فهرست مطالب

Anatomical Sciences Journal
Volume:19 Issue: 2, Summer -Autumn 2022

  • تاریخ انتشار: 1402/09/06
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Effect of Adriamycin on α1β1, α1β4, and ανβ3 Expression in Rat Endometrium in Estrus Phase
    Behnaz Ahrabi, Mohsen Noroozian, Robabeh Taheri-Panah, Hamid Nazarian, Fatemeh Fadaee Fathabadi, Sanaz Alaee, Marefat Ghaffari Novin*, HojjatAllah Abbaszadeh Page 2
    Introduction

    Although the effect of adriamycin, a chemical drug used to treat cancer, is known to affect gametogenesis and ovarian function, the drug’s effect on endometrial receptivity and expression of integrin genes is unclear. To fill this gap, we aimed to investigate the effect of adriamycin on the expression of integrin genes that play a role in endometrial receptivity.

    Methods

    A total of 32 female rats weighing about 200 g were tested in the present study. The rats were divided into 4 groups: Healthy (sham), control, and experimental, with adriamycin at 4 mg/kg and 8 mg/kg doses for 6 weeks. Two weeks after the injection of adriamycin at an 8 mg/kg dose in the treatment group, all rats were sacrificed, but the treatment group with a 4 mg/kg dose of adriamycin continued the treatment. Then, the estrus phase was determined in the three groups using vaginal smears. The endometrial tissue was removed, and gene expression levels of α1β1, α1β4, and ανβ3 genes were evaluated using Real-time PCR methods in the three groups.

    Results

    The rats’ weight decreased significantly in the treatment group with adriamycin. The process of weight loss was found to be dose-dependent. Integrin gene expression in the adriamycin group in the estrus phase had no significant difference compared with that in the control and sham groups (P>0.05). In the adriamycin group, the expression of integrin α1 increased significantly (P<0.05; P=0.013).

    Conclusion

    The expression of integrin genes did not change, except for integrin alpha1 (intgα1), during the estrus phase in the endometrium treated with adriamycin drug. Probably, adriamycin did not have any effect on the expression of integrin genes.

    Keywords: α1β1, α1β4, ανβ3, chemotherapy, Adriamycin, endometrium
  • Hossein Bahadoran, Reza Dadfar, MohammadHosein Asadi, Sajad Moghadami* Pages 51-58

    Anatomical sciences are considered as the foundation of the medical education. Previously, the anatomy in medical educational environments was based on the lecture presentation and corpus dissection. Then, the newer protocols, such as teaching methods using human models, imaging, simulation, and internet-based webinars, were widely used in academic schools. In this era, the medical curriculums focused less on corpse dissection. Medical learning in the field of anatomy was basically based on the traditional approaches and presentation-based learning using the students under the teacher’s supervision. The teacher, as the class manager, can design the curriculum contents using clinical applications along with knowledge assessment. This procedure can be achieved through planning for the future and the plans ensuring the persistent development of anatomy as a relevant clinical subject in any medical curriculum.

    Keywords: Anatomy, Education, Learning, Medicine
  • Hossein Bahadoran, Reza Dadfar, Mohammad Hosein Asadi, Amir Abdolmaleki, Sajad Moghadami* Pages 59-64

    Neurulation, as the formation of the basis of the nervous system, is the earliest and crucial stage of embryonic development, affecting the development of other parts of the embryonic body. During neurulation, the neural plate is formed through morphological changes. At the end of this stage, the neural tube is established and the central nervous system could be formed in the future. Although this embryonic process occurs morphologically, the precise study of nervous system evolution can be considered by different gene mutations in rodent embryos. Genetic assessments of embryos can finally cause the accurate discovery of the role of genes in embryo development, the stages of nervous system development, and possible associated diseases. Explanation of new findings in the field of neurulation with emphasis on genetics can be helpful in future embryonic studies, abnormalities, and treatments. Thus, the study of neural plate formation can play an important role in increasing the insight of embryological researchers in this field. In this review article, we aimed to collect basic embryonic data in rodent neurulation to provide important information for more laboratory investigations in this field.

    Keywords: Embryology, Neurulation, Rodent, Central nervous system
  • Hazel Hlongwane, Sashrika Pillay-Addinal, Sabashnee Govender-Davies* Pages 65-72
    Introduction

    The brachial plexus is a network of nerves originating in the periclavicular region and provides sensory and motor innervation to the upper extremity. The plexus is an important structure due to its anatomical location and vulnerability to damage. As such, surgeons need to be able to locate individual plexus segments or nerve branches when performing procedures. However, finding the sites of uniting and dividing points within the brachial plexus can prove challenging.

