فهرست مطالب

Anatomical Sciences Journal - Volume:13 Issue: 1, 2016
  • Volume:13 Issue: 1, 2016
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1395/01/09
  • تعداد عناوین: 11
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  • Milad Behnejad, Mohsen Bakhshi Kashi, Hossein Nikzad, Aliakbar Taherian, Amirhossein Loghman Pages 3-12
    Introduction
    Median nerve (MN), one of terminal branches of brachial plexus, is commonly associated with several variations. This research aimed to review the literature related to the variations of MN from axillary region to cubital fossa.
    Methods
    We searched Google Scholar, Science Direct, Springer, and PubMed electronic databases to compile reports related to the variation of MN published from 1990 to 2015.
    Results
    Variations in the origin, communication with other nerves, region of formation, pattern of innervations, and story of MN are common. MN in cases with abnormal origination forms by 3 roots (91.1%), 4 roots (7.5%), and 1 root (1.2%). The most common variation of MN has been detected in its communication with other nerves. These types of variations include 1 communication between MN and musculocutaneous nerve (MCN) (80.2%), 2 communications between MN and MCN (6%), fusion of MN with MCN (6.3%), and communication with other nerves (7.3%). The unusual regions of MN formation include arm (60.5%), medial to axillary artery (34.6%), and posterior to axillary artery (4.8%). Anterior compartment of arm and lateral side of forearm are either completely (45.8%) or partially (43.7%) the abnormal pattern of MN innervation. Other variations in MN innervation form 10.4% of cases. Entrapment (57.5%) and non-entrapment (42.4%) forms are 2 types of MN story variations.
    Conclusion
    The knowledge of these variations is crucial for medical experts such as anesthesiologists, radiologist, surgeons, neurophysiologists, and electromyographists to accomplish their duties properly.
    Keywords: Brachial plexus, Variation, Median nerve, Musculocutaneous nerve
  • Reza Samanipour, Batool Hashemibeni, Elahe Pourazizi Najafabadi Pages 13-18
    The identification of multipotential mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from adult human tissues such as bone marrow and connective tissues has provided exciting prospects for cell-based tissue engineering and regeneration. This review article focuses on the biology of MSCs, their differentiation potentials in vitro and in vivo, and their application in tissue engineering. Our current understanding of MSCs lags behind that of other stem cell types, such as hematopoietic stem cells. Future research should aim to define the cellular and molecular fingerprints of MSCs and elucidate their endogenous role(s) in normal and abnormal tissue functions.
    Keywords: Multipotential mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), Tissue engineering, Regeneration, Differentiation
  • Monir Taghipour, Mohammad Hossein Asadi, Mohsen Setayesh Mehr, Zahed Safikhani, Abbas Ali Rabiei Pages 19-24
    Introduction
    Plastination is a unique technique for preservation of biological specimens used for teaching purposes. The protocol of flexible sheet plastination includes fixation, slicing, dehydration, force impregnation, casting, and curing (Hajian, Rabiei, Fatollahpour & Esfandiary, 2008). The procedure is done by using P87 flexible unsaturated polyester resin and provides heavy, gross, fragile, and bubbling plastinated sheets.
    In this study, synthetic resin (P89) in the plastination laboratory at Isfahan Medical School is utilized with a new method for plastination of 3-mm human’s brain slices without casting stage. Also, common plastination method with the use of P87 flexible resin was used and the products were evaluated and compared in the laboratory with new method products. This method is also compared with specimens made by P35 resin sandwich method.
    Methods
    This study was carried out on 3 human brains. Initially, according to the conventional methods, the brains were fixed in 10% formaldehyde, cut sagitally, coronally, and horizontally into 3-mm thickness slices by meat slicer, and then dehydrated in cold acetone (-25°C) and immersed in P89 unsaturated polyester resin at 25°C. Finally, the specimens were taken out from vacuum chamber and exposed to room temperature. When both surfaces of specimens became dry, they were taken to P89 polyester resin pail again. We repeated this stage 10 times.
    Results
    P35 specimens had high tensile strength compared to P89 specimens. Also P89 specimens had high bending capability compared to P35 specimens made by sandwich method. Likewise, P89 specimens were lighter compared to P35 specimens. In the naked survey of specimens, P35 specimens with white spot in the tissue indicate discoloration for plastination of brain specimens without casting stage.
    Conclusion
    Our study showed that P89 technique is a cheap, quick, and less expensive method for producing sheet plastinated specimens which are suitable in teaching neuroanatomy.
    Keywords: Plastination, Brain, Polyester resin
  • Mahmoud Jabbari, Reza Mollazade, Farzaneh Esna Ashari, Zohreh Alizadeh Pages 25-32
    Introduction
    Correct interpretation of kidney images requires the knowledge of its normal size. This study aimed to establish normal values for kidney length and parenchymal thickness and identify the potential related factors in a group of Iranian adults.
