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پژوهشهای علوم دامی ایران - سال هشتم شماره 1 (1395)
  • سال هشتم شماره 1 (1395)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1395/03/30
  • تعداد عناوین: 20
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  • علمی پژوهشی - تغذیه نشخوارکنندگان
  • سید احسان غیاثی، رضا ولی زاده، عباسعلی ناصریان صفحات 1-17
    به منظور بررسی اثر روغن سویای اکسید شده در تقابل با نقش آنتی اکسیدانی هسته انار بر متابولیسم و فیزیولوژی بز های سانن در دوره انتقال، تعداد 18 راس بز شیری سانن با میانگین وزنی 9 ± 47 کیلوگرم، در قالب طرح کاملا تصادفی با نمونه برداری های تکرار شده در زمان، در بازه زمانی 21 روز قبل از زایش مورد بررسی قرار گرفتند. تیمار های آزمایشی شامل 1)جیره پایه و 4 درصد روغن خام تازه سویا ، 2) جیره پایه و 4 درصد، روغن خام اکسید شده سویا و 3) جیره پایه و به ترتیب 4 و 8 درصد، روغن خام اکسید شده سویا و هسته انار بر مبنای ماده خشک بود. نتایج نشان داد که قابلیت هضم ریز مغذی ها، نیتروژن آمونیاکی شکمبه و مصرف اختیاری خوراک در اثر تیمار های 2 و 3 نسبت به سایر تیمار ها به ترتیب به طور معنی داری کاهش و افزایش یافت. شاخص اسیدیته ادرار به طور معنی داری (P<0/05) در اثر تیمار 3 کاهش و حجم ادرار در اثر تیمار 2 افزایش (P<0/05) یافت. رطوبت و حجم گلوله مدفوع در اثر تیمار 2 کاهش معنی داری (P<0/05) نشان داد. غلظت هورمون T 3 و کراتینین در اثر تیمار های 2 و 3 به طور معنی داری نسبت به تیمار 1 کاهش (P<0/05) و غلظت گلوکز به ترتیب در تیمار 2 نسبت به 1کاهش (P<0/05) و در تیمار 3 نسبت به 2 افزایش معنی داری (P<0/05) داشت. متابولیسم انواع کلسترول در اثر تیمار های 2 و 3 نسبت به تیمار 1 تغییرات معنی داری نشان داد. به طور کلی روغن اکسید شده باعث استرس اکسیداتیو و هسته انار با دو مکانیسم آنتی اکسیدانی و هورمونی باعث بهبود فراسنجه های متابولیکی و فیزیولوژیکی گردید
    کلیدواژگان: بز سانن، روغن اکسید شده، فیزیولوژی، متابولیسم، هسته انار
  • ستاره نبی زاده، رضا ولی زاده صفحات 18-25
    بیوفیلم های باکتریایی بسته به ترکیب و محل ایجاد می توانند سودمند یا زیان آور باشند. تشکیل آنها در لوله های انتقال آب و استفاده شده در شیردوشی در دامداری ها می تواند مشکلاتی را ایجاد نمایدو منبع بالقوه ای برای آلودگی باشد. در این تحقیق با توجه به توانایی تشکیل بیوفیلم توسط باکتری با سیلوس سوبتیلیس با برخورداری از خصوصیات ویژه انتخاب گردید. ابتدا امکان تشکیل بیوفیلم بر روی قطعات مختلف پلاستیک (پلی وینیل کلراید، پلی پروپیلن و پلی اتلین گیکول)، فلزآلومینیوم و شیشه در دمای 4،30،37 درجه سانتیگراد مورد مطالعه قرار گرفت. بر روی تمام سطوح مورد استفاده بیوفیلم با سیلوس سوبتیلیس تشکیل شد. و دمای بهینه تشکیل بیوفیلم آن 30 درجه سانتیگراد تعیین گردید. دو روش جداسازی بیوفیلم ها شامل زدودن با سوآپ و ورتکس بکار رفت و بازده هر روش محاسبه گردید. روش ورتکس بازده و کارایی بیشتری برای جداسازی سلولهای چسبیده و بیوفیلم-ها از سطوح مختلف داشت. شمارش تام پرگنه های حاصل از بیوفیلم مشخص کرد که احتمال چسبیدن باکتریها به سطوح پلاستیکی به خصوص پلی پروپیلن بیشترین و سطوح شیشه ای کمترین بود.در واقع چسبیدن سلول های باکتری با توجه به خاصیت فیزیکی سطوح به نسبت 2-2/1 برابر ممکن است متغیر باشد .نتایج این مطالعه می تواند به انتخاب لوله های مناسب برای انتقال مایعات بویژه آب و کاهش آلودگی در دامداری ها کمک کند.
    کلیدواژگان: باکتری با سیلوس سوبتیلیس، بیوفیلم، سوآپ، ورتکس
  • محمد حسن فتحی نسری، فاطمه خسروی صفحات 26-33
    هدف از انجام این مطالعه مقایسه دو روش تعیین قابلیت هضم شکمبه ای به روش درون کیسه ای و روش آزمایشگاهی انکوباتور دیزی با استفاده از تفاله دانه انار خشک و تفاله دانه انار سیلویی بود. برای تهیه تفاله سیلویی، تفاله دانه انار تازه حاوی 47 درصد ماده خشک به مدت 60 روز سیلو شد و برای تهیه تفاله خشک، تفاله تازه به مدت 48 ساعت در آون در دمای 60 درجه سانتی گراد خشک گردید. قابلیت هضم هر یک از دو خوراک به روش درون کیسه ای با استفاده از دو راس تلیسه هلشتاین فیستولاگذاری شده و به روش آزمایشگاهی با استفاده از انکوباتور دیزی تعیین گردید و داده ها با نرم افزار آماری SAS توسط رویه GLM آنالیز و همبستگی بین دو روش و نیز معادلات تابعیت آنها تعیین شد. نتایج نشان داد که مقادیر قابلیت هضم ماده خشک هم برای تفاله دانه انار خشک و هم تفاله سیلویی به روش آزمایشگاهی انکوباتور دیزی به لحاظ عددی بیشتر از روش درون کیسه ای بود اما این اختلاف به لحاظ آماری معنی دار نبود. مقدار همبستگی بین این دو روش برای تفاله دانه انار خشک و سیلویی بعد از 24 ساعت انکوباسیون به ترتیب 87/0 و 98/0 و بعد از 48 ساعت انکوباسیون 99/0 و 78/0 بود. در این مطالعه معادلات برآورد قابلیت هضم درون کیسه ای با استفاده از قابلیت هضم آزمایشگاهی تعیین شد که از دقت بالایی برخوردار بود. نتایج این تحقیق نشان داد که دو روش تعیین قابلیت هضم شکمبه ای از همبستگی بالایی برخوردار بودند و قابلیت هضم به روش آزمایشگاهی انکوباتور دیزی با دقت بالایی قادر به تخمین قابلیت هضم درون کیسه ای ماده خشک مواد خوراکی مورد بررسی بود.
    کلیدواژگان: آزمایشگاهی، انکوباتور دیزی، تفاله دانه انار، درون کیسه ای، قابلیت هضم
  • سیدجواد حسینی واشان، محمد ملکانه، علی الله رسانی صفحات 34-42
    به منظور تعیین ترکیب اسیدهای چرب دنبه و گوشت گوسفندان بلوچی استان خراسان جنوبی، تعداد 5 نمونه گوشت ران و راسته و 5 نمونه دنبه از 5 راس گوسفند از محل کشتارگاه های دام، هشت منطقه استان خراسان جنوبی یعنی شهرستان های بیرجند، سربیشه، نهبندان، درمیان، قائن، فردوس، سرایان و بشرویه (از 40 راس گوسفند در سطح استان) تهیه و جمع آوری گردید و نمونه ها تا زمان استخراج چربی آن ها در فریزر oC80- نگهداری شد. پس از جمع آوری تمام نمونه ها، چربی استخراج و متیله گردید سپس نوع و درصد اسیدچرب در مقایسه با زمان پیک و مقدار پیک استاندارد و روش استاندارد داخلی تعیین گردید و سپس آنالیز آماری داده ها به کمک نرم افزار SAS انجام شد. تجزیه و تحلیل داده ها نشان داد درصد مجموع اسیدهای چرب اشباع دنبه گوسفندان از گوشت بالاتر بود (05/0>P). مجموع درصد اسیدهای چرب غیراشباع با یک پیوند دوگانه و غیراشباع با چند پیوند دوگانه در گوشت بالاتر از چربی بود (05/0>P). درصد اسیدهای چرب امگا-3 در گوشت بالاتر از دنبه ولی اختلاف آن ها معنی دار نبود. درصد اسیدهای چرب امگا-6 و اسیدهای چرب ترانس در دنبه بطور معنی داری بالاتر از گوشت گوسفندان بود (05/0>P). نسبت اسیدهای چرب غیراشباع با چند پیوند دوگانه به اسیدهای چرب اشباع (PUFA/SFA) در گوشت بالاتر از دنبه گوسفندان بود. در مجموع تحلیل داده ها نشان می دهد که هر چند درصد مجموع اسیدهای چرب ترانس دنبه گوسفندان بالاتر بود ولی از شاخص استاندارد ایران پائین تر می باشد. تحلیل ترکیب اسیدهای چرب گوشت و دنبه گوسفندان مناطق مختلف استان خراسان جنوبی بدلیل تفاوت در ترکیب چراگاه مورد استفاده با هم اختلاف معنی داری نشان داد. از طرف دیگر با توجه به نسبت بالای اسیدهای چرب غیراشباع و پائین تر بودن درصد اسیدهای چرب اشباع گوشت در مقایسه با دنبه، کیفیت گوشت از دنبه گوسفندان استان خراسان جنوبی بهتر می باشد.
    کلیدواژگان: استان خراسان جنوبی، اسیدهای چرب سیس و ترانس، دنبه و گوشت گوسفند
  • مائده فیض، اسدالله تیموری یانسری، یدالله چاشنی دل، محمد کاظمی فرد صفحات 43-56
    تاثیر تغذیه شبدر برسیم سیلویی مخلوط با تفاله ی خشک مرکبات بر مصرف، قابلیت هضم، رفتار جویدن و عملکرد بره پرواری درقالب طرح کاملا تصادفی بررسی شد. 20 راس بره نر آمیخته زل 4 ماهه در 5 تیمار با جیره ی حاوی 35 درصد شبدر برسیم سیلویی 1) بدون افزودنی، 2) مکمل شده با 40 درصد تفاله ی خشک پرتقال، 3) مکمل شده با 40 درصد پوست خشک نارنگی، 4) مکمل شده با 35 درصد پوست خشک نارنگی و 5 درصد جو و 5) مکمل شده با 35 درصد تفاله ی خشک پرتقال و 5 درصد جو پروار شدند. افزودن تفاله ی خشک مرکبات به ماده ی سیلویی، میانگین هندسی اندازه ذرات و الیاف موثر فیزیکی جیره مخلوط را ،بدون تاثیر بر مصرف ماده ی خشک، کاهش داد اما مصرف پروتئین خام، کربوهیدرات غیر الیافی و چربی خام، و هم چنین قابلیت هضم ماده ی خشک و مواد آلی افزایش پیدا کردند. تفاوت معنی داری در وزن بره ها و افزایش وزن روزانه بین تیمارهای آزمایشی در کل دوره ی پروار مشاهده نشد. افزودن تفاله ی خشک مرکبات به ماده ی سیلویی سبب افزایش ضریب تبدیل خوراک، pH ، غلظت آمونیاک شکمبه و کاهش زمان نشخوار شد. نرخ عبور مواد جامد از شکمبه تحت تاثیر تیمارهای آزمایشی قرار نگرفت ولی با افزودن تفاله ی خشک مرکبات نرخ عبور از قسمت تحتانی دستگاه گوارش کاهش یافت. با توجه به عدم کاهش عملکرد دام با افزودن تفاله ی خشک مرکبات به برسیم سیلویی، استفاده از آن بخشی از نیاز دام به علوفه ی مناسب را تامین می کند.
    کلیدواژگان: بره پرواری، تفاله ی خشک مرکبات، شبدر برسیم، ماده سیلویی
  • نرجس قهاری، تقی قورچی، سید علیرضا وکیلی صفحات 57-71
    به منظور بررسی تاثیر سه گونه از گیاهان خانواده نعنا با نام های علمی Ziziphora clinopodioides (کاکوتی کوهی)، Mentha spicata (نعنا) و Mentha pulegium (پونه جوبباری) بر شاخص های عملکردی، سیستم ایمنی و فراسنجه های خون، اسکور مدفوع و تعداد روز های ابتلا به اسهال گوساله های شیرخوار و میزان باکتری های اشریشیا کولای، لاکتوباسیلوس و کل باکتری های هوازی مدفوع، 16 راس گوساله نژاد هلشتاین با میانگین وزن تولد 71/0 ± 18/42 کیلوگرم (با نسبت 50 درصد نر و 50 درصد ماده)، با سن 3±5 روز به تیمار های 1) شاهد (شیر بدون افزودنی)، 2) شیر حاوی پودر کاکوتی، 3) شیر حاوی پودر نعنا و 4) شیر حاوی پودر پونه اختصاص یافت. مقدار گیاه دارویی افزوده شده به شیر در هر تیمار 20 گرم به طور روزانه بود. طول دوره آزمایش 25 روز بود. اندازه گیری مصرف ماده خشک، آب مصرفی و ثبت اسکور مدفوع به صورت روزانه انجام شد. وزن کشی گوساله ها هر 5 روز و نمونه گیری خون دو بار، یک روز قبل از شروع دوره (روز صفر) و یک بار روز پایانی تحقیق انجام گرفت. نمونه های مورد نیاز برای کشت میکروبی مدفوع نیز در سه مرحله ابتدا، وسط و انتهای دوره تهیه گردید. بر اساس نتایج به دست آمده، افزودن پونه به شیر سبب کاهش مصرف روزانه استارتر شد ولی با شاهد تفاوت معنی داری نداشت و کل ماده خشک مصرفی در تیمار کاکوتی به طور معنی داری بیشتر از تیمار شاهد بود. گوساله های تغذیه شده با تیمار های کاکوتی، پونه و نعنا به ترتیب مصرف آب بیشتری نسبت به گروه شاهد داشتند که این اختلاف از نظر آماری معنی دار بود. قابلیت هضم ماده خشک، در تیمار های کاکوتی و نعنا کاهش معنی داری نسبت به شاهد نشان دادند. افزایش وزن، ضریب تبدیل غذایی، فراسنجه های خون و سیستم ایمنی تحت تاثیر تیمار های آزمایشی قرار نگرفت. شاخص قوام مدفوع و روز های ابتلا به اسهال در تیمار های مختلف، اختلاف معنی داری نشان نداد اما در گوساله های تغذیه شده با تیمار پونه کاهش نشان داد. تیمار های کاکوتی، نعنا و پونه در مقایسه با تیمار شاهد به طور معنی داری باعث کاهش تعداد اشریشیا کولای و لاکتوباسیل ها در مدفوع گوساله ها شدند ولی در تعداد کل باکتری های هوازی اثری نداشتند. نتایج این پژوهش نشان داد که افزودن گیاهان فوق به شیر در گوساله های شیر خوار، بر استارتر مصرفی، قوام مدفوع و جمعیت میکروبی روده اثر مثبت دارند.