    Methods

    Dissections were performed bilaterally on 30 formalin-fixed adult cadavers to expose the individual segments and branches of the brachial plexus. Subsequently, various measurements were taken. Measurements included the length of the roots, trunks, divisions, cords, and terminal branches (musculocutaneous, median, ulnar, radial, and axillary nerves).

    Results

    The statistical test revealed the Mean±SD length of the middle and inferior trunk was 34.75±29.6 mm and 39.8±14.2 mm respectively. The Mean±SD of lateral cord was 47.75±14.98 mm, the posterior cord 45±13.20 mm, and the medial cord was 48.75±16.44 mm. The terminal branches were as follows: Musculocutaneous nerve 67±25.03 mm, median nerve 206.20±116 mm, ulnar nerve 219.70±29.70 mm, radial nerve 117.30±17 mm and axillary nerve 65.60±13.30 mm.

    Conclusion

    A thorough understanding of all relevant anatomical landmarks is mandatory for any successful procedure. Common techniques, such as brachial plexus blocks, require detailed anatomical literature due to the complexity and variability of the plexus. Results from this study will add to the understanding of the anatomy of the brachial plexus and further assist clinicians in pre- and perioperative surgical planning.

    Keywords: Anatomical landmarks, Brachial plexus, Cadaveric, Length, Variation
  • G. Gohila*, S. Valli Pages 73-78
    Introduction

    The brachial artery runs at lower border of the teres major muscle as a continuation of the third part of the axillary artery. It divided into radial and ulnar arteries at the neck of the radius. For surgeons performing operations on the upper extremity, clinical knowledge of the morphology of brachial arteries in the upper limb is important. This study aims to study the course, branching pattern, and termination of the brachial artery in human cadavers.

    Methods

    In this study, 30 upper limb specimens were collected from adult human embalmed cadavers used for undergraduate dissection at the Institute of Anatomy, Madras Medical College in Chennai, India.

    Results

    Of 30 dissected specimens, 29(96.7%) had normal brachial artery course and one had superficial brachial artery (3.3%). The brachial artery division was seen in 28 specimens (93.3%) below the intercondylar line (at the neck of the radius). In 2 cases (6.7%), the brachial artery division into radial and ulnar arteries occurred above the intercondylar line. 

    Conclusion

    The variations in origin, course, branching pattern, and termination of the upper limb’s brachial artery are important both structurally and therapeutically. Surgeons, physicians, radiologists, and cardiologists should pay attention to these variations. Due to the use of modern surgical techniques in vascular surgery, plastic and reconstructive surgeries, diagnostic & therapeutic tests, these variances have attracted the attention of surgeons, physicians, radiologists, and interventionists.

    Keywords: Brachial artery, Superficial brachial artery, Intercondylar line
  • Mehdi Jahedi Zargar, Saeed Heidari Keshel, Saeid Kaviani, Mohammad Zahraei, Azadeh Izadyari Aghmiuni, Ali Amir Savadkoohi, Hamidreza Jamaati, Mohammad Samet, Mahsa Soufizomorrod, Mina Soufi Zomorrod, Faeze Sadat Heidari, MohamadReza Mirjalili, Payam Tabarsi, Mohammadreza Soroush, Rasoul Aliannejad, Mojtaba Javani, Hosein Shafiii, Mohammad Vasei, Masoud Soleimani* Pages 79-88
    Introduction

    Most mortality in COVID-19 cases was due to the increased inflammatory cytokines and cytokine storm. As mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) possess immunomodulatory properties, this study assessed the therapeutic effects of placental MSC-derived extracellular vesicles on the inflammation and pulmonary injury caused by COVID-19. 

    Methods

    The study was carried out in phases I (safety study, 101 patients) and II (efficacy study, 80 patients) in a randomized, double-blind study at four hospital centers from April 2021 to August 2021. In addition to standard treatments, 15 mL of normal saline solution containing 15×109 vesicles was injected intravenously for five consecutive days.

    Results

    No reaction or adverse events were observed in any patients. In the intervention group, after 5 days of treatment, patients’ clinical status and oxygenation improved, and 75% of patients presented an increased SpO2 after 5 days. Besides, inflammatory parameters assessment indicated a 21% decrease in neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio and a 54% reduction in C-reactive protein after day five of the intervention. 