    Methods
    Renal dimensions, including length and parenchymal thickness were measured by sonography in 103 individuals with no renal disease. Statistical analyses were done to find the effect of different variables such as side, age, and gender using 2-tailed t-test, Mann-Whitney test, paired t test, and Wilcoxon-signed rank test. The correlation of renal dimensions with anthropometric parameters, including weight, height, and body mass index (BMI) was analyzed using the Pearson correlation coefficient.
    Results
    Mean (SD) kidney length was 104.96(6.6) mm for the right, and 106.22(6.16) mm for the left kidney (P=0.02). Mean (SD) parenchymal thickness for the right kidney was 16.9(1.6) mm and on the left side, it was 18.2(1.7) mm (P
    Conclusion
    Because of several factors affecting on kidney size, its assessment should be made individually. The important influencing factors are ethnicity, gender, age, BMI, and height.
    Keywords: Ultrasonography, Biometry, Kidney
  • Fatemeh Ramezani Nowrozani Pages 33-38
    Introduction
    We did this study because there were a few studies about aorto-branch junction.
    Methods
    Four light microscope and electron microscope study, the abdominal aorta, renal artery, and the adjoining right and left renal arteries were dissected out from 4 neonate dogs.
    Results
    Based on the results, there is only one cell type in the tunica intima of endothelium in both arteries. In abdominal aorta, there were open connective tissue spaces, containing elastic fibers between the internal elastic membrane and endothelium. In renal artery, endothelial cells were attached directly to the internal elastic membrane. In the abdominal aorta tunica media, layers of smooth muscle cells alternating with elastic lamellae were observed, but in renal artery, the smooth muscle cells were close to each other and a small quantity of collagen and elastic fibers were found between them. There were more dense bodies in the renal artery smooth muscle cells compared to the abdominal aorta. The adventitia of the both arteries consisted of scattered fibroblasts and elastic fibers in tunica adventitia of renal artery were more than those in abdominal aorta. There were 2 orientations of smooth muscle cells at the junction of renal artery; circular form in tunica media and longitudinal form in the outer part of tunica media and tunica adventitia and it was similar to the structure of muscular veins.
    Conclusion
    aorta and renal artery in neonate dogs show some differences. These differences presumably reflect adaptation to the function of these 2 arteries.
    Keywords: Elastic fibers, Collagen, Smooth muscle cell, Dog, Junction
  • Hossein Ghanepour, Mohammad Mehdizadeh, Ebrahim Zabihi, Mahdieh Ghiasi, Mohsen Sheykhhasan, Mitra Narmashiri Pages 39-46
    Introduction
    Natural biomaterials and growth factors are key factors in tissue engineering. The objective of the present study was to evaluate transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) and curcumin on proliferation and differentiation of nasal-derived chondrocyte seeded on the fibrin glue scaffold.
    Methods
    Chondrocytes were isolated from nasal samples. Nasal-derived chondrocytes were seeded on fibrin glue at chondrogenic induction medium for 2 weeks. In this study, the effects of various concentrations of curcumin and TGF-β1 on the survival and proliferation of chondrocytes seeded on fibrin biomaterial were assessed by MTT assays. Also, chondrocytespecific gene expression was assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
    Results
    There were significant differences among the group treated with curcumin 10 μg compared to other groups with regard to cell viability. Also, gene expression of collagen type II, aggrecan, and SOX9 in the chondrocytes seeded on fibrin biomaterial containing the growth factor TGF-β1 significantly differed from those of curcumin and control group.
    Conclusion
    Our results indicate that TGF-β1 and natural biomaterial of curcumin can be used effectively in chondrogenic viability and differentiation of nasal-derived chondrocyte.
    Keywords: Transforming growth factor beta 1, Curcumin, Chondrocytes, 3, (4, 5, Dimethylthiazol, 2, yl), 2, 5, Diphenyl tetrazolium bromide, Real, time PCR
  • Hamid Karimi, Belal Hassanzadeh, Nasser Razmaraii Pages 47-54
    Introduction
    Most mammalians possess an accessory olfactory system, which its first part is called vomeronasal organ (VNO). In this research, we studied the structure of this organ in Azerbaijani red fox.
    Methods
    Heads of 10 healthy male fox carcasses were collected from areas around Tabriz and transferred to the laboratory in frozen form or in fixative solution. Biometrical experiments were done, then the maxillary bones cut into 5 pieces, and the pieces decalcified and embedded in paraffin. Then, 7-μm tissue sections were stained with H&E, PAS, and Masson’s trichrome methods and explored under light microscope.