    کلیدواژگان: اشریشیا کولای، خانواده نعنا، فراسنجه های خون، گوساله شیرخوار، لاکتوباسیل
  • سیدروح الله ابراهیمی محمودآباد، علی نیکخواه، علی اصغر صادقی صفحات 72-85
    این آزمایش به منظور مطالعه و مقایسه اثرات پرتو گاما (15، 30 و 45 کیلوگری) و میکروویو (2، 4 و 6 دقیقه با قدرت 800 وات) بر گلوکوسینولات ها، اسید فایتیک، ترکیبات شیمیایی، تجزیه پذیری موثر ماده خشک و پروتئین خام و قابلیت هضم برون تنی پروتئین خام دانه منداب بومی انجام شد. میزان تجزیه پذیری ماده خشک و پروتئین خام به روش کیسه های نایلونی با استفاده از سه راس گاو نر تالشی اندازه گیری شد. قابلیت هضم برون تنی پروتئین خام به روش آنزیمی سه مرحله ای و اثرات پرتو گاما و میکروویو بر نحوه تجزیه شدن پروتئین حقیقی در زمان های مختلف انکوباسیون در شکمبه با روش الکتروفورز تعیین شد. عمل آوری با پرتو گاما و میکروویو سبب کاهش اسید فایتیک و گلوکوسینولات ها، کاهش بخش سریع تجزیه، نرخ ثابت تجزیه و تجزیه پذیری موثر ماده خشک و افزایش بخش کند تجزیه ماده خشک و پروتئین خام دانه منداب بومی گردید. پرتوتابی در دزهای 30 و 45 کیلوگری سبب افزایش قابلیت هضم برون تنی پروتئین خام شد. الکتروفورز پروتئین های دانه منداب بومی نشان داد که عمده پروتئین در آنها شامل ناپین با دو زیر واحد و کروسیفرین با چهار زیر واحد بود. تجزیه های الکتروفورز پروتئین نشان دادند که عمل آوری شده با پرتو گاما و میکروویو سبب افزایش پروتئین عبوری دانه منداب بومی شد. نتایج این پژوهش نشان داد که پرتو گاما در دزهای بیشتر از 15 کیلوگری و عمل آوری با میکروویو بیش از 2 دقیقه سبب کاهش تجزیه پذیری پروتئین خام، افزایش قابلیت هضم برون تنی پروتئین خام و کاهش مقدار اسید فایتیک و گلوکوسینولات های دانه منداب بومی شد.
    کلیدواژگان: پرتو گاما، پرتو میکروویو، تجزیه پذیری شکمبه ای، دانه منداب، مواد ضد تغذیه ای
  • علمی پژوهشی- تغذیه طیور
  • علی گیلانی، حسن کرمانشاهی، ابوالقاسم گلیان، مصطفی قلی زاده، احمد علی محمد پور صفحات 86-95
    در این آزمایش از تعداد 150 قطعه جوجه نر یک روزه سویه راس 308 استفاده گردید که در 3 تیمار آب آشامیدنی با 5 تکرار و 10 قطعه جوجه در هر تکرار استفاده شدند. دو نوع آب آشامیدنی مغناطیسی (آب یک دقیقه و سه ساعت مغناطیسی شده) به عنوان 2 تیمار آزمایشی به همراه تیمار شاهد یعنی آب معمولی مرغداری (مغناطیسی نشده) از روز اول تا 42 روزگی مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفتند. مصرف آب مغناطیسی به ویژه نوع فرآیند شده به مدت سه ساعت، به طور معنی داری نسبت به آب معمولی در همه دوره ها و در کل دوره بیشتر بود. متعاقبا مصرف خوراک نیز افزایش یافت اما فقط در دوره آغازین مصرف خوراک تیمار سوم نسبت به شاهد از نظر آماری بیشتر بود و این اختلاف در دوره های رشد، پایانی و نیز کل دوره مشاهده نگردید. اثر آب مغناطیسی شده بر وزن گیری و نرخ رشد جوجه ها نیز در دوره آغازین به طور معنی داری از آب معمولی بیشتر بود ولی این اختلاف در پایان دوره مشاهده نشد. درصد تلفات، ضریب تبدیل غذایی، شاخص کارایی تولید اروپایی و شاخص زیست اقتصادی تحت تاثیر تیمارهای آزمایشی قرار نگرفتند. مصرف آب مغناطیسی هم در میان و هم پایان دوره آزمایش، باعث کاهش اندازه نسبی سنگدان شد ولی اندازه طحال در 21 روزگی افزایش و اندازه لوزالمعده در 41 روزگی کاهش یافت و بقیه اجزای لاشه تحت تاثیر تیمارها قرار نگرفتند. به نظر می رسد که بیشترین اثرات مغناطیسی کردن آب آشامیدنی به طور معنی داری در آغاز دوره پرورش دیده می شوند یا به عبارت دیگر جوجه های جوان تر نسبت به تغییر کیفیت آب حساس تر می باشند و با افزایش سن بتدریج به نوع آب مصرفی عادت می کنند.
    کلیدواژگان: آب مغناطیسی، جوجه گوشتی، شاخص های تولیدی، لاشه
  • احسان شیخ سامانی، احمد حسن آبادی، ابوالقاسم گلیان صفحات 96-107
    این مطالعه جهت بررسی اثر مقایسه ای مکمل نانو مولتی ویتامین، بر عملکرد، برخی فراسنجه های خونی و پاسخ ایمنی جوجه های گوشتی سویه راس 308، در قالب طرح کاملا تصادفی با 10 تیمار، 5 تکرار و 12 قطعه در هر تکرار، در سن 1 تا 45 روزگی انجام شد. تیمارهای 1، 2 و 3 به ترتیب شامل جیره پایه + محلول نانو مولتی ویتامین در سطح 50، 100 و 150 درصد توصیه کارخانه سازنده؛ تیمارهای 4، 5 و 6 به ترتیب تشکیل شده از جیره پایه + پیش مخلوط ویتامینی متداول، دارای سطوح ویتامینی معادل با تیمار یک، دو و سه؛ تیمارهای 7، 8 و 9 به ترتیب تشکیل شده از جیره پایه + پیش مخلوط ویتامینی متداول، معادل با 50، 100 و 150 درصد سطوح ویتامینی توصیه شده توسط کاتالوگ سویه راس و تیمار 10 تشکیل شده از جیره پایه فاقد پیش مخلوط ویتامینی بودند. نتایج نشان داد نسبت به سایر تیمارها به طور معنی داری در سن 10 روزگی میانگین وزن بدن و افزایش وزن روزانه تیمارهای 3 و 2 افزایش و ضریب تبدیل خوراک تیمار 3 کاهش یافت اما در سن 24 و 45 روزگی تفاوت معنی داری بین تیمارهای دارای مکمل ویتامینی مشاهده نشد. در تست SRBC اختلاف معنی داری بین تیمارهای آزمایشی مشاهده نشد. در تست CBH در 24 ساعت پس از تزریق، پاسخ ایمنی سلولی تیمار 10، نسبت به تیمار 3، به طور معنی داری کاهش یافت و تیمار 10 سبب کاهش معنی دار سطح تری گلیسرید سرم خون و وزن نسبی سینه و افزایش معنی دار وزن نسبی بال و طول نسبی روده کوچک گردید.
    کلیدواژگان: پاسخ ایمنی، جوجه های گوشتی، عملکرد، فراسنجه های خونی، نانومولتی ویتامین
  • محمد رضا گنجه، محمد سالارمعینی صفحات 108-121
    این مطالعه به منظور بررسی تاثیر استفاده از پودر و عصاره هیدروالکلی مرزنجوش در مقایسه با آنتی بیوتیک ویرجینیامایسین برعملکرد، فراسنجه های خونی، وزن نسبی ارگان های داخلی، فلور میکربی روده، مورفولوژی پرزهای روده و کیفیت گوشت در جوجه های گوشتی در قالب طرح کاملا تصادفی با 8 تیمار، 3 تکرار و 12 جوجه در هر تکرار به اجرا درآمد. تیمارهای آزمایشی شامل جیره شاهد (فاقد هرگونه افزودنی)، آنتی بیوتیک ویرجینیامایسین (100 میلی گرم در کیلوگرم)، پودر برگ مرزنجوش (1 ،2 و 3 درصد) و عصاره مرزنجوش (150، 250 و350 میلی گرم در کیلو گرم) بودند. بر اساس نتایج بدست آمده، در یک تا 10 روزگی پرندگان تغذیه شده با آنتی بیوتیک ویرجینیامایسین مصرف خوراک بیشتری نسبت سایر گروه ها داشتند. در 11 تا 24 روزگی نیز مصرف خوراک گروه آنتی بیوتیک ویرجینیامایسین بیشتر از گروه 2 و3 درصد پودر مرزنجوش و 350 میلی گرم در کیلوگرم عصاره مرزنجوش بود. کمترین مصرف خوراک در تمام بازه های زمانی در تیمار غذایی حاوی 3 درصد پودر مرزنجوش مشاهده شد. در کل دوره پرورش، خوراک مصرفی تحت تاثیر تیمار های آزمایشی قرار نگرفت اما استفاده از 3 درصد پودر مرزنجوش نسبت به سایر گروه ها افزایش وزن کمتری نشان داد و بیشترین اضافه وزن در تیمار حاوی آنتی بیوتیک و 350 میلی گرم در کیلوگرم عصاره مشاهده گردید. همچنین در کل دوره، گروه های شاهد و 3 درصد پودر مرزنجوش در مقایسه با سایر گروه ها ضریب تبدیل غذایی بالاتری را نشان دادند. تیمار ها تاثیر معنی داری بر فراسنجه های خونی و وزن نسبی اجزای لاشه نداشت. تیمار های 1 و 2 درصد پودر و 350 میلی گرم در کیلوگرم عصاره مرزنجوش جمعیت باکتری های کلی فرم را نسبت به شاهد کاهش دادند. افزودن 150 میلی گرم در کیلو گرم عصاره مرزنجوش طول پرز را به طور معنی داری نسبت به تیمار شاهد و آنتی بیوتیک ویرجینیامایسین افزایش داد. افزودن 1 و 2 درصد پودر مرزنجوش و سطوح مختلف عصاره مرزنجوش میزان TBA را به طور معنی داری کاهش داد. در مجموع به نظر می رسد می توان از گیاه دارویی مرزنجوش (به خصوص سطح 350 میلی گرم در کیلوگرم عصاره) به عنوان جایگزینی برای آنتی بیوتیک های محرک رشد به خوبی بهره جست.
    کلیدواژگان: جوجه گوشتی، عملکرد، کیفیت گوشت، مرزنجوش، ویرجینیا مایسین
  • رضا مجید زاده هروی، حسن کرمانشاهی صفحات 122-131
    این آزمایش به منظور مطالعه کارآیی پروبیوتیک نوترکیب لاکتوکوکوس لاکتیس3 در تجزیه فیتات گیاهی در جیره های جوجه های گوشتی انجام شد. باکتری لاکتوکوکوس لاکتیس به تنهایی یا همراه با دو سویه باکتری لاکتوباسیل (لاکتوباسیلوس کریسپاتوس و لاکتوباسیلوس سالیواریوس) به شکل مخلوط پروبیوتیکی به جیره ای که از نظر فسفر قابل دسترس کمبود داشت (نصف مقدار توصیه شده NRC (1994)) اضافه شدند. یک تیمار جیره ای دارای کمبود فسفر بدون اضافه کردن مکمل پروبیوتیکی بعنوان کنترل منفی در آزمایش گنجانده شد. جیره هایی با مقادیر فسفر توصیه شده (1994 NRC) به عنوان شاهد با مکمل و بدون مکمل پروبیوتیکی نیز تنظیم شدند. 288 قطعه جوجه خروس گوشتی یک روزه سویه تجاری راس 308 در 4 تکرار و 12 جوجه در هر تکرار تحت 6 تیمار آزمایشی قرار گرفتند. وزن بدن، میزان رشد، ضریب تبدیل بطور دوره ای و قابلیت هضم فسفر فیتاته، فاکتورهای استخوانی، فلور میکروبی روده و فاکتورهای خونی در این آزمایش اندازه گیری شدند. مقایسه وزن بدن بین تیمارهای مختلف نشان داد که کاهش فسفر قابل دسترس خوراک کاهش معنی داری را حتی در حضور پروبیوتیک نوترکیب در وزن بدن ایجاد کرد.قابلیت هضم فسفر فیتاته در تیمارهای مصرف کننده مخلوط پروبیوتیکی، در هر دو سطح فسفرقابل دسترس، حدود 20 درصد بالاتر از تیمارهای بدون پروبیوتیک بود. پرندگانی که از تیمارهای حاوی مکمل پروبیوتیکی لاکتوکوکوس لاکتیس به تنهایی تغذیه می کردند قابلیت هضم ظاهری حدود 18 درصد بیشتر از تیمارهای بدون پروبیوتیک (شاهد) برای فسفر فیتاته نشان دادند. همچنین فسفر سرم جوجه های مصرف کننده جیره های حاوی مخلوط پروبیوتیکی بالاتراز تیمارهای بدون مکمل بود. بررسی فلور میکروبی سکوم در 42 روزگی، جمعیت باکتری های گرم منفی روند کاهشی در مرغ های مصرف کننده پروبیوتیک نشان داد. نتایج تحقیق حاضر بیان می کند که استفاده از پروبیوتیک نوترکیب لاکتوکوکوس لاکتیس نتوانست تا افزایش معنی داری را در استفاده از فسفر فیتاته ایجاد کند. همچنین محتوای کم فسفر فیتاته در جیره های مورد استفاده در این مطالعه و همچنین افزایش ناکافی قابلیت هضم فسفر فیتاته احتیاجات فسفر پرنده را تامین نکرده است. لذا افزایش بیان ژن فیتاز توسط باکتری لاکتوکوکوس لاکتیس و استفاده همزمان آن با باکتری های پروبیوتیکی لاکتوباسیل پیشنهاد می گردد.