    Conclusion

    PMSC-derived extracellular vesicles were safe and well-tolerated, down-regulated cytokine storms, and restored oxygenation. Thus, they can be considered a promising therapeutic candidate for severe COVID-19.

    Keywords: COVID‐19, Extracellular vesicles, Mesenchymal stromal cell, Placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cell, Acute respiratory distress syndrome
  • Ghasem Akbari, Mehdi Basaki, Marziyeh Hejazi, Heresh Rezaei, Mohammd Babaei* Pages 89-100
    Introduction

    In the last decades, magnetic nanoparticles have been considered and are being studied for employment in tumor therapy and imaging. Also, alongside their utilization in the role of MRI contrast factors, investigations of targeting tumor cells with biomolecules like anticancer drugs, antibodies, and siRNA, the utility of magnetic nanoparticles is evaluated. This preliminary work aimed to investigate the effects of iron oxide NPs on embryo growth and development with an emphasis on brain morphology and teratogenic effects. 

    Methods

    After recognizing the air sac with candling, one hundred sixty fertile eggs of the Ross 308 broiler strains were divided into 8 groups (n=20). Group 1 (control) received 0.3 mL serum normal. Groups 2, 3, and 4 received iron oxide nanoparticles as maghemite with doses of 100, 250, and 500 ppm, respectively. Groups 5, 6, 7, and 8 received iron oxide NPs as magnetite with doses of 100, 250, 500, and 2500 ppm, respectively. Twenty days after injections, death day, chicken, brain, liver, heart, bursa of Fabricius, and spleen weights and teratogenic samples were recorded, and brain tissues from all chickens were collected for histological evaluations. 

    Results

    The results demonstrated that iron oxide NPs had teratogenic effects such as the lack of formation of abdominal wall muscles and exposing the heart out of the thorax. Also, alterations were observed in the weight ratio of the liver, spleen, and bursa of Fabricius in experimental groups compared to the control group. In the microscopic assessment of the brain tissue, hyperemia, neuronophagia, edema around vessels, necrosis, and vacuolation of neurons were noticeable. 

    Conclusion

    It can be concluded that iron oxide NPs affect the growth and development of embryos and can cross the BBB and penetrate the brain tissue by affecting brain morphology.

    Keywords: Chicken embryo, Egg, Iron oxide, Morphology, Nanoparticles
  • Reza Karbalaee*, Morteza Izadi, Bahman Jalali Kondori, Ruhollah Dorostkar, Seyed Morteza Hosseini, Hadi Esmaeili Gouvarchin Ghaleh Pages 101-110
    Introduction

    According to numerous studies, colorectal cancer will probably become more common over the next few decades. This phenomenon causes by population growth, ageing, and rising rates of crucial risk factors from people's lifestyle, such as idleness and malnutrition. The approach of Surgery to remove malignancies is typically the first step of colon cancer treatment. There may also be a recommendation for additional therapies like chemotherapy and radiation therapy. However, there is always a need to develop novel cancer treatment strategies due to drug resistance and lack of targeted approaches. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of oncolytic Coxsackievirus A21 on the colorectal cancer mouse model.

    Methods

    Colorectal cancer mouse modelling was carried out by injecting 5×106 CT-26 cells (a colonic carcinoma cell line) into the left flank of female BALB/c mice. After noticing the palpable tumor, proceed to treat them with oncolytic Coxsackievirus A21 (106 TCID50/ml, twice at one-week interval). The mice in each group were put to death ten days after the last therapy to assess the efficacy of the treatment.

    Results

    The present study results demonstrated that treatment with Coxsackievirus A21 increased the level of NO production, LDH, and IFN-γ levels and significantly reduced the secretion of IL-4, IL-10, and TGF-β in compared with control group.

    Conclusion

    In our mouse model of colorectal cancer, the Coxsackievirus A21 therapy encouraged favorable outcomes. The current study also showed that inducing innate anti-tumor immunity, which was more potent than that seen with monotherapy, and immune deviation from anti-inflammatory cytokines (like IL-4, IL-10, and TGF-β) to pro-inflammatory cytokine IFN-γ might contribute to the beneficial effects of the combination.

    Keywords: Colorectal cancer, CT26 cell line, Oncolytic virus, Coxsackievirus A21, BALB, c