groundwater level had the same distribution pattern in these two years and Kriging and advanced methods showed the same results with the most regression coefficients. Using these methods, groundwater level can be interpolated and using the interpolated maps, the water level of groundwater can be estimated in the areas in is no Piezometric well. This results can help to find the best positions to dig wells.
    Keywords: Groundwater, GS+, Interpolation, IDW, Kriging, Model, Simulation
  • Ahmad Fatahi Ardakani, Masoud Fehresti Sani, Mohammad Rezvani Pages 129-142
    Geosmin and MIB have been identified to be the major taste and odor-causing compounds in drinking water. Conventional treatment processes in water treatment plants, such as aeration, coagulation, flocculation, chlorination and/or ozonation, and adsorption have been found to be ineffective for removal of MIB/geosmin. The grassy or fishy odor is highly dependent on the enormous growth of algae in the warm months. In Kardeh dam reservoir, Geosmin is the major cause of odor in water. The main sources of the Geosmin in this reservoir are from entrance of the Urban and rural sewages, industrial wastewater, and agricultural effluents, that provides the nutrients for alga growth. Investigation of the numerous techniques shows that based on the technical and economic considerations a combined approach is the only effective procedure applicable for Kardeh Dam. In the combined procedure algae is removed first by using a combination of ultrasound waves and aeration by a super deep aerator in a biphasic water and air process. Then, final purification was done by adsorption in column filters containing coal and activated carbon in the overflow output Pulsators.
    Keywords: Aeration, Adsorption, Activated carbon, Air Lift, ultrasonic, Kardeh Dam
  • Narges Javidan*, Abdolreza Bahremand, Majid Onagh, Chooghi Bayram Komaki Pages 143-156
    Land-use changes by human activities are important issues in regional planning. The distributed hydrologic model is a suitable model to survey land-use changes and to estimate their quantities. This study aims to evaluate the effects of land-use changes (the expansion of residential areas) on the hydrological parameters using WetSpa model in the Ziarat Watershed, which has an area of 95.15 square kilometers. In order to execute the model, during the four-year period (2007-2010), the hourly hydrometeorology data including rainfall, temperature, evapotranspiration, and discharge rate are used as inputs. Additionally, three base maps of the digital elevation model (30meter cell size), soil map (soil texture), and land-use are also applied. As a result, there is a good agreement between the simulated and observed hydrographs. The scenarios of land-use changes (the expansion of residential area) have been used as input maps for the calibrated model in a GIS environment. The results show that some hydrological parameters such as the peak discharge, potential runoff coefficient and flow velocity increase in the all scenarios, but the Manning’s roughness coefficientis reduced.
    Keywords: hydrological model, WetSpa, Simulation, Land, use changes, GIS, Ziarat, Gorgan
  • Nasrin Eslami*, Hosein Malekinezhad Pages 157-167
    River flow predicting is one of the most important factors in surface water recourses management, especially during flood and drought periods. Traditionally, time series analysis and modeling is used for building mathematical models to generate hydrologic data in hydrology and water resources. This research was designed to evaluate the applicability of artificial neural network and adaptive neuro – fuzzy inference system to model monthly discharge in Dehkadeh Sefid station of Sefid River. It must be mentioned, firstly, data were analyzed using SPSS 20 and Wingamma softwares, to select appropriate type and number of training input data and then, they were used in the models. It has been tried to evaluate the applicability of artificial neural networks and neuro - fuzzy techniques to predict monthly discharge. Finally, the accuracy of the results produced by these methods was compared using statistical criterion. Results taken from this research show that artificial neural network in comparison Adaptive Neuro – Fuzzy Inference System has a greater ability on the prediction of monthly discharge in Sefid River.
    Keywords: Forecasting, Adaptive Neuro – Fuzzy Inference System, Artificial Neural Network, Monthly Discharge, Sefid
  • Safura Siahkamari*, Hossein Zeinivand Pages 168-179
    Flooding due to the particular climate and topography conditions and inappropriate spatial and temporal distribution of rainfall is a major threat to the human, capital and national resources in Iran. Estimation of floods peak discharges in a catchment is one of the most important issues for the hydrologist and water experts. Regional analysis is an effective method for estimating flood discharge in areas with no long period of recorded data. The aim of this study was to assess the empirical models applications to estimate floods based on the narrative and meta-analytic methods. Thus, the main variables were identified using a narrative review of some researches which have been carried out using empirical models. Hence, from 40 case studies which their results have been published only 14 studies because of the availability of their full texts were selected to provide meta-analysis table. The results showed that among various parameters used in empirical flood peak discharges estimation models, the catchment area is the most effective parameters.