    کلیدواژگان: پروبیوتیک، جوجه گوشتی، فیتاز، لاکتوکوکوس لاکتیس، نوترکیب
  • علی خطیب جو، امین الله پورملکشاهی، فرشید فتاح نیا، هوشنگ جعفری، مریم اعلائی صفحات 132-140
    به منظور ارزیابی تاثیر ال-کارنیتین و پودر سیر بر پاسخ ایمنی سلولی و همورال جوجه های گوشتی، این آزمایش با استفاده از 480 قطعه جوجه گوشتی سویه آرین در قالب فاکتوریل (5×2) بر پایه طرح کاملا تصادفی با 5 جیره غذائی و 2 دوره کوتاه (3 هفته اول دوره پرورش) و بلند مدت (کل دوره پرورش) در 4 تکرار و 12 قطعه جوجه در هر تکرار انجام گردید. تیمارهای آزمایشی شامل 1) جیره شاهد (بدون افزودنی)، 2) جیره حاوی 02/0 درصد فلاوومایسین (کنترل مثبت)، 3) جیره حاوی 5/1 درصد پودر سیر، 4) جیره حاوی 025/0 درصد ال-کارنیتین و 5) جیره حاوی 025/0 درصد ال–کارنیتین و 5/1 درصد پودر سیر بود. اثر تیمارهای آزمایشی بر پاسخ ایمنی همورال علیه گلبول قرمز گوسفند (SRBC) و ایمنی سلولی در پاسخ به تزریق زیر پوستی فیتوهماگلوتینین (PHA) بررسی شد. نتایج آزمایش نشان داد که تیمارهای آزمایشی و مدت زمان مصرف مکمل ها بر ایمنی سلولی علیه فیتوهماگلوتینین و ایمنی همورال اثر معنی داری نداشتند. مدت زمان مصرف و افزودن مکمل ال-کارنیتین و پودر سیر باعث کاهش درصد هتروفیل و نسبت هتروفیل به لنفوسیت و افزایش درصد لنفوسیت شد. به طور کلی، کاربرد این مکمل ها (025/0 درصد مکمل ال-کارنیتین و 5/1درصد پودر سیر) در شرایط مطلوب پرورشی، بر ایمنی سلولی و همورال تاثیری ندارند بلکه سبب افزایش ایمنی از طریق سلول های خونی و بهبود سیستم دفاعی بدن جوجه های گوشتی می گردد.
    کلیدواژگان: ال، کارنتین، ایمنی سلولی، پاسخ ایمنی همورال، پودر سیر، جوجه گوشتی
  • سعید میرزاپور سراب، سمیه سالاری، خلیل میرزاده، علی آقایی صفحات 141-153
    به منظور بررسی تاثیر سطوح مختلف ویتامین C و ال-کارنیتین بر عملکرد، فراسنجه های خونی، و پاسخ ایمنی جوجه های گوشتی تحت تنش گرمایی، آزمایشی به صورت فاکتوریل 3×3 در قالب طرح کاملا تصادفی با تعداد 396 قطعه جوجه گوشتی راس (308) انجام شد. فاکتورها شامل سه سطح ویتامین C0، 250، 500 میلی گرم در کیلوگرم، سه سطح ال-کارنیتین 0، 50، 100 میلی گرم در کیلوگرم بودند. در دوره آغازین و کل دوره بیش ترین افزایش وزن با مصرف 100 میلی گرم در کیلوگرم ال-کارنیتین و 500 میلی گرم در کیلوگرم ویتامین C بدست آمد (05/0>P ). در دوره آغازین تیمار حاوی 100 میلی گرم در کیلوگرم ال-کارنیتین و 250 میلی گرم در کیلوگرم ویتامین C بالاترین مصرف خوراک را داشتند (05/0>P ). در دوره رشد و کل دوره تیمار حاوی 50 میلی گرم در کیلوگرم ال-کارنیتین و 500 میلی گرم در کیلوگرم ویتامین C بالاترین مصرف خوراک را داشتند (05/0>P ). کم ترین غلظت LDL، تری گلیسیرید و هم چنین بیش ترین غلظت HDL در سطوح 500 میلی گرم در کیلوگرم ویتامین C و 100 میلی گرم در کیلوگرم ال-کارنیتین مشاهده شد (05/0>P ). سطوح 500 میلی گرم در کیلوگرم ویتامین C و 100 میلی گرم در کیلوگرم ال-کارنیتین به طور معنی داری سبب کاهش کلسترول خون جوجه های گوشتی گردید (05/0>P ). هم چنین ویتامین C باعث افزایش معنی دار پاسخ اولیه و ثانویه علیه SRBC شد (05/0>P ). با توجه به نتایج بدست آمده از این تحقیق به نظر می رسد، مصرف 500 میلی گرم در کیلوگرم ویتامین C و 100 میلی گرم در کیلوگرم ال-کارنیتین بتواند باعث بهبود عملکرد و برخی فراسنجه های ایمنی و خونی جوجه های گوشتی تحت تنش گرمایی شود.
    کلیدواژگان: ویتامین C، ال، کارنیتین، تنش گرمایی، جوجه گوشتی، فراسنجه های خونی
  • علمی پژوهشی- ژنتیک و اصلاح دام و طیور
  • محمدرضا نصیری، علیرضا حق پرست، محمد محسن زاده، احمد حسن آبادی، خدیجه نصیری، زهرا رودباری، محمد دوستی صفحات 154-161
    تخم مرغ به عنوان یک منبع آنتی بادی جایگزین برای پستانداران می باشد. ایمونوگلوبین زرده تخم مرغ از مرغ به تخم مرغ انتقال می یابد و در زرده در مقادیر زیاد تجمع می یابد. ایمونوگلوبینYبه عنوان کاندیدایی برای جایگزینی با آنتی بیوتیک ها مطرح است. هدف از این تحقیق تولید و تخلیص ایمونوگلوبین علیه اشرشیاکلای در زرده تخم مرغ و بررسی حضور آنتی بادی ضد ایکلای در زرده با استفاده از روش سدیم دودسیل سولفات- ژل الکتروفورز پلی اکریل آمیدمی باشد. مرغ های تخم گذار در سه دوره ایمنی زایی با آنتی ژن کامل اشرشیاکلی که توسط فرمالین کشته و همراه با ادجونت کامل فروند در نوبت اول و دوم و با ادجونت ناقص فروند در نوبت سوم ایمن شدند. تخم مرغ ها جهت تخلیص جمع آوری و تخلیص IgY براساس روش پولسون و با استفاده از پلی اتیلن گلیکول 6000 انجام شد. در نهایت با انجام الکتروفورز حضور این آنتی بادی را نشان دادیم. IgY از زرده تخم مرغ با موفقیت خالص سازی گردید. نتایج SDS-PAGE حضور باندهای پروتئینی 27 و 67 کیلودالتونی که موید حضور زنجیره های سبک و سنگین IgY است را نشان دادند. اثرات IgY بر موش ها نشان دادند، موش هایی که IgY را 72ساعت قبل تزریق داخل صفاقی باکتری، به صورت خوراکی در آب آشامیدنی دریافت کردند در برابر باکتری مصون ماندند و همچنین هنگامی که IgY با باکتری به مدت 24 ساعت انکوبه شده و به موش ها تزریق شدند، موش ها در برابر باکتری مقاوم ماندند. نتایج نشان دادند زرده تخم مرغ از مرغ های تخم گذار ایمن شده می تواند به عنوان منبع ایجاد ایمنی غیرفعال مورد استفاده قرار گیرد.
    کلیدواژگان: اشرشیاکلیO157:H7، آنتی بادی، ایمونوگلوبینY، مرغ تخم گذار لگهورن
  • فاطمه کاظمی برزل آباد، سعید حسنی، فیروز صمدی، مجتبی آهنی آذری، داوود علی ساقی صفحات 162-173
    مواد جامد بدون چربی شیر اهمیت اقتصادی زیادی در صنعت پنیرسازی دارد. در تحقیق حاضر درصد مواد جامد بدون چربی شیر میش های کردی شیروان با مدل های تابعیت ثابت و تصادفی و نرم افزار Wombatمورد تجزیه و تحلیل ژنتیکی قرار گرفتند. داده های مورد استفاده در این پژوهش 1094 رکورد روزآزمون درصد مواد جامد بدون چربی شیر مربوط به 250 راس میش گله ایستگاه پرورش و اصلاح نژاد گوسفند کردی شیروان بود که از اردیبهشت تا مرداد ماه سال 1391 جمع آوری شد. در هر دو مدل، اثرات ثابت تعداد بره ها در هر زایش، شکم زایش، ماه رکوردگیری، متغیر کمکی روزهای شیردهی و همچنین اثرات تصادفی ژنتیکی افزایشی و محیط دائمی گنجانده شدند. در مدل تابعیت تصادفی چند جمله ای های متعامد لژاندر با درجه برازش 2 برای اثرات محیط دائمی و ژنتیکی افزایشی برازش داده شدند. میانگین درصد مواد جامد بدون چربی شیر میش های کردی این گله 83/11 بود. میانگین وراثت پذیری این صفت با مدل تابعیت ثابت 06/0 برآورد گردید. در مدل تابعیت تصادفی وراثت پذیری بدست آمده در نیمه دوم شیردهی بالاتر از نیمه اول شیردهی بود. پایین ترین و بالاترین مقادیر وراثت پذیری به ترتیب مربوط به روزهای 14 (068/0) و 112 شیردهی (193/0) بودند. همبستگی های ژنتیکی افزایشی و محیط دائمی برای صفت درصد مواد جامد بدون چربی شیر در روزهای شیردهی مجاور بیش از روزهای دور از هم بود. به طور کلی نتایج این تحقیق نشان داد که میش های نژاد کردی شیروان پتانسیل بالایی برای تولید مواد جامد بدون چربی شیر دارند.
    کلیدواژگان: پارامترهای ژنتیکی، درصد مواد جامد بدون چربی شیر، گوسفند، مدل روزآزمون
  • رضا سید شریفی، اکبر حمزه زاده آذر صفحات 174-184
    هدف از انجام این تحقیق ارزیابی نتاج حاصل از کشتار بره ها در آمیزش یک طرفه میش های ورامینی باقوچهای شال، افشاری، مغانی و ورامینی جهت بررسی و مقایسه عملکرد نتاج آنها می باشد.نتایج داده های مربوط به بازده لاشه نشان داد که بره های آمیخته افشاری از بازده لاشه بهتری نسبت به سایر گروههای نژادی برخوردار بودند با وجود اینکه وزن زنده قبل از کشتار بره های آمیخته شال ومغانی بیشتر بود. بره های نر نسبت به بره های ماده از وزن زنده قبل از کشتار و بازده لاشه بهتر و بالاتری برخوردار بودند.نتایج تجزیه داده های مربوط به درصد قطعات لاشه حاکی از آن بود که بره های حاصل از تلاقی قوچهای افشاری با میش های ورامینی برای درصد مجموع قطعات پرارزش ران، راسته ، سردست ، درصد مجموع قطعات کم ارزش قلوه گاه، سرسینه و گردن دارای بیشترین عملکرد و نسبت به سایر گروههای ژنتیکی دارای کمترین درصد دنبه بودند.نتایج ترکیب نسبتهای بافتی لاشه نشان داد که بره های آمیخته افشاری، مغانی و شال درصد گوشت بیشتری را نسبت به نژاد ورامینی خالص داشته و نژاد ورامینی درصد چربی بیشتری را در ناحیه دنده های 10-11-12 دارا بود. با توجه به نتایج داده های سطح مقطع لاشه و طول لاشه بیشترین سطح مقطع لاشه و طول مربوط به بره های آمیخته شال و افشاری بود اگرچه این تفاوت بین نژادها معنی دار نبود.جنس نر در مقایسه با جنس ماده از سطح مقطع لاشه بالائی برخوردار بوده و این تفاوت معنی دار بود.
    کلیدواژگان: آمیخته گری، بازده لاشه، عملکرد نتاج، گوسفند
  • ابوالفضل مهنانی، علی صادقی سفیدمزگی، علیرضا آقاطهرانی صفحات 185-196
    مطالعه حاضر جهت بررسی عوامل موثر بر میزان وقوع دوقلوزایی و تاثیر آن بر عملکردهای تولیدی و تولیدمثلی صورت پذیرفت. در این مطالعه، از اطلاعات 9 گله گاو شیری واقع در استان های اصفهان و خراسان رضوی که متشکل از 160410 زایش طی سال های 1380 تا 1392 بود، استفاده گردید. جهت بررسی عوامل موثر بر میزان وقوع دوقلوزایی و تاثیر دوقلوزایی بر بروز سخت زایی و مرده زایی از رویه لجستیک (Proc LOGISTIC) و جهت بررسی تاثیر دوقلوزایی بر عملکرد تولیدی و تولیدمثلی از رویه مدل خطی مختلط (Proc MIXED)، نرم افزار SAS استفاده شد. میانگین وقوع دوقلوزایی 7/2 درصد تخمین زده شد. دوقلوزایی در جمعیت مورد مطالعه یک روند فنوتیپی مثبت و معنی دار نشان داد. عوامل گله، سال، فصل و شکم زایش ارتباط معنی داری با میزان وقوع دوقلوزایی داشتند. گاوهای شکم اول (4/0 درصد) و گاوهای شکم چهارم (5/4 درصد)، فصل زمستان (2/2 درصد) و فصل تابستان (1/3 درصد) به ترتیب کمترین و بیشترین میزان وقوع را داشتند. با افزایش سن نخستین زایش، وقوع دوقلوزایی تمایل به افزایش نشان داد. دوقلوزایی تاثیر معنی داری بر تولید شیر، درصدهای چربی و پروتئین 305 روز نداشت. دوقلوزایی در گاوهای شکم اول و چند شکم، روزهای باز را به ترتیب 8/24 و 8/12 روز، و تعداد تلقیج منجر به آبستنی را 04/0 و 18/0واحد افزایش داد. پیامدهای تولید مثلی برای گاوهای شکم اول شدیدتر از گاوهای چندشکم بود. نتایج حاصل نشان داد که دوقلوزایی شانس ابتلا به سخت زایی و مرده زایی را افزایش داده در حالی که باعث کاهش طول دوره آبستنی می شود به ویژه اگر جنس هر دو گوساله نر باشد.