    Results
    Two ducts of VNO start at the roof of mouth, about 3.17±0.28 mm behind the central incisor teeth, extend back into 2 sides of nasal septum and end near the first or second premolar teeth. This organ is surrounded by a hyaline cartilage, which is C-shaped in the first pieces and transform to “J” shape structure toward the back. The lining epithelium of lumen changes from nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium near the valve to pseudostratified columnar in the posterior portions. Presence of bipolar neurons in epithelium of medial wall shows VNO sensory function of smelling. Lamina propria-tunica submucosa in most portions have many serous and mucous secretory units and composed of a loose connective tissue with numerous blood vessels, which secretes pheromone. Also, this is an erectile tissue that can function in association with flehmen reaction to push toward the sensory epithelium of VNO.
    Conclusion
    Orifice of VNO of Azerbaijani red fox same more mammalian open in oral cavity. It has 2 type epithelial tissues in end region. Sensory epithelium indicates important role of this organ for received of Pheromones.
    Keywords: Anatomy, Histology, Flehmen reaction, Fox, Vomeronasal organ
  • Amin Zand, Hojjat Allah Abbaszadeh, Mohammad Amin Abdolahifar, Abbas Ali Aghaee, Abdollah Amini, Reza Mastery Farahni Pages 55-60
    Introduction
    Medical undergraduates usually understand and memorize anatomical course material with difficulty. Also, the current text books and atlases of anatomy and histology do not fulfill all the learning needs of the undergraduates. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the role of internet websites and computer programs (i.e. the role of electronic learning) in teaching. The present research aimed to introduce the new teaching facilities in the field of anatomical sciences to improve learning among medical undergraduates and ameliorate the present teaching deficiencies. The present research also aimed at facilitating the continual training of graduates and lecturers in the anatomical sciences.
    Methods
    In this research, content analysis was conducted on 9 internet websites and 4 projects and computer programs related to anatomical sciences on the basis of those introduced by the lecturers of the anatomical sciences department of medicine faculty of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences. This review was conducted on the basis of teaching processes and technologies needed in electronic learning environment and also the necessary teaching facilities in learning of the anatomical sciences.
    Results
    Having interactive programs, atlases and virtual tests, the capability of updating material and continual education are some of the properties of electronic learning environments in the teaching of anatomical sciences. According to this research, 100% of the investigated projects and the computer programs and 44% of the websites, had interactive programs. Furthermore, 50% of the projects and computer programs and 22% of websites had virtual updated atlases, and 22% of websites had virtual tests.
    Conclusion
    By using the facilities in reliable educational sites of anatomical sciences and also the interactive learning computer programs, difficulties in learning and understanding anatomical sciences syllabus can be reduced and the level of knowledge in the field raised so that the way can be paved for improving clinical skills in the areas of diagnosis and treatment. Besides, the use of these technologies is effective in updating the knowledge of graduates and lecturers in the field of anatomical sciences.
    Keywords: Electronic learning, Teaching, Anatomical Sciences, Anatomy, Histology
  • Ebrahim Momeni, Ebrahim Esfandiari Pages 61-62
    Introduction
    Vertebral arteries arise from the root of the neck as the first branches from the superior-posterior aspect of the subclavian arteries. They ascend the neck to enter the cranial cavity and supply blood to the brain.
    Methods
    A total of 20 cadavers (in 10 years) were dissected for the study of variations in the origin of the vertebral artery. This study was conducted in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences.
    Results
    In 19 cadavers, left vertebral artery originated from the first part of the subclavian artery. But, in one cadaver, left vertebral artery originated from the aortic arch between the left common carotid and subclavian artery.
    Conclusion
    The anatomic and morphologic variations of the vertebral artery are significant for diagnostic and surgical procedures in the head and neck region.
    Keywords: Vertebral arteries, Subclavian arteries, Variation
  • Samereh Dehghani, Soltani, Seyed Hassan Eftekhar, Vaghefi, Abdolreza Babaee Pages 63-66
    This case study reports a rare variation of the superior laryngeal artery (SLA), which is the principal arterial supply of the larynx. The knowledge of the arterial variations is essential for the surgeons to prevent blood loss and postoperative complications. During routine dissection of an adult male cadaver, a rare arterial variation in the SLA was seen. In this case, the SLA passed through the thyroid foramen. The present study provides significant information about the SLA. We hope that it helps describe the arterial bleeding that may happen during laryngeal surgery.
    Keywords: Superior laryngeal artery, Thyroid foramen, Arterial variation
  • Masoumeh Aminizadeh, Fatemeh Jahanimoghadam Pages 67-69
    We report the delayed eruption and infraocclusion of a mandibular second primary molar with ectopic location of the permanent successor. This was a rare case where the second premolar was located to the distal side of the impacted mandibular second primary molar. Early intervention is recommended to manage orofacial disfigurement and prevent consequent problems.
    Keywords: Ectopic, Infraocclusion, Malocclusion