    Keywords: Flood Estimation, Meta, Analysis, Empirical Models, Iran
  • Naser Tahmasebipour*, Seyedeh Samaneh Sohrabi, Sahar Daraee, Shirin Saeedi Pages 180-192
    Drought is a natural phenomenon and an integral part of climate change, being considered coupled with the scarcity of water resources in a geographical area in the period of time. In order to calculate of dry and wet years, annual precipitation data from 10 stations related to Dez watershed in Lorestan province was used during a period of 42 years 1969-2011). After selecting the concurrent period and evaluate the integrity of data, climate indices such as Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), Standard Index Annual Precipitation (SIAP), Percentage of normal Precipitation Index (PNPI) and Nietzsche were used to determine drought and wet period. The results of this study indicated that the degree of drought is more severe and frequent in the second decade of the study (1981 -1991). Due to high sensitivity of SPI index to changes in rainfall and simply computing, and SIAP index because of high capabilities, less limitations and display lower levels of extreme drought in all stations in coincided with the years minimum Showed better efficiency in compared to other models. By using SPI index, 18 moderate drought cases, eight severe drought cases and one severe drought event was observed. Results for SIAP Indicators also showed the occurrence of 9 incident weak drought, moderate drought in 10 cases, 15 severe drought cases and 18 very severe drought cases.
    Keywords: Dez Watershed, Drought, Nietzsche's Index, PNPI, SIAP, SPI, Wet Year
  • Zeinab Sheikhalipour, Vahid Azimi*, Farzad Hassanpour, Mahmoud Tabatabaee Page 193
    Evapotranspiration is one of the most fundamental parameters in calculating crop water requirement. The parameter is calculated to avoid exposing plants to water stress during different growth stages. In this paper, meteorological data including mean air temprature, mean relative humidity, solar radiation and wind speed from Kavar weather stations in the Maharlu basin and Doroudzan station in the Kor River basin from 1987 to 2011 were used. Calculation have been done using FAOPenman- Monteith method and intelligent techniques including Support Vector Machine (SVM) and M5 models. The results showed that M5 method with R2 = 0.99 and RMSE = 11.377 in the Kavar weather station and with R2 = 0.984 and RMSE = 17.401 in Doroudzan weather station has the best results at estimating reference evapotranspiration. According to the statistical indicators and results obtained in this study, artificial intelligence methods have suitable results in simulationing refernce evapotranspiration. In general, for all modelling scenarios M5 has better results than SVM in estimating reference evapotranspiration using meteorological parameters.
    Keywords: Doroudzan, Reference Evapotranspiration, Kavar, M5, SVM
  • Ali Naghi Ziaei, Azam Mohammadi*, Javad Meshkini Page 205
    Bojnurd plain is located in Atrak River’s watershed, North Khorasan province. The urban areas are covered more than 70% of the plain. It is supposed that the Bojnourd’s plain aquifer will be affected by the water conveyed from Maneh basin in order to supply drinking water. As the wastewater collection system has not been completed yet and the municipal drinking wells have been switched off, rising groundwater levels in some part of the urban areas is predicted. In this study the impact of developing urban wastewater collection system on Bojnourd aquifer was investigated using a mathematical model in GMS software. The data from October 2001 was selected to calibrate the values of the hydraulic conductivities in steady state. Then the model was calibrated from October 2001 to September 2011 in unsteady state and the values of storage coefficient and monthly recharge were optimized. Sensitivity analysis and verification of the model were performed using data from October 2011 to March 2013. Modeling results confirmed that the groundwater levels will be rised to ground surface in many parts of the urban areas, as the wastewater system is not completed. However, full development of the wastewater water collection system will relatively decrease the problem.
    Keywords: Bojnourd Aquifer, Groundwater Mathematical Model, Urban Wastewater System
  • Zahra Azhdari*, Hossein Malekinezhad, Ali Fathzadeh, Seyed Zeynalabedin Hosseini Pages 218-236
    The Plain of Tuiserkan is located at a semi-arid climatic regime. During the last five years, overexploitation of underground water has caused more than 22 meters depletion of groundwater water level in this region. The role of water management is very important in this plain. To study the changes of groundwater, the annual and perennial hydrograph and water balance were investigated in the study area. According to the annual unit hydrograph, the level of underground water has dropped 1.98 meters yearly and 7.57 meters perennially. Annual changes in aquifer capacity has been 20.97 million cubic meters of water and for the 91-92 water year, it has been about 12.99 million cubic meters. Therefore, by continuing such a decreasing trend in the plain, it will be facing a water crisis in the next few years. To investigate the effects of precipitation and snow cover on the groundwater levels the artificial neural network model was used. The results showed neural network model has the lowest error index for snow cover data and monthly and three months later discharges with the correlation coefficient of 0.45 and error percentage of 0.028 can be appropriately predicted.
    Keywords: Tuiserkan Plain, Groundwater, Surface Snow Cover, Water Balance
  • Zohreh Khorsandi Kouhanestani*, Maryam Zolfaghary Pages 237-245
    A runoff can have devastating casualties and destructionsin a densely populated city. In a more plausible situation, the cost of runoff collection and disposal riseup as the maximum flow rate of runoff increases.Urban areas are combinations of permeable and impermeable lands. The runoff and maximum flow rate are increased by impermeable areas in cities. Recently, the runoff control techniques become more popular because of their low cost and high efficiency. One of the control techniques is to manipulate the distribution of landscapes in order to reduce the runoff maximum flow rate. In this research, the effect of different landscape distributions on runoff maximum flow rate is studied. The runoff is modelled for different landscape distributions based on URBS-UH models. The study results show that the distribution of landscapes can affect the maximum runoff flow rate up to 23%.
    Keywords: Pervious Surfaces, URBS, UH Model, Flood Hydrograph Peak, Urban Runoff