    کلیدواژگان: گاوشیری، عملکرد تولیدی و تولیدمثلی، نسبت بخت
  • علمی پژوهشی- فیزیولوژی
  • علیرضا وافری، محمد روستائی علی مهر، نوید قوی حسین زاده، فریدون طالبی صفحات 197-205
    هدف این مطالعه بررسی اثر افزودن مایع منی قوچ به اسپرم پوشش دار شده بعد از ذخیره سازی بود. اسپرم پوشش دار شده از چهار راس قوچ بالغ (3-5 ساله) در فصل تولید مثل جمع آوری شد. نمونه ها تجمیع و بعد به سه بخش مساوی تقسیم شدند. بعد از 68 ساعت نگهداری در C5 نمونه ها سانتریفیوژ شدند و بعد در نمونه های بخش اول (E-S+) مایع رو حذف شد و 10% مایع منی اضافه شد، در نمونه های بخش دوم (E-S-) مایع رو حذف شد و رقیق کننده تریس گلوکز اضافه شد و در نمونه های بخش سوم (شاهد، E+S-) رسوب با مایع رو مخلوط شد. بعد از چهار ساعت نگهداری در C 5، نمونه ها از طریق دهانه گردن رحم در میش های تالشی فحل (1-3 ساله)، تلقیح شدند . نتایج نشان داد نرخ بره زایی در میش ها شکم زایش دوم (91/18%) بیشتر ازمیش های شکم زایش اول (12/5%) بود. اگرچه نرخ بره زایی در تیمار E-S- (32/24%)حدود 10% از تیمار E+S- (81/10%) بیشتر بود ولی تفاوت معنی داری بین درصد نرخ بره زایی تیمار های E-S- و E+S-وجود نداشت. همچنین، تفاوت معنی داری بین درصد نرخ بره زایی تیمارهای E-S+ (4/5%) و E+S- وجود نداشت. نرخ بره زایی در تیمار E-S- به طور معنی داری بیشتر از تیمار E-S+ بود. بنابراین این تحقیق نشان داد که امکان افزودن مایع منی قوچ به اسپرم پوشش دار شده بعد از ذخیره سازی وجود ندارد.
    کلیدواژگان: اسپرم پوشش دار شده، باروری، ذخیره سازی منی، مایع منی
  • علمی پژوهشی- سایر
  • علیرضا هروی موسوی، ابوالقاسم گلیان، سیدجلال مدرسی صفحات 206-215
    نسبت ثانویه جنسی، نسبت گوساله های نر به ماده زنده متولد شده است. مطالعات انجام شده در گونه های مختلف پستانداران نشان می دهد که فاکتورهای متعددی بر نسبت جنسی ثانویه تاثیر دارند. تغییر در نسبت جنسی ثانویه در گاوهای شیری به لحاظ اقتصادی اهمیت داشته و مورد توجه قرار گرفته است و توانایی تغییر آن می تواند درآمد و سوددهی یک گاوداری را تحت تاثیر قرار دهد. هدف از این آزمایش بررسی تاثیر پاره ای از عوامل موثر بر نسبت جنسی در گاوهای هلشتاین ایران بود. در مطالعه حاضر از داده های شش گله بزرگ گاو شیری در خلال سال های 1375 تا 1389 استفاده شد. میانگین تولید استاندارد شده 305 روز گله ها 8145 کیلوگرم (با دامنه 7578 تا 8670 کیلوگرم) بود. گله های مزبور تحت پوشش مرکز اصلاح نژاد ایران بوده و ثبت مشخصات و رکوردگیری آن ها به صورت منظم توسط کارشناسان شرکت های تعاونی گاوداران انجام می شد. این گله ها در ناحیه شمال شرقی کشور قرار داشتند. داده های تولیدی (روز تولید و تولید تجمیعی ظیر شیر تصحیح شده بر اساس 60 و 305 روز شیردهی)، داده های تولید مثلی (نظیر سال زایش، فصل زایش، نوع زایش، جنس گوساله متولد شده، آخرین اطلاعات مربوط به تلقیح، روزهای باز)، و جزئیات حذف احتمالی از گله و یا مرگ ثبت می شد. داده های جمع آوری شده از گله ها پیش از تجزیه و تحلیل مجددا راستی آزمایی شد. بر اساس اسپرم استفاده شده، اسپرم ها به چهار گروه ایرانی، کانادایی، آمریکایی و سایر کشورها (شامل اسپرم های تهیه شده از کشورهای اروپایی) تقسیم بندی شدند. برای آنالیز آماری داده ها از مدل رگرسیون لجستیک استفاده شد. نتایج نشان داد که درصد گوساله های نر به گوساله های ماده 53 به 47 بود. در مطالعه حاضر نوع اسپرم مورد استفاده در تلقیح مصنوعی (شامل: ایرانی، آمریکایی و کانادایی) تاثیر معنی داری بر نسبت ثانویه جنسی نداشت. سال زایش نیز تاثیری بر نسبت جنسی نداشت. نتایج مطالعه حاضر نشان داد که نوع زایمان (طبیعی و یا غیرطبیعی) تاثیر معنی داری بر نسبت ثانویه جنسی داشت (0.001P
    کلیدواژگان: گاو شیری هلشتاین، نسبت ثانویه جنسی
  • موسی الرضا باغانی، محمد حسین آق خانی صفحات 216-226
    در این تحقیق ابتدا تغییرات استحکام پوسته و ویژگی های فیزیکی تخم بلدرچین در طول اولین دوره تخم گذاری پرنده بر روی 90 بلدرچین ژاپنی در سال 1390، در سه مرحله زمانی 15 هفتگی، 19 هفتگی و 23 هفتگی مورد مطالعه قرار گرفته و سپس تاثیرات انتخاب واگرای وزن بدن پرنده پس از پنج نسل انتخاب واگرا در سن چهار هفتگی بر روی تخم بلدرچین های نسل پنجم مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. برای اندازه گیری استحکام پوسته تخم بلدرچین ها در هر دو بخش پژوهش از دو روش آزمون فشار شبه استاتیک بین دو صفحه موازی دستگاه تست یونیورسال و اندازه گیری جرم مخصوص استفاده شد. در بخش اول تحقیق، هر چه از ابتدای دوره تخم گذاری به انتهای دوره نزدیکتر شد، انرژی شکست و جرم مخصوص تخم بلدرچین ها افزایش یافته و تغییر شکل و انعطاف پذیری تخم ها در برابر نیروهای خارجی بیشتر شد. جرم، حجم، قطر بزرگ، قطر میانی، میانگین قطر هندسی و سطح رویه نیز از ابتدا تا انتهای دوره تغییری نداشته و میانگین مقادیرشان به ترتیب g 41/12، cm3 51/11، mm 79/33، mm 10/26، mm 45/28 و mm2 2546 شد. در بخش دوم تحقیق نیز تخم بلدرچین های گروه کاهش وزن چهار هفتگی دارای وزن و حجم کمتر و ابعاد کوچکتر از تخم های گروه شاهد بودند ولی گروه افزایش وزن چهار هفتگی اختلاف کمی با گروه شاهد داشت، که بیانگر تاثیر بیشتر انتخاب واگرای وزن بدن بلدرچین ژاپنی در گروه کاهش وزن چهار هفتگی است. پارامترهای معرف وزن مخصوص و استحکام پوسته تخم بلدرچین ها نیز در سه گروه هیچ تفاوت معنی دار با یکدیگر نداشتند.
    کلیدواژگان: انتخاب واگرا، تخم بلدرچین، دوره تخم گذاری، ویژگی های فیزیکی، ویژگی های مکانیکی
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  • S. E. Ghiasi*, R. Valizadeh, A. A. Naseria Pages 1-17
    Introduction
    Oxidative stress is metabolic and physiologic status caused by imbalance between free radical production and antioxidant defense of body. In some physiological status such as rapid growth, parturition, disease and high production rate that imbalance would occur. High producing dairy animals are suspected to oxidative stress and require to antioxidant supplementation. Negative energy balance in early lactation force the nutrition specialist to apply oil and high NFC diet to exceed the requirement of high producing dairy animals such as Holstein cows and Saanen goats. In recent years, the attention to the use of herbal or organic antioxidant in animal nutrition has increased. This study was carried out to investigate the effects of feeding oxidized soybean oil (OSO) plus pomegranate seed (PS) as a natural antioxidant, on metabolism and physiology of Preparturient Saanen Goats.
    Materials And Methods
    Eighteen Saanen dairy goats with initial body weight of 47 ± 9 kg were assigned tothree dietary treatments in a completely randomized design with repeatedmeasurements for 21 days beforeanticipated parturition. Experimental treatments including: 1) base diet and 4%freshsoybean oil (FSO), 2) base diet and 4% oxidized soybean oil (DM basis) respectively, and 3) base diet plus 4% OSO and 8% Pomegranate seed (OSO-PS). After 2 weeks of feeding trial diets, goats were sampled for blood, rumen liquor, faeces and urine for measuring parameters of blood glucose, BHBA, lipid and nitrogen profile, rumen liquor ammonia nitrogen, urine pH and volume, faeces qualitative and quantitative variables and other responses such as nutrients digestibility. The GLM procedure of SAS software v.9.2 were used for statistical analysis. Initial body weight and metabolic variables were used as covariate in the model.
    Results And Discussion
    All nutrients digestibility, Ruminal ammonia nitrogen and voluntary feed intake were decreased by OSO (p
    Conclusion
    Generally, oxidative stress metabolic signs and statues were stimulated by OSO but most metabolic and physiological indices were improved by hormonal and antioxidant effects of PS. Improved nutrients digestibility, blood parameters, urine and faces variables and rumen statues regarding to the results, proposed that pomegranate seed or other derivatives, raw or processed form could have a potential effect on economical and health parameters of domestic animals. Also regarding to lowering pH potential of pomegranate seed, it's supplementation in preparturient dairy animals might be a good strategy for acidifying diet and animal body to the prevention of metabolic disorders.
    Keywords: Metabolism, Oxidized soybean oil, Physiology, Pomegranate seed, Saanen goat
  • Setareh Nabizadeh, Reza Valizadeh Pages 18-25
    Introduction
    Bacterial biofilms can be both useful and harmful based on their combination and locations. Biofilm formation occurs as a stepwise process. Their formation in liquid transportation pipes used for milking system and drinking water in animal farms may create some problems and is a potential source of pollution. Speed of biofilm formation depends on many factors including: construction and functional characteristics of bacteria, the composition and culture conditions such as temperature and substratum. In this research the Bacillus subtillis bacteria with special characteristics was selected due to its capability for biofilm creation. Bacillus subtillis bacteria is mobility and a stronger connection than other bacteria levels are created. In the research conducted in the biofilm there are many resources on biofilm formation by Bacillus subtillis bacteria. Bacillus subtillis is saprophytic in the soil, water and air. There is also the ability to form spores of Bacillus subtillis.
    Materials And Methods
    Firstly the possibility of creating biofilms on different Plastic (polyvinilchlorid, polypropylene, polyethylengelycole), alluminum and glass surfaces in three temperatures of 4°C, 30°C and 37°C were studied. Two different methods of biofilms separation including separating swap and vortex were tested and their efficienceies were calculated. After biofilm formation on parts of the vortex separation method after washing parts in sterile conditions in a tube containing normal saline for 4 minutes was vortex. The bacterial suspension decreasing dilution series was created. Pour plate in medium using agar plate count agar and was cultured at 30°C for 24-48 hours. Numbers of colonies were counted. The numbers of biofilm cells were calculated. In swap method after biofilm formation on parts using a cotton swap was isolated biofilms. The swap was transferred to tube containing normal saline and the bacterial suspension decreasing dilution series was created. Pour plate in medium using agar plate count agar and was cultured at 30°C for 24-48 hours. Numbers of colonies were counted. The numbers of biofilm cells were calculated.
    Results And Discussion
    Bacillus subtillis biofilms were formed on all studied surfaces. Total count of bacteria detached from biofilm indicates that these bacteria can develop on the polypropylene surface much more than the other surfaces. 10 days later, the formation of biofilm reached the maximum level. The optimum temperature was 30°C. The vortex method was more efficient in comparison to other methods. The bacterial attachment was highest with the plastic surface, specially the propylene surface; whereas the lowest attachment was detected in the glass surfaces. Synthetic materials based on hydrocarbons are more susceptible to the formation of biofilm and infection. Generally lower levels are microscopic pores and also less likely to form a biofilm. Rusty pipes, old, worn-out and scratched plastic furniture raised the possibility of contamination and could cause problems.
    Conclusion
    It was concluded that glass pipes are the best materials for liquid transportation in different forms of animal farms. According to this study, basic methods of removing biofilm and enable ranchers to make good use of the equipment and the practical methods of removing contaminants help.
    Keywords: Bacillus subtillis, Biofilm, Swap, Vortex
  • Mohammad Hassan Fathi Nasri, Fatemeh Khosravi Pages 26-33
    Introduction
    Using of agro-industrial by-products in diet of livestock not only reduces the production costs but also can dwindle the use of human foods in animal nutrition and competition between human and livestock. Thus, proper use of these by-products in animal nutrition and identification of new and low cost feed resources may be one of the priorities in livestock husbandry of our country. Pomegranate seed pulp (PSP) is a by-product of the industrial decoction of pomegranate. Iran with annually production of more than 900 tons of pomegranates is one of the most important regions of pomegranate cultivation and PSP produced from pomegranate processing factories may be extensively used in animal nutrition. Digestibility determination of feeds is one of the most effective ways to evaluate their nutritional value. In addition, there is a strong relationship between feeds digestibility and performance of animal. There are in vivo, in vitro and in situ methods to determine the digestibility of feeds. Although in vivo methods are reference for digestibility values of feeds and are of high precision but they are usually expensive and time consuming. In addition, these methods do not provide any information related to ruminal degradability kinetic of nutrients. The aim of this study was comparison of two methods of ruminal degradability determination methods namely, in situ (nylon bag) and in vitro (Daisy incubator), using dried and ensiled pomegranate seed pulp (PSP).
    Materials And Methods
    The PSP used in this study was prepared from Anaryan Co. in Ferdows, Iran. Decocted pomegranate was a mixture of Yazd varieties which were harvested at early autumn of 1389. Two types of PSP as dried and ensiled were used to compare the methods of ruminal digestibility determination, pervasively. The PSP silage was prepared by ensiling of wet PSP (containing 475 g/kg DM) in 3 kg bins (4 replicates)and with density of 650 kg wet PSP per cubic meter for 60 days and dried PSP was prepared by drying of wet PSP in oven at 60ºC. The digestibility of each feed was determined by both in situ and in vitro methods using two Holstein fistulated heifers and Daisy incubator, respectively. Animals were fed a total mixed ration containing 1.8 kg/d of alfalfa hay, 1.8 kg/d of concentrate, 0.5 kg/d of corn silage and 1.8 kg/d of wheat straw (DM basis) at two meals. The ingredients of concentrate were barley grain (35%), corn grain (18%), soybeanmeal (10%), canola meal (15%), wheat bran (11.5%), molasses (7%), vitamin-mineral supplement (1%), oyster shell (2%) and salt (0.5%) (DM basis). Comparison between treatments for each of digestibility methods at 24 and 48 h of incubation was done separately based on completely randomized design using SAS software. Correlation between digestibility determination methods was estimated using Corr proc of SAS and regression coefficient and also regression equation of in situ digestibility method on in vitro digestibility method was determined using Reg proc of SAS.
