- پیاپی 28 (بهار 1395)
- تاریخ انتشار: 1395/03/10
- تعداد عناوین: 7
سنجش وضعیت شاخص های جهانی شهر دوستدار سالمند در کلان شهر تهران (AFC)صفحات 1-22در پژوهش حاضر پرسشنامه استاندارد سازمان بهداشت جهانی به تعداد 110 نسخه تکثیر گردید و در اختیار طراحان و برنامه ریزان شهری، متخصصان توانبخشی، پزشکان، پرستاران و سایر متخصصین و صاحب نظران مرتبط با بحث سالمندی، قرار گرفت. در ادامه داده های حاصل به نرم افزار SPSS نسخه 22 وارد شده و با استفاده از آمار توصیفی و استنباطی به تجزیه و تحلیل داده ها پرداخته شده است. نتایج تحقیق بیانگر آن است که از میان شاخص های هشت گانه شهر دوستدار سالمند: شامل فضاهای باز و ساختمان ها، حمل و نقل، مسکن، مشارکت اجتماعی، تکریم سالمندان و مشمولیت اجتماعی، مشارکت شهروندی و استخدام سالمندان، امکانات ارتباطات و اطلاعات و خدمات سلامتی و محلی و عامل حمل و نقل در شهر تهران دارای وضعیت مطلوب تری برای سالمندان داشته و شاخص مشارکت شهروندی و استخدام و مسکن برای آنان بسیار نامناسب است. می توان گفت که پژوهشگران و طراحان شهری برای تحقیقات آتی باید برای برنامه ریزی مسکن و فضاهای باز ساختمان ها به صورت جزئی نگر و دقیق تر وارد شده و طراحی ها و برنامه های دقیق تری را در این زمینه در پیش گیرند. هدف از این پژوهش تنها سنجش این موضوع بوده و انتظار می رود در آینده به صورت ویژه و جزئی این دو مقوله مطالعه و بررسی شود.کلیدواژگان: سنجش، شهر دوستدار سالمند، طراحی، تهران، سازمان بهداشت جهانی
تحلیلی بر رشد شهر و پایداری اجتماعی - اقتصادی شهرهای بزرگ (با مطالعه شهر ارومیه)صفحات 23-46یکی از ابعاد مهم پایداری و توسعه پایدار شهری، بعد اجتماعی آن است که با تشدید آثار زیانبار زیست محیطی توسعه شهری، به این بعد پایداری کم توجهی شده است. هدف پژوهش حاضر تحلیل پایداری و شناخت نابرابری های اجتماعی- اقتصادی شهر ارومیه به موازات رشد آن در بازه زمانی 90-1375 است. روش تحقیق حاضر توصیفی – تحلیلی و تطبیقی است. اطلاعات لازم از سرشماری عمومی نفوس و مسکن، در محدوده بلوک های آماری برای سال های 1375 و 1390 تهیه شده و تعداد 30 شاخص با تحلیل عاملی ارزیابی گردیده است. برای شاخص سازی و انجام محاسبات از نرم افزارهای آماری و برای ترسیم نقشه ها و تحلیل Hot Spot از نرم افزار Arc GIS10.3 استفاده شده است. یافته ها بیانگر آن است که رشد شهر ارومیه سبب افزایش تعداد بلوک هایی با پایداری متوسط شده است و ضمن کاهش تعداد بلوک های با پایداری خیلی خوب و خوب، کاهش بلوک های با پایداری ضعیف و خیلی ضعیف را نیز از نظر شاخص های اقتصادی و اجتماعی به همراه داشته است. عامل ترکیبی برای سال 1390 تحلیل لکه های داغ برای بلوک های آماری سال مذکور نقاط با پایداری اجتماعی - اقتصادی خوب در مرکز شهر جایابی شده و به طرف حاشیه های شهر، از پایداری شاخص ها کاسته می شود. در سال 1390 تحلیل خودهمبستگی فضایی نیز از توزیع شاخص های اجتماعی - اقتصادی شهر ارومیه به صورت خوشه ایو متمرکز بوده است. بنابراین در توزیع شاخص های اقتصادی و اجتماعی، عدالت فضایی رعایت نشده است.کلیدواژگان: توسعه پایدار، پایداری اجتماعی، پایداری اقتصادی، بلوک های آماری، شهر ارومیه
بررسی و تحلیل شبکه شهری منطقه کلانشهری تهران با استفاده از سه دیدگاه مبتنی بر گره، تراکم و قابلیت دسترسیصفحات 67-70در تحلیل ریخت شناسی نظام های شهری، صفات و ویژگی های منتسب به شهرها ناظر اصلی بر سلسله مراتب و سازمان یابی آنهاست. این ویژگی ها در قالب متغیرهایی نظیر گره و تراکم قابل اندازه گیری است. اساس تحلیل عملکردی، تعامل و کنش میان شهرها، در بررسی و تحلیل نظام های شهری است؛ این روش، جایگاه هر شهر در نظام شهری را در نسبت با موقعیت قرارگیری آن در فضایی از جریان ها می سنجد. در این رویکرد، تاکید بر داده های رابطه ای و درجه تعامل هر یک از نقاط با دیگر نقاط در نظام جریان ها استوار است. بر این اساس به منظور دستیابی به فهم درست از سازمان فضایی سیستم/ شبکه های شهری، شناخت و بررسی روابط عملکردی (ناشی از تعامل و قابلیت دسترسی میان شهرها) و ریخت شناسی (حاصل از ویژگی های مکانی گره و تراکم سکونتگاه ها) ضروری است. روش تحقیق این مقاله کمی است و با بهره گیری از رویکرد توصیفی- تحلیلی و ابزار تحلیل شبکه، ضمن تبیین مولفه های گره، تراکم و دسترسی، به بررسی و تحلیل شبکه منطقه کلانشهری تهران در سه دوره 1380، 1385 و 1390 می پردازد. جهت درک شبکه شهری منطقه، از روش های تحلیلی عملکردی و ریخت شناسی استفاده می شود و در انتها با هم پوشانی و مقایسه نتایج حاصل از این دو، میزان انطباق ویژگی های عملکردی (دسترسی و جریان) با عامل های ریخت شناسی (