    Results And Discussion
    The results showed that DM digestibility of PSP (both ensiled and dried) was estimated higher when measured by in vitro than in situ method at both incubation times. The correlation between two methods of digestibility determination for dried and ensiled PSP after 24h incubation was 0.81 and 0.96, respectively and after 48h incubation was 0.99 and 0.75, respectively. The regression equations of DM in situ digestibility estimation from DM in vitro digestibility data were of high accuracy. Tagliapietra et al. (27) compared the in vitro and in situ DM digestibility of 11 different feeds and found a high correlation coefficient of 0.90 (P
    Conclusion
    It was concluded that two studied methods of digestibility determination were highly correlated and regression equation may be used to estimate the in situ DM digestibility of experimental feed samples from in vitro digestibility data precisely.
    Keywords: Daisy Incubator, Digestibility, In Situ, In Vitro, Pomegranate Seed Pulp
  • Seyyed Javad Hosseini, Vashan, Mohammad Malekaneh, Ali Allahressani Pages 34-42
    Introduction
    The common isoform of fatty acids in animal and herbal lipids are cis fatty acids, however in some sources such as milk and meat of ruminant, the trans fatty acids are more abundant as compared to the plant lipids. The trans fatty acids are very important because they increase the cardiovascular and heart attack. The heart disorders were increased by enhancing the concentration of omega-6 fatty acids and decreasing the concentration of omega-3 fatty acids in ration and blood. The types of pasture cause alter the fatty acid composition of lamb meat. For evaluation of heart function and health of heart, the artherosclosis and thrombogensis were calculated by the concentration of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. Therefore, the subject of this study, evaluation of the fatty acid profiles of sheep's fat-tail and meat at different places of South Khorasan Province.
    Material and
    Methods
    Five samples of meat and fat-tail from the animal's abattoir in Birjand, Sarbisheh, Asadieh, Ferdows, Saraian, Ghaen, Boshroieh and Nehbandan cities were collected and frozen (40 samples of meat and fat-tail). The samples were frozen in -80oc freezer. Then, the oils were separated and the fatty acids were extracted and methylated by the method of Morrison and Smith (1964). After that, the 0.5 µl of methylated fatty acids were injected to gas chromatography instruments (Varian 4200). The capillary column CPSill 88 was used. The type of each fatty acid was designated with compare to the retention time in the standard peak. The quantity of fatty acids was determined by internal standard method. To evaluation the fatty acids ratio for health, the artherosclosis and thrombogensis indices were calculated based on saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. The data were analyzed by SAS software, and the mean were compared by tukey test (α=0.05).
    Results And Discussion
    The analysis of data revealed that the percentage of saturated fatty acids (SFA) was higher at fat-tail as compared to meat of sheeps. The meat had higher MUFA and PUFA (P
    Conclusion
    This study revealed that sheep's meat had better fatty acids profiles as compared to fat-tail. The meat has higher ratio of PUFA/SFA and lower concentration of omega- fatty acids and the sheep's fat-tails had higher concentration of trans fatty acids and athrogencity index. Therefore the sheep meat may have a better quality as compared to fat-tail in south-khorasan. The natural pastures also may alter the fatty acid composition of meat and fat-tail's sheep.
    Keywords: Cis, Trans fatty acids, Fat, tail, Meat sheep, South Khorasan Province
  • Maedeh Feyz, Asadollah Teimouri Yansari, Yadollah Chashnidel, Mohammad Kazemifard Pages 43-56
    Introduction
    Feed contributes about 75% of the total cost of animal production, therefore utilizing of by-products such as Berseem clover and citrus pulp, as nutritive and low cost components of rations would decrease the production cost. In north of Iran over autumn and winter, utilizing of these by-products in making of silage as feed for ruminants provides good feed ingredient especially in feedlot operations, also eliminates pathogens, and reduces the effect of drugs and pesticides that are used locally without a serious control or discipline. However, little information available on utilizing silage made from these local by-products. The objectives of this research were to investigate the effects of ensiled Berseem clover and orange peels mixture on intake, digestibility, chewing behavior and performance of Zel fattening lambs.
    Materials And Methods
    Twenty male Zel lambs fed with five experimental rations containing basal concentrate and 35% Berseem clover silage as: 1) without additives, 2) supplemented with 40% dried orange peels, 3) supplemented with 40% dried tangerine peel, 4) supplemented with 35% dried tangerine peel and 5% ground barley and 5) supplemented with 35% dried orange peels and 5% ground barley. Lambs were housed in individual box and fed ad libitum, twice daily at 09:00 and 21:00 h with total mixed rations as experimental treatments, allowing for at least 10% residuals (as-fed basis). Water and mineralized salt stone were available throughout the experiment. Feed particle size distribution, geometric mean and the standard deviation of geometric mean were determined by dry sieving in four replicates, using two set of Penn State particle separator. Feed, feces and orts were analyzed for dry matter, Kjeldahl N, ether extract, organic matter and ash at 605°C, neutral and acid detergent fiber (NDF and ADF) when α-amylase being added for concentrates during NDF extraction; sodium sulfite was not added. Neutral detergent fiber was expressed without residual ash. Non-fibrous carbohydrate (NFC) was calculated by 100- (%CP %NDF %Ash %EE). Cr-mordanted NDF alfalfa was used as single marker for ruminal digestive kinetic (3). Using PROC MIXED procedure of SAS® (2002), the experimental data were analyzed in a completed randomized design by following model: Yij = µ Ti eij; where, Yij was depended variable, µ is overall mean, Ti is fixed effect of the treatments (i = 1, 2, …. 5 for experimental diets); eij is experimental error. Means were separated using Duncan's multiple range tests with an alpha level of 0.05.
    Results And Discussion
    The distribution, geometric means and their standard deviation were significantly different.Therefore the ability of experimental rations in stimulating rumination, chewing activity, and maintain consistency of ruminal mat was not similar. Several studies have shown that the by-products have a physical effective factor about 50 % forage sources. Dry matter intake was similar in 5 treatments because ration had equal NDF, energy and crude protein content. However, digestibility of the dry matter and nutrients of rations increased when citrus pulp and barley or when citrus pulp. The citrus pulp has higher digestible non fiber carbohydrate than forages that improves the digestibility of dietary dry matter and nutrients of rations because increased ruminal entrapment of particulate and mat consistency. In addition, citrus pulp is a high pectin source that easily decomposes, produces more acetic and lower propionate or lactic acid than concentrates; thus, decreasing rumen pH is limited when using them. Inclusion of dried citrus pulp in silages significantly increased rumination time and chewing activities. Although we expected that physical effectiveness of ration reduces when supplemented silage were used, retention time and passage rate of ruminal particulate were similar because of increased ruminal mat consistency. The average daily gain was similar between treatments, however, inclusion of dried citrus pulp in silages significantly increased feed conversion ratio.
    Conclusion
    The results of experiment showed that citrus by-products are suitable for inclusion in ruminant diets because of the ability of ruminants to ferment high fiber feeds in the rumen and can provide relatively low cost ration.
    Keywords: Berseem clover, Citrus pulp, Fattening sheep, Silagep
  • Narges Ghahhari, Taghi Ghoorchi, Seyed Alireza Vakili Pages 57-71
    Introduction
    Many herbal products (herbs and essential oils) are currently used as feed additives by the feed industry in the European Union and elsewhere. These phytogenic substances which increase feed aroma or palatability of feeds are classified as sensory additives by European Council. However, several publications show that some essential oils may have beneficial effects on animal performance and health status because of other properties except their sensory characteristics. These claimed properties are stimulation of digestive secretions; antimicrobial, coccidiostat, anthelmintic, and anti-inflammatory activities; and antioxidant properties. Most research revealed that supplementing herbal essential oils to diets resulted in reducing blood cholesterol, increasing palatability of feed and stimulating the immune system in poultry, while different results obtained by ruminants because of rumen microbial population and ruminal fermentation conditions. The use of large and repeated quantities of antibiotics in animal feed may cause to eliminate beneficial intestinal microflora and innate immune system and subsequently cause to antibiotic resistance and remains antibiotics in animal products. Recently, many herbal products because having flavoring and antimicrobial properties as introduced as good alternatives for antibiotics. The aim of the present investigation was to study of effect of Ziziphora clinopodioies, Mentha spicata and Mentha pulegium on the performance of suckling calves, dry matter digestibility, blood parameters and the immune system, the effect on the incidence of diarrhea and fecal microbial population (Escherichia coli, lactobacillus and total aerobic bacteria).
    Materials And Methods
    In the present study, extraction of essential oils from three plant species (Ziziphora clinopodioies, Mentha spicata and Mentha pulegium) by means of gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC–MS) were analyzed. In order to determine the chemical composition of plants used for food such as dry matter, crude protein and ether extracts, from conventional laboratory methods AOAC (2005) were used. sixteen Holstein calves with mean of 42.18± 0.71 Kg birth weight, aged 5± 3 day allocated to treats: 1) control (milk without additive), 2) milk contains powder Ziziphora clinipodioides, 3) milk contains powder Mentha spicata, 4) milk contains powder Mentha pulegium. The herbs added to milk in each treatment was 20 g daily. Duration the experimental period was 25 days. Dry matter intake, water intake and fecal score measured daily. Body weight monitored every 5 days, and blood sampling conducted twice, once one day before the start of the period (day zero) and once final day. Samples for culture prepared in three phases beginning, middle and end of the period.
    Results And Discussion
    The major component in Ziziphora clinopodioies was pulegone (38.34%), major component in Mentha spicata and Mentha pulegium was carvone (61.93%) and piperitone oxide (43.09%), respectively. The dry matter of three plant, Ziziphora clinopodioies, Mentha spicata and Mentha pulegium were 92.70, 93.25 and 94.01, crude protein were 8.57, 20.47 and 17.32, and also ether extracts were 3.20, 2.15 and 2.50 percent, respectively. Based on the obtained results, adding of Mentha pulegium to milk reduces dry matter intake during starter period and total dry matter intake in treatment Ziziphora clinopodioides was significantly higher than treatment control. Calves treated with Ziziphora clinopodioides, Mentha pulegium and Mentha spicata consumed statistically more water than control group. Dry matter digestibility significantly decreased in treatments Ziziphora clinopodioides and Menthe spicata compared to control. Daily gain, feed conversion ratio, blood parameter and immune respones were not affected by treatment trials. There were no significant differences between treatments for fecal score and day of diarrhea. Ziziphora clinopodioies, Mentha spicata and Mentha pulegium significantly decreased Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus count in fecal compare to control, but they had no significantly effect on total number of aerobic bacteria. The result showed that adding herbal to milk in neonatal calves have positive effect because of affecting on starter intake, consume water, fecal consistency score and intestinal microbial population.
    Conclusion
    Plant-derived essential oil may be a useful means to improve efficiency of nutrient utilization in ruminants and reduce the impact of their production on the environment. This study showed that the inclusion of Ziziphora clinopodioies, Mentha spicata and Mentha pulegium calves diet significantly improved the water intake and Mentha spicata and Mentha pulegium decreased dry matter intake. Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus reduction microbial population fecal calves represent the three species of the plant is antibacterial. However, further and more complete evaluations are required to establish the effect of herbal products in diets on the performance of animals.
    Keywords: Blood parameters, Escherichia coli, Labiatae family, lactobacillus, Neonatal calve
  • Sayyed Roohollah Ebrahimimahmoudabad, Ali Nikkhah, Ali Asghar Saxeghi Pages 72-85
    Introduction
    Native rapeseed (NRS) is planted in some parts of Iran because of climatic condition. The consumption of NRS in animal nutrition is limited by anti-nutritional such as phytic acid and glucosinolate. Moreover, the protein of NRS is highly degraded by rumen microorganisms. Several processing methods have been used to enhance the nutritive value of whole oilseeds, including extrusion, roasting, toasting and Jet-Sploding. However, most heat processing methods adversely affect protein digestibility in the small intestine. Recently, other processing methods such as processing by gamma and microwave irradiation have been noticed. Therefore, this research was carried out to evaluate the effects of gamma irradiation (15, 30 and 45 kGy) and microwave irradiation (800 W) for 2, 4 and 6 min on ruminal dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP) degradability, in vitro CP digestibility, anti-nutritional factors (glucosinolate and phytic acid) and chemical composition of NRS.
    Materials And Methods
    Chemical composition (DM, CP, EE and Ash) of untreated and irradiated NRS was determined by AOAC methods. Then, sufficient water was added to the sample to increase the moisture content to 250 g/kg. Gamma irradiation was completed by using a cobalt-60 irradiator at 20 ºC. The dose rate determined by Fricke dosimetry was 0.36 Gy/s. Another three samples (500 g each) were subjected to microwave irradiation at a power of 800 W for 2, 4 and 6 min. Phytic acid and glucosinolate contents of untreated and irradiated samples were determined by standard methods. Degradation kinetics of DM or CP were determined according to in situ procedure. Six grams of untreated or irradiated NRS were incubated in the rumen of three ruminally fistulated Taleshi bulls for 0, 2, 4, 8, 16, 24 and 48 h. Bags were placed in the rumen just before the bulls were offered their first meal. After retrieval from the rumen, bags were thoroughly washed with tap water until the rinsing water was clear. The same procedure was applied to two bags to obtain the 0 h value. The residues were dried and analyzed for DM and CP to determine degradation kinetics of NRS. Digestibility of rumen undegraded CP was estimated using the three-step in vitro procedure. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was used to monitor protein subfractions and the fate of true proteins of untreated and irradiated NRS in the rumen.
    Results And Discussion
    Irradiation had no significant effect on chemical composition, but decreased the total glucosinolate and phytic acid of NRS. This elimination of phytic acid by irradiation is probably due to chemical degradation of phytate to lower inositol phosphates and inositol, by the action of free radicals, which have lower chelating power, or cleavage of the phytate ring itself. The glucosinolate content of untreated NRS in this study, 122.8 mol/g, was reduced up to 30 kGy, but further irradiation had no effect. Major deleterious effects of glucosinolate ingestion in animals include: reduced palatability, decreased growth and reduced production. However, according to our study, gamma and microwave irradiated NRS may be fed to dairy cows at high levels without glucosinolate induced detrimental effects. Gamma and microwave irradiation decreased the washout fraction, degradation rate and effective degradability (ED) of DM and CP and increased potentially degradable fraction of DM and CP of NRS. Decreasing CP degradability as a result of irradiation is due to the occurrence of cross-linking of polypeptide chains, denaturation and protein aggregation. Gamma irradiation at doses of 30 and 45 kGy and microwave irradiation increased in vitro CP digestibility of NRS. Irradiation may induce unfolding of the protein and its denaturation, thereby exposing hydrophobic amino acids (especially aromatics) that are positional groups for the active sites of pepsin and trypsin enzymes. Moreover, the improvement in CP digestibility may be attributed to reduction of phytic acid. Electrophoresis results indicated that major proteins of NRS were cruciferin (globulin 12S) and napin (Albumin 2S). Electrophoresis results indicated that in untreated NRS, three subunits of cruciferin and in gamma and microwave irradiated NRS, three subunits of cruciferin and two subunits of napin consisted of bypass proteins.
    Conclusion
    In conclusion, gamma irradiation at doses of higher than 15 kGy and microwave irradiation more than 2 min reduced ruminal degradability of CP, increased in vitro CP digestibility and reduced anti-nutritional factors of NRS. Subsequently, in vivo studies are required to investigate effect of feeding irradiated feedstuff on lactation performance of dairy cows.
    Keywords: Anti, nutritional factors, Gamma irradiation, Microwave irradiation, Rapeseed, Ruminal degradability
  • Ali Gilani, Hassan Kermanshahi, Abolghasem Golian, Mostafa Gholizadeh, Ahmad Ali Mohamad Poor Pages 86-95
    Introduction
    Water is a vital component of animals and the main medium for biochemical reactions. Basically, water characteristics have a close relation to its molecular structure and it can be affected by external processing such as magnetic field. Some researches indicated that magnetized water resulted in better efficiency in agricultural products compared with the ordinary water. In animal husbandry, it has been reported that magnetized drinking water caused an increased production of milk, mutton, and wool in sheep and more weight gain in geese and egg production and hatchability in turkey. Several reports are available on the application of water magnetization including broiler production. However, some researchers reported that 500 Gauss magnetization for drinking water did not significantly affect performance of broiler chickens. The objective of this study was to scrutinize various aspects of magnetized drinking water in broiler chickens.
    Materials And Methods
    A total of 150 male Ross 308 day-old broiler chicks have been assessed in 3 treatments and 5 replicates with 10 birds each. Ordinary drinking water was considered as control group. One minute magnetized water was the second experimental treatment and three hours magnetized water was the third one. Magnetized water was produced by a commercial magnet namely AQUA CORRECT with 0.65 Tesla (6500 Gauss) magnetic field. Magnetization process for 30 liters of tap water has been done daily by magnetic apparatus. These types of water were offered daily to the birds during 42 days. Each pen (1 m2) was equipped with a manual feeder and a manual drinker, and the floor was covered with clean wood shavings. A corn-soybean meal based diet was formulated to meet or exceed the nutrient requirements of all broiler chickens as recommended by Ross 308 broiler rearing guidelines. Drinking water and mesh feed were offered ad libitum throughout the trial. Lighting was continuous, and the temperature was 32°C during the first week and then gradually decreased to 24°C by the end of the third week. Chicks were vaccinated for Infectious Bronchitis on day 4 and Newcastle Disease on 4, 11, and 20 day of age. All data were analyzed using the General Linear Model procedure of the Statistical Analysis System (SAS). Tukey’s Studentized Range (HSD) test was used to compare the means.
    Results And Discussion
    Magnetized water resulted in more water consumption throughout the trial; however, feed intake and body weight gain have been significantly increased in the third group just in the starter phase. Feed conversion ratio, mortality, European production efficiency factor and bioeconomic index were not affected by experimental treatments. Magnetized water significantly increased the relative gizzard weight at 21 and 41 d. Also, spleen weight increased at 21 d and pancreas decreased at 41 d, but the other carcass parts were not influenced by magnetized water.
    Conclusion
    All in all, magnetization of drinking water significantly influenced the broilers performance during starter phase and it seems that young chicks are more susceptible to magnetized water.
    Keywords: Broilers, Carcass, Magnetized water, Productive traits
  • Ehsan Sheikh Samani, Ahmad Hasanabadi, Abolghasem Golian Pages 96-107
    Introduction
    Feed constitutes 70 to 75 percent of poultry flock costs which vitamins constitute 0.08 % of diet and 2 % of feed costs. Vitamins as a group of complex organic compounds are needed in small amounts for normal metabolism of the body. Researches have shown that vitamins with smaller particles as vitamin supplements, were more effective and showed higher bioavailability. Nano form of supplementation increases the surface area which possibly could increase absorption and thereby utilization of vitamins leading to reduction in the quantity of supplements and through higher bioavailability. Their greater bioavailability shows that nano-particulate vitamin compositions can be given in smaller doses with less amount of that vitamins passing through the body unabsorbed. Most vitamins and other substances that are insoluble in water when formulated as nanoparticles, can be easily solved in water and even can penetrate to the body parts that are impervious to the macro particles. this study was conducted to compare the efficacy of Nano-multivitamin (NMV) with common vitamins premix (CVP) on performance, some blood parameters and immune responses of broiler chickens to verify the beneficial effects of nano-vitamins in poultry nutrition,.
    Materials And Methods
    The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design for 45 days. A total of 600, 1-d-old male broiler chicks (Ross strain) were randomly assigned to 10 treatments with 5 replicates and 12 chicks each. Mash basal diets were prepared and balanced for energy and all nutrient except vitamins according to the Ross Nutrition manual (2007), for starter (1-10 d), grower (11-24 d) and finisher (25-45 d) periods. Liquid NMV and Powder pure vitamins were added to diets after dilution with wheat bran to achieve weight of 2.5 kg of each premix for each ton of feed (2.5 kg premix/ton diet = 100% of recommended level). The size of NMV particles were 20-400 (nm) and the manufacturer's recommendations were used in feed or drinking water. In order to unify the experimental diets, 8 gr of vitamin C was added to Ross recommended vitamin premix and also 400 gr choline chloride (60%) was added to each 2.5 kg of three vitamin premix. Treatments 1, 2 and 3 respectively consisted basal diet (BD) 50%, 100% and 150% NMV manufacturer recommended levels; treatments 4, 5 and 6 respectively consisted BD CVP with vitamins levels equal to treatments 1, 2 and 3; treatments 7, 8 and 9 respectively consisted BD 50%, 100% and 150% CVP which satisfied the Ross strain vitamins recommended levels; and treatment 10 consisted BD without vitamins premix supplementation, as a negative control. Feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion ratio were measured for each pen at 10, 24 and 45 days of age and feeding the diets were removed 5 hours before slaughter. SRBC (SRBC 1%) and CBH (PHA-P) tests were used to assess the humoral and cellular immunities of two chicks of each replicate, respectively. At the age of 42 days, one bird from each pen was selected and blood samples were collected from the wing vein. At the age of 45, one bird from each pen was selected and slaughtered to determine the carcass characteristics.
    Results And Discussion
    Results showed that, treatments 2 and 3 significantly increased average body weight and daily weight gain of the birds in starter period (1-10 d) in comparison with other groups. Treatment 10, significantly decreased feed intake and daily weight gain and increased feed conversion ratio in all periods. This improvement might be due to the higher bioavailability of Nano-vitamins because of particles size reduction or converting fat-soluble vitamins to water-soluble vitamins. Omara et al (2009) demonstrated that nanotechnology can increase the bioavailability of fat-soluble compounds and increase their bioavailability. SRBC test showed no significant differences among the treatments. CBH test revealed that the birds receiving treatment 10 had significantly lower cellular immune response, 24 hours after injection, in comparison with other treatments. Treatment 10 significantly reduced triglyceride levels of serum and breast yield and significantly increased the relative weight of wings in carcasses and relative length of small intestine in comparison with other treatments.
    Conclusion
    The results of this study showed that using NMV in the diet of broiler chickens may improve growth performance of broiler chickens just in the starter period.
    Keywords: Blood parameters, Broiler chickens, Immune system, Nano, Multivitamin, Performance
  • M. R. Gangeh, M. Salarmoini* Pages 108-121
    Introduction
    Antibiotic feed additives have long been used as growth promoters in poultry nutrition. However, concern has been expressed about the potential development of antibiotic resistant bacteria (25). Consequently, the animal feed industry, exposed to increasing consumer pressure to reduce the use of antibiotic growth promoters in poultry diets, has to find alternative feed additives. Marjoram (Origonum vulgar) is a very popular and a common medicinal plant. The main chemical components of marjoram oil are carvacrol, thymol, myrsene, p-cymene, terpinene and pinene (29). The plant is reported to possess antibacterial and antioxidant activities (2, 36). The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of adding different levels of marjoram leaves (powder and hydroalcoholic extract) into broiler diets on growth performance, blood metabolites, relative weight of internal organs, ileal microflora, jejunal histomorphology and meat quality of broiler chicks.
    Materials And Methods
    Two hundred and eighty eight one-day old Ross 308 broiler chicks (male) were obtained from a commercial local source and used in this study. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with 8 treatments, 3 replicates and 12 birds in each replicate. Experimental treatments consisted of control diet (without any additives), antibiotic virginiamycin (100 mg/kg), Origanum vulgare leaves powder (1, 2 and 3%) and Origanum vulgare extract (150, 250 and 350 mg/kg). The experimental period lasted up to the 42 d of age. The rearing and management conditions were equal for all groups. Experimental diets were formulated to meet the nutrients requirements of the Ross broiler chicks (3). Chicks had full access to feed and water during the experimental period. Live body weight and feed intake were recorded at 10, 24 and 42 d of age for each replicate. At the end of the experiment, the blood samples (from one chick per replicate) were collected to determine hematological parameters, then the chicks were slaughtered and ileum contents were removed for bacterial counts and also jejunum were immediately removed for histological studies.
    Results And Discussion
    Based on the results, in 1-10 d period, supplementing the broiler diet with virginiamycin increased significantly feed intake (P
    Conclusion
    In conclusion, Origanum vulgare extract (at 350 mg/kg) can be used as a good replacement for antibiotics. Also, supplementing broiler diets with 3 percent Origanum vulgare leaves powder significantly decreased feed intake and subsequently weight gain. So, adding the powder to broiler diets is not recommended more than 2 percent.
    Keywords: Broiler, Meat quality, Origanum vulgare, Performance, Virginiamycin
  • Reza Majidzadeh Heravi, Hassan Kermanshahi Pages 122-131
    Introduction
    Phytic acid is a main compound in all plant seeds and contains 60 to 70% of total phosphorus in plant. Monogastric animals cannot use phytatephosphorus because of low phytase activity in their digestive tract. Thus in addition to unabsorbed mineral phosphorus, phytate phosphorus in fecal ofmonogastric animals may affect water and environment pollution. It is suggested to use of phytase enzyme for resolving of this problem. Phytase activity was showed in some bacteria like pseudomonas, bacillus subtilis and amyloliquefaciens. Few strain of lactic acid bacteria order showed phytase activity or were different for this activity. On the other hand these bacteria order are important as probiotic strains. There are numerous studies to use probiotic bacteria with specific enzyme activity for increasing nutrient availability to animals. This experiment was aimed to study of a recombinant Lactococcuslactis performance to degrade of phytate phosphorus in broiler chicken diets.
    Materials And Methods
    Lactococcuslactis was supplemented to a phosphorus deficient diet (50% of available phosphorus recommended by NRC) lonely or with two other lactobacillus bacteria (lactobacillus crispatusand lactobacillus salivarus) in rate of 108 CFU/g diet. Diets were also formulated with recommended available phosphorus by NRC with or without probiotic supplementation. Two hundred eighty eight one day old male Ross broiler chicks were subjected to 6 experimental treatment in 4 replicates and 12 chicks in each replicate. Growth performance, bone characteristics, intestinalmicroflora, and blood metabolites were measured. Apparent phytate digestibility was estimated by chromic oxide marker method. The chromic oxide was added in rate of 0.3% ofthediets. Phytate phosphorus was measured by the method of wheeler et al (1971). On day37, level of calcium, phosphorus and cholesterol of serum were measurement by bleeding from wing vein. Left thigh bone was isolated on 42 days and its dimensions and strength were measurement by Caliper and Instron instruments respectively.
    Results And Discussion
    Body weights of deficiency phosphorus treatments showed significant decrease evenin presence of recombinant probiotic (P
    Conclusion
    Based on this study, it is suggested to develop of phytase gene expression in Lactococcuslactisby supplemental study and use of probiotic lactobacilli as same time.
    Keywords: Broiler chicks, Lactococcuslactis, Phytase, Probiotic, Recombinant
  • Ali Khatibjoo, Amin Allah Poormalekshahi, Farshid Fattahnia, Hooshang Jaefari, Maryam Aalaee Pages 132-140
    Introduction
    Carnitine has several roles in lipid oxidation, immunomodulation function and enhancing antibody responses. L-carnitine has been found to exhibit immunomodulatory effects. It enhances serum primary antibody response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) and subsequent humoral immunity using 100 mg L-carnitine/ kg diet compared with control group in Leghorn chickens (Deng et al., 2006). It was reported that only the immediate effects of dietary carnitine on immunocompetence is known while comparing long and short-term effects on early life on the immune system of broiler chickens is unknown. The organic allyl sulfur components in garlic (mainly allicin) were implicated to mediate its biological activity. The biological activities of these compounds may be related to their SH modification and antioxidant properties (Prasad et al., 1996). AGE treatment prevented the reduction of the antibody production response in thymectomized mice and improved the thymectomy-induced deterioration of learning behaviors in passive avoidance performance and in a spatial memory task (Zhang et al., 1998).
    Materials And Methods
    Four hundred Arian one-day-old broiler chicks were used. This experiment was conducted in order to consider the effects of L-Carnitine and garlic powder on broiler chicken performance, blood metabolites and carcass characteristics in a 2×5 factorial arrangement in randomized complete design with 5 dietary treatments, 4 replicates and 12 birds in each and two periods: short (first 3 weeks) and long time (total production period). Dietary treatments were 1) Basal diet (BD: no supplementation), 2) ration having 0.02% flavomycin (positive control), 3) ration having 1.5% garlic powder, 4) ration having 0.025% L-Carnitine and 5) ration having 0.025% L-Carnitine plus 1.5% garlic powder. The birds were kept under conventional conditions for vaccination, temperature, ventilation, and lighting based on Ross catalogue recommendations. Standard management practices of commercial broiler production were applied. They were fed experimental diets from 15 to 42 d of age. The broiler diets were formulated based on standardized ileal digestible amino acids and other requirements were obtained from Ross catalogue recommendations. Humoral immunity of broilers against sheep red blood cells (SRBC) were detected by intramuscularly injection of SRBC (2.5% suspension in PBS, 1 ml/bird) to two birds from each replicate at 8 and 23 days of age in the first and second experiment respectively, followed by a booster injection at 6 days after the first injection. Blood samples were collected at 6 days after the first and second injection and total Ig, IgG and IgM were detected (Cheema et al., 2000). The toe web swelling reaction to PHA-P was measured in 2 broilers from each pen (marked with a black color) at days 12 and 26 of first and second experiment respectively. One-fifth milliliter of a PHA-P solution (1 mg/mL in PBS) was injected subcutaneously into 2 sites on the left toe web of the broilers. As a sham control, 0.2 mL of PBS was injected into 2 sites on the right toe web. The thickness of each injection site was measured using a pressure-sensitive micrometer before injection and at 4, 12, 24, and 48 h after injection (Wang et al., 2000). At the age of 42d, 5 broilers from each treatment with average body weight of each treatment were selected and blood samples were collected and white blood cell concentration like heterophile, lymphocyte percentage and heterophil to lymphocyte ratio were calculated.
    Results And Discussion
    Results showed that supplementation time and dietary treatments did not have significant effects on humoral immunity against SRBC and cell mediated immunity response against PHA injection (P > 0.05). Supplementation time and addition of L-carnitine and garlic powder decreased heterophil and heterophil to lymphocyte ratio and increased lymphocyte percentage (P
    Conclusion
    It was concluded that application of the dietary supplements (0.025% L-Carnitine plus 1.5% garlic powder) at the levels like this experiment did not improved humoral and sell mediated immunity whereas they increased immunity of broiler chickens and defensing mechanism.
    Keywords: Broiler Chicken, Cell mediated Immunity, Garlic Powder, Humoral Immunity, L, Carnitine
  • Saeed Mirzapor Sarab, Smayyeh Salari, Khalil Mirzadeh, Ali Aghaei Pages 141-153
    Introduction
    High Environmental temperature during summer months which leading to heat stress, is of great concern in all types of poultry production. Feed consumption, growth rate, hatchability, mortality, and other important traits governing the prosperity of the industry are adversely affected by severe heat stress. Literature suggests that the advantages of dietary L-carnitine and ascorbic acid have been particularly apparent under heat stress (8).
    L- carnitine is a zwitterionic compound synthesized in vivo from lysine and methonine, and is essential for the transport of long – chain fatty acid across the inner mitochondria membrane for β – oxidation and remove toxic accumulations of fatty acids from mitochondria (18). Vitamin C is an effective antioxidant, which is essential for collagen synthesis, helps to maintain various enzymes in their required reduced form, and participates in the biosynthesis of carnitine, norepinephrine and certain neuroendocrine peptides (11). Invertebrates, insects, most fishes, some birds, guinea-pigs, bats and primates are not able to synthesize ascorbic acid. Thus, these animals must depend upon a dietary supply of this vitamin C. In poultry, ascorbic acid has been demonstrated to be essential for growth (25).
    Materials And Methods
    In this study, 396 of Ross 308 broiler chicks in a completely randomized design with 3 × 3 factorial arrangement with 4 replicates of 11 chicks in each replicate were used for 42 days. Treatments were 3 levels of vitamin C (0, 250 and 500 mg/ kg) and 3 levels of L-carnitine (0, 50 and 100 mg kg). In the first 3 weeks of breeding, broilers were under normal temperature and heat stress was done from the beginning of forth week. Feed and water were provided ad-libitum. Performance parameters were recorded weekly. The 0.5 mL suspension of 5% SRBC was injected at 28 and 35 days of age in one bird of each pen. To determine the antibody titer, blood was collected 1 week after each injection. Vaccination against Newcastle was done at 8 days of age and 10 days after that blood was collected for determining Newcastle titer. At the end of the experiment, one bird of each replicate was slaughtered and blood was collected for analyzing lipid parameters, and also carcass characteristics were analyzed.
    Results And Discussion
    The highest body weight gain was observed in birds consuming 100 mg/kg of Lcarnitine and 500 mg/mg of vitamin C in the starter and total period of experiment (P
    Conclusions
    Based on the results of the current study, it is concluded that use of 500 mg/kg of vitamin C and 100 mg/kg of L-carnitine in combination can increase performance parameters and improve blood lipid and immune parameters of broilers under heat stress.
    Keywords: vitamin C, L, carnitine, heat stress, broilers, blood parameters
  • Mohammadreza Nassiri, Alireza Haghparast, Mohammad Mohsenzadeh, Ahmad Hassanabadi, Khadijeh Nasiri, Zahra Rodbari, Mohammad Doosti Pages 154-161
    Introduction
    Chicken is the only avian species in which polyclonal antibodies, like IgG is transported from the hen to the egg yolk in a similar manner as the transport of mammalian IgG from the mother to the fetus. Immunoglobulin Y in the chicken is transported to the egg and accumulates in the egg yolk in large quantities. IgY is an egg yolk antibody that has been used widely for treatment and prevention of infections in humans and animal. IgY is used for passive protection of the pathogen infections such as Escherichia coli, bovine and human rotavirus, bovine coronavirus, salmonella, staphylococcus and Pseudomonas. IgY is a promising candidate as an alternative to antibiotics. Eschericha coli strains of serotype O157: H7 belongs to a family of pathogenic E. coli called enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) strains responsible for hemorrhagic colitis, bloody or non-bloody diarrhea, and hemolytic uremic syndrome in humans. This strain of E. coli pathogenises by adhering to host intestinal epithelium and forming bacterial colonies. The purpose of this study was to produce and purify immunoglobulin Y against E. coli O157:H7 and develop specific polyclonal anti E. coli antibody in the egg yolk.
    Materials And Methods
    Sixteen-week-old laying hens (Mashhad, Iran) were kept in individual cages with food and water ad libitum. Immunization of hens was performed by intramuscularly injecting killed E. coli O157: H7 with an equal volume of Freund’s complete adjuvant into two sides of chest area (Sigma, USA) for the first immunization. Two booster immunizations followed up using complete and incomplete Freund’s adjuvants in two weeks interval. Freund’s adjuvant without antigen was injected to the control group. Two weeks after the last injection, the eggs were collected daily for eight weeks, marked and stored at 4 ºC. In order to IgY purification, eggs were collected. Purification of IgY from egg yolk was based on Polson and using PEG6000. Finally, the presence of antibody IgY was confirmed using SDS-PAGE. Purification of IgY was carried out by polyethylene glycol precipitation method using PEG 6000 powder (Merck, Germany) based on method of Polson. The purified IgY against E. coli was separated using 10% SDS-PAGE. In order to investigate the effect of the specific anti-E. Coli antibody, mice (Razi, Institute of Iran) were randomly distributed into five experimental groups (6mice/group). The mice were kept in conventional animal facilities and received water and food ad libitum. All animal care and procedures were in accordance with institutional policies for animal health and well-being. Experimental groups were including group 1 (mice received IgY orally in drinking water 72 hours before intraperitoneal injection of bacteria and then injected intraperitoneally with 0.5 ml of bacteria E. coli O157: H7), group 2 (mice received IgY orally in drinking water 72 hours before the injection and then injected intraperitoneally with 0.5 ml of deionized water), group 3 (0.5 ml of E. coli O157: H7 incubated with 0.5 ml of the specific anti-E. coli IgY and then 0.5 ml of the incubated solution injected to mice intraperitoneally), group 4 (mice injected with 0.5 ml of IgY) and group 5 (mice received 0.5 ml of E. coli O157: H7).
    Results And Discussion
    We obtained specific egg yolk antibody against E. coli O157: H7 by immunizing hens with the killed E. coli O157: H7 antigen. The results showed that the IgY was successfully purified from egg yolk. SDS-PAGE analysis showed presence of protein bands 27kDa and 67 kDa of IgY, which correspond to IgY light and heavy chains. Effects of IgY on mice showed that mice received IgY orally in drinking water 72 hours before intraperitoneal injection were protected against bacteria. Also, when specific anti-E. coli IgY was incubated with E.coli O157: H7 for 24 hours and then it was injected to mice led to mice protected against bacteria. The results of our study were agreement with the results of Chae et al (2007). We indicated mice immunized with specific anti-E. coli IgY could be protected against E. coli O157: H7. This phenomenon could be due to specific binding activity of IgY with bacteria that led to the inhibition of bacterial growth E. coli O157: H7.
    Conclusion
    The effectiveness of IgY in suppressing the activity of E. coli O157:H7 was indicated in our study. This could be inferred from the results of the current study that IgY in the egg yolk could prevent greater economic losses due to human and animal health from pathogenic bacteria such as E. coli O157:H7. These finding indicated that egg from immunized hens are potentially useful source of passive immunity.
    Keywords: Antibody, E. coli O157:H7, Immunoglobulin Y, Laying hens
  • Fatemh Kazemi Borzel Abad, Saeed Hassani, Firooz Samadi, Mojtaba Ahani Azari, Davod Ali Saghi Pages 162-173
    Introduction
    Milk solid no-fat is economically very important in cheese industry. Compared to the other kinds of milk, ewe’s milk contains higher amount of milk solids no-fat. Milk solids no-fat (MSNF) contains lactose, caseins, whey proteins, and minerals.
    The use of test day records in random regression method has several benefits including flexibility to account for the environmental and genetic components of the shape of lactation, reducing generation interval and cost of recording by making fewer measurements, increasing the accuracy of genetic evaluation and direct correction for fixed effects. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to estimate genetic parameters for test-day milk solid no-fat percentage in Kurdi sheep of Shirvan using fixed and random regression models.
    Materials And Methods
    In the present investigation, genetic analysis of milk solid no-fat percentage was carried out using fixed and random regression models by Wombat software. Data included 1094 test day records of milk solid no-fat percentage collected from 250 ewes in Hossien Abad Kurdi sheep breeding station. Milking was carried out by hand milking combined with lamb suckling at 14 days interval starting from May to August 2012. Then, 50 ml of milk samples were immediately analysed by Ecomilk total to determine the milk solid no-fat percentage. Fixed effects of litter size, parity, month of recording and days in milk as covariate and random effects of direct genetic and permanent environmental effects were included in the models. General linear model was used to identify effective fixed effects on the trait by SAS 9.1 software. Variance and covariance components were estimated using restricted maximum likelihood procedure. In random regression model, orthogonal Legendre polynomials of order 2 for permanent environmental and additive genetic effects was fitted.
    Results And Discussion
    Average milk solid no-fat percentage of Kurdi ewes was 11.83. Average heritability, repeatability, additive genetic variance, permanent environmental variance, phenotypic variance and residual variance of milk solid no-fat percentage were estimated as 0.06, 0.26, 0.029, 0.094, 0.0471, and 0.0348, respectively in fixed regression model. In a study on northern Thailand dairy cows, heritability, additive genetic variance and residual variance estimates were 0.133, 0.36, and 0.238, respectively. In random regression model, heritability of milk solid no-fat percentage was higher in second than first part of lactation period. The highest and the lowest heritability were estimated at 14 (0.068) and 112 (0.193) days, respectively. Repeatability of milk solid no-fat percentage was higher in second than first part of lactation period. The highest and the lowest repeatability were estimated at 14 (0.279) and 126 (0.732) days, respectively. In a study on milk solid no-fat percentage in Holstein cow in Korea, the range of heritabilities were from 0.305 to 0.489 and higher estimates of heritability for milk solid non fat percentage occurred in second half of lactation. Additive genetic variance in early lactation was lower than that of the end of lactation. The highest and the lowest additive genetic variance were estimated at 5 (0.013) and 126 (0.143) days, respectively. Permanent environmental variance was estimated higher in second than first part of lactation period and the highest and the lowest permanent environmental variances were estimated at 21 (0.05) and 126 (0.39) days, respectively. Phenotypic variance of milk solid no-fat percentage during lactation was not constant, the highest and the lowest permanent environmental variances were estimated at 5 (0.27) and 126 (0.79) days, respectively. Residual variance for the model considered to be constant for all days in milk (0.191). Genetic correlations between milk solid no-fat percentages at different days in milk were positive and ranged from 0.391 to 0.999. Permanent environmental correlation between Milk solid no-fat percentage at different days in milk were ranged from -0.343 to 0.999. Milk solid non fat percentage additive genetic and permanent environmental correlations between adjacent test days were more than between distant test days.
    Conclusion
    Generally, results indicated that Shirvan Kurdi ewes had high milk solid no-fat production potential. Moreover, higher heritability for this trait at the end of lactation probably indicated higher contribution of additive genetic variation to the total variation and selection of ewes in this part of lactation would be preferred.
    Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank the devoted team of Hossien Abad Kurdi sheep breeding station for their continuing collaboration in milk recording.
    Keywords: Genetic parameters, Milk solid no, fat percentage, Sheep, Test day model
  • Reza Seyedsharifi, Akbar Hamze Zadeh Azar Pages 174-184
    Introduction
    One of the animal breeding aims is increasing the economic efficiency. Therefore, mating among selected animals in order to enhance economic efficiency should also supply variation in population for next generations’ selection. This study was performed to estimate performance in cross breed lambs resulting from crosses of shal, moghani, afshari and varamini rams with varamini ewes, compained it to pure varamini lambs.
    Materials And Methods
    The objective of this study was the progeny evaluation from slaughter in one way crossing between Varamini ewes with Shal, Afshari, Moghani and Varamini rams and comparing their progeny efficiency. Thus, three 1.5 and 3 years rams were selected from each of Shal, Afshari, Moghani and Varamini breeds. A sample was separated from 10, 11 and 12 ribs was separated for examination of the fat, meat and bone percentage in different breed group lambs carcass. Data statistical analyze was done by GLM procedure of SAS 9.1 software.
    Results And Discussion
    Afshari crossbreed lambs had better carcass performance rather than the other breed groups although before slaughtering live weight of Shal and Moghani lambs were higher. Male lambs had better live weight and carcass quality before slaughtering than female lambs. The analyze of carcass parts percentage indicated that crossbreed lambs from Afshari rams with Varamini ewes had the highest efficiency and lowest rump percentage between genetic groups about valuable parts total percentage of thigh, roast, wristband and low price flank steak, brisket and neck. The analyze results of carcass tissue proportions combination showed Shal, Moghani and Afshar crossbreeds had more meat percentage and lower fat percentage on numbers 10, 11 and 12 of ribs than Varamini net breed.
    Conclusion
    According to our findings about cross surface and length from carcass the highest amount of them was belong to Shal and Afshari breeds, although difference amount between breeds was not significant. Finally, male had more significantly cross surface than female. Average percentage for lion, thigh, flank, brisket, neck, longissmus muscle area and carcass length, full and empty digestive system in different genetic group has no significant difference, also, average for, shoulder, legs, tail, heat, lean percentage and bone in 10-12 vibs sample and skin and fat percentage in this sample was significantly different in various groups. Sex effect on total removable fat and percentage of various carcass sections expect of thigh, lion and neck percentages, other carcass sections have significant differences in two finishing periods.
    Keywords: Carcass, Cross breeding, Performance, sheep
  • Abolfazl Mahnani, Ali Sadeghisefidmazgi, Alireza Aghatehrani Pages 185-196
    Introduction
    Cattle are a monotocous species meaning that, under most circumstances, a successful pregnancy results in the birth of one calf. Twinning rate has been reported in dairy cows from 3 to 5 percent, which can be influenced by maternal age.The birth of twins is detrimental to the majority of beef and dairy cattle producer. Financial loss arising from any of twinning has been reported in Europe between 109 to 201 dollars in recent years. Because it is associated with undesirable consequences such as reduced survival, calf, cow increased removal rate and poor performance. This also reduces pregnancy rates and profitability herds. One of the effects of twinning severe is reduction of the number of calves for replacement fertility in dairy cows. This is a loss arising from an increase in infant mortality and a gender bias in bull calves homo zygote.Twinning rate increases significantly the incidence of reproductive abnormalities, including the retained placenta, dystocia, stillbirth and abortion. Many studies have been done on the effect of multiple pregnancies in cattle production and reproduction. Higher milk production for cows twin issue is controversial as some studies have shown that there is a positive correlation between the rate of twinning in dairy cattle and milk production. But in the next lactation, production for cows that have been the twin of the infected cow metabolic disease in the previous period was lower. In a study reported that cows spend fewer days in the twin peak production. The results of the study on the effect of twinning on reproductive traits of Holstein cows-Farzin showed that only half of the twin cows are prone to reproduce in the next period. It is also reported a greater number of insemination per conception in twin compared to single cows. In addition, it has been reported that the twin was more than 15 days from calving to first services. Average twin cows experiencing 1.7 times more death and removal in lifetime production than cows single.The aim of this study was to estimate the rate of twinning in Iranian Holstein dairy cows and the estimated effect on production traits and reproductive twinning.
    Material and
    Method
    Data from 9 Holstein dairy herds from 2 regions, Khorasan Resavie and Isfahan, in Iran during the period 2001 to 2013 were used. Editing of initial data set was done with Excel. Duplicate observations, missing data for calf condition and cows with age at first calving 45 month were excluded. Following all edits, 160,410 calving records of 52,562 cows were utilized.
    According to binary nature of twinning, a logistical regression model was constructed to estimate the effect of bio-environmental risk factors on twinning using the LOGISTIC procedure of SAS the used model was as follows: Logit (π) = α β1X1 β2X2…. βnXn (1)
    A linear mixed model was used to analyze twinning effect on productive and reproductive traits using Proc Mixed of SAS Software. In this model fixed effects were included herd effect, calving season (calving year, parity, twinning, stillbirth and dystocia. The effect of other factors were considered as random. The mixed linear model used for this analysis included... .
    Results And Discussion
    The incidence of twinning cases per cow per year was 2.7 %, on average. Herd, calving year, calving season and parity had a significant relationship with the incidence of twinning (P
    Conclusion
    Twinning statistically showed a positive phenotypic trend in the study population. Twinning had no effect on productivity (milk, fat and protein percentages) cows while was reducing reproductive efficiency (increased number of insemination per conception and open days). Twinning increased sharply risk of dystocia and stillbirth, especially in the case of both sexes were male calves, Reproductive consequences were more severe for primiparous cows than multiparous cows. Given the strong correlation between the rate of twinning and environmental factors such as herd, year, season and parity, be carried out in each herd management program according to the time and circumstances.
    Keywords: Dairy cattle, Odds ratio, Production, Reproductive performance
  • Alireza Vaferi, Mohammad Roostaei, Ali Mehr, Navid Gavi Hosen Zadeh, Feridoon Talebi Pages 197-205
    Introduction
    Artificial insemination (AI) has only been used as a supplement to natural mating. AI, when used in conjunction with accurate progeny testing schemes, can substantially increase the rate of genetic progress compared with that of natural service. Moreover, the use of AI causes the limitation of the transmitted diseases. Cervical insemination with frozen-thawed ram semen has not been widely adopted, probably because of the relative poor fertility obtained. Thus using fresh and diluted semen is only approach for performing AI.
    AI is currently limited by the poor fertility achieved after cervical insemination with the storage of liquid semen at sub-ambient temperature. The success of this procedure in sheep is restricted by the short length of time that ram sperm can be stored in a liquid state. Moreover, the effect of cooling on sperm differs depending on species. It is also well known that ram spermatozoa are more sensitive to cold-shock stress than those of other species.
    Seminal plasma, as physiological secretion, is a complex mixture of secretions originating from testis, epididymis and accessory sex glands which is mixed with epididymal sperm at ejaculation; it serves as the carrier of sperm to the female genital tract. This mixture contains numerous factors such as organic and nonorganic material which play an important role in the final maturation of the spermatozoa through hormonal, enzymatic and surface-modifying events. During natural mating, a mechanism may be activated to separate spermatozoa from seminal plasma. After being ejaculated into the vagina, sperm swim through cervical mucus and enter the uterus within minutes (>30 min); cervical mucus acts as a barrier for seminal plasma. In the artificial insemination industry, seminal plasma with all the useful and harmful components is not removed from semen and is in contact with sperm throughout cooling, freezing and storage.
    On the other hand, it was demonstrated that the auto-destructive activity of seminal plasma was decreased which may be reduced by coating spermatozoa for less than 5 min during collection with the commercial diluent supplemented with egg yolk. The detrimental effect of lipid efflux induced by seminal plasma may be abolished by decreasing the time of the contact between seminal plasma and sperm.
    The objective of this study was to determine whether coating method, as a collection method, can improve fertility of ram spermatozoa after 72 h storage.
    Materials And Methods
    Experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of seminal plasma on coated spermatozoa fertility by using 111 ewes, aged between 1 and 3 years. Semen from four mature, healthy and fertile Thaleshi rams, aged between 2 and 5 years, were used for AI. The animals were housed at the Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Education Research and Practice Farm, University of Guilan, South of Rasht (it is located at 37° 12´ North latitude and 49° 39´ East longitude) and fed daily with alfalfa hay and 0.5 kg of concentrate, and provided salt lick and water ad libitum. Semen was collected throughout the breeding season (August, 2011) by using an artificial vagina. Ejaculates from each ram were collected in a tube containing 5 ml of coating medium (269 mM Tris (Hydroxymethy1) aminomethane, 52 mM D-Fructose, 89 mM Citric Acid, 2000 IU/ml penicillin G and 0.4 mg/ml streptomycin pH=7.0) at72 h before insemination. Two or three consecutive ejaculates fromeach ram were collected. The ejaculates were placed in a water bath (35○C) immediately after collection. Semen quality was assessed, and to be accepted as a donor, and the ejaculation of each ram ejaculation had to fulfill the following demands concerning semen quality: volume ≥ 0.5 ml, macroscopic good visual mass activity (sperm motility ≥ 75%), sperm concentration ≥ 3 × 109⁄ml and normal sperm morphology ≥ 90%. Coated ejaculates were centrifuged for 10 min at 700 × g at room temperature and the supernatant was removed. The pellets were diluted by Tris-glucose up to 800 × 106 sperm/mL then they were split into three parts (E-S, E-S-and E) and incubated at 5 C. After 68 h‚ samples were centrifuged by 700 × g 10 min at 5 °C. In E-S, supernatant was removed and added 10% crude seminal plasma. In E-S-‚ supernatant was removed and added Tris-glucose. In E‚ pellet was mixed with supernatant. Samples were packaged into straws‚ incubated at 5 °C for 4 h and inseminated 72 h after collection. Ewes were allocated to three groups and inseminated after synchronizing estrus by using CIDER (14 d) and injection hCG (400 IU).
    Results And Discussion
    The results showed that the lambing rate was higher in ewes of second parity (18.91%) than ewes of first parity (5.12%). There was no significant difference between E-S- (24.32%) and E (10.81%) although the percentage of lambing rate was higher about 10 % in E-S- than E. There was no significant difference between E-S(5.12%) and E on lambing rate. The pair-wise comparison of the lambing rates between the three groups showed significant higher results for E-S- compared with E-S. Therefore, fertility of coated spermatozoa was not improved by adding 10% crude seminal plasma after three days storage at 5 C.
    Keywords: Coated spermatozoa Fertility, Seminal plasma, Semen storage
  • Alireza Heravi Mosavi, Abolghasem Golian, Seyed Jalaa Modaresi Pages 206-215
    Introduction
    Secondary sex ratio (SSR) is the proportion of males to females at birth. It has been shown in many different mammalian species, many factors are associated with SSR. Changes in secondary sex ratio in dairy cows is considered economically important and the ability to change it could affect the revenues and profitability of a dairy farm. Thus, sperm or embryo sexing techniques in recent years has attracted more attention. Most breed of dairy cattle are more likely to have female calf is born to use them as replacement heifers and in order to maintain their productive herd number. On the contrary, when the goal is the production of meat, bull calves due to higher growth rates and production efficiency, are more convenient and more economically efficient. The aim of present study was to investigate some key factors affecting SSR in Iranian Holstein cows.
    According to Fisher, the sex ratio in the population under the control of natural selection is not always the same. There is overwhelming evidence to support the theory that shows Fisher Primary and secondary sex ratio sex ratio can deviate from this balance and natural selection caused a change in this ratio can be in certain circumstances. For example, the secondary sex ratio of 52:48 has been reported in dairy cows. Studies on mammalian species suggest that several factors, including latitude of the location, the dominant regional climate model, time and frequency of mating to ovulation, diet, age of parents, physical score, breed and produced eggs from ovarian left or right can have a significant effect on the secondary sex ratio. Weather conditions may modify the internal environment and the effect on physiological mechanisms or through the impact on the frequency and type of foods available to parents, the secondary sex ratio is impressive. The impact on the quantity and quality of parent's access to food sources in many species of mammals, the sex ratio has been fixed. Previous reports have shown that high environmental temperature and higher rates of evaporation from a week to a month before conception secondary sex ratio was increased.
    Materials And Method
    The demographic, production and reproduction data of six large dairy farms between years 1375 and 1389 were used. The rolling average of 305 d fat corrected milk yield was 8145 kg with a range of 7578 to 8670 Kg. Breeding Center of Iran and the herds covered by the registration and recording them on a regular basis carried out by experts dairy cooperatives. The flocks were in the area northeast of the country. Production data (date corrected milk production and the cumulative production by 60 and 305 days of lactation), reproductive data (such as calving year, calving season, type of birth, sex of calf, the latest information on AI, days open) , and details the possible removal of the flock or death were recorded. Data were collected from flocks before the analysis was re-verification. Used by sperm, sperm into four groups: Iranian, Canadian, American and other countries (including sperm taken from European countries) groups. The data were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression model. Statistics 0/05 was used to ensure meaningful results.
    Results And Discussion
    Results showed that the ratio of males to females was 53 to 47. Origin of the sires (including Iranian, American, or Canadian) had no impact on secondary sex ratio. Type of calving (eutocia vs. non-eutocia calving including dystocia and still birth) had significant impact on SSR (P 0.05). SSR was not effected by calving year. Season of calving, days open, parity, and the corrected 305 d milk yield also had no impact on SSR while the interaction of parity and type of calving was significant (P 0.05).
    Conclusion
    In conclusion, the results of this study shows that type of calving only had a significant effect of SSR.
    Keywords: Holstein dairy cow, Secondary sex ratio (SSR)
  • Mousareza Baghani, Mohammad Hossein Aghkhani Pages 216-226
    Introduction
    Breeding quail and quail egg industrial production because of the high nutritional value of these products has been developing these years. Considering the high demand and economical production, further development in the future is predicted. In order to design and effective utilization of the equipment for transportation, separation, packaging and storage, the physical and mechanical properties of quail eggs are needed. It is of great importance to study the factors which are influencing these properties. Strength of the shell is an important factor in determination of quail egg quality. Quail egg shell strength depends on several variables including specific gravity, egg weight and volume, shell thickness, weight and percentage of shell, hardness, breaking force, breaking energy, egg surface, farming conditions, type and species of birds, nutrition and geometric characteristics of eggs.
    Materials And Methods
    In this paper, initially in three phases, at 15 weeks, 19 weeks and 23 weeks, shell strength changes and physical properties of quail eggs on 90 quails during their first period of laying eggs were studied. Measured properties were included dimensions, weight, volume, specific gravity, shell thickness, weight and percentage of shell, breaking force, breaking energy, egg surface and some other properties.
    In the second part the effects of divergent selection for the bird’s body weight at four weeks of age on the quail eggs of fifth generation were studied. Measured properties were included dimensions, weight, volume, breaking force, breaking energy and some factors for direct and indirect measurement of strength of quail eggs. For direct measurement of the strength of eggshell of quail, two methods were employed: The first method was quasi-static compression test between two parallel plates of the universal testing machine and the second method was measuring specific gravity.
    In the first method, eggs were compressed between two plates using universal testing machine. The compression speed was 6 cm/min and 10 cm/min. The egg sample was placed on the fixed plate and pressed with a moving plate connected to the load cell until its rupture.
    In the second method, quail egg volume is measured by water displacement method, as they were weighed by digital scales and specific gravity is calculated by dividing weight per volume.
    Results And Discussion
    n the first part of the study, through the time from beginning to end of the first period eggs (from 15 weeks to 23 weeks) breaking energy, specific gravity of quail eggs and also flexibility of eggs against external forces increased. Mass, volume, large diameter, central diameter, geometric diameter mean and surface of the shell from the beginning of the period to the end of it, remained unchanged and their mean values were respectively 12.41 gr, 11.51 cm3, 33.79 mm, 26.10 mm, 28.45 mm and 2546 mm2. From 15 weeks to 23 weeks of age, shape index and sphericity decreased. Mean values of shape index and sphericity were 0.769 and 84.21% respectively.
    In the second part of this research, quail eggs of four weeks low body weight group were smaller and lighter than quail eggs of control group, but quail eggs of four weeks high body weight group did not show significant differences with quail eggs of control group, which suggesting greater heritability of body weight in the physical properties of the eggs. Strength and specific gravity parameters in the three groups did not differ significantly from each other. The results showed that quail egg shell strength after several generations of divergent selection for body weight has not been changed.
    Conclusion
    Flexibility and thickness of the quail egg shell increased from the beginning of the first period to the end of the laying eggs period. This makes the eggs less vulnerable and increases their strength. In the second part of the research, it could be concluded that the physical properties of quail eggs in a divergent selection for the bird's body weight in order to weight loss is more effective compared to body weight gain group.
    Keywords: Divergent selection, Laying eggs period, Mechanical properties, Physical properties, Quail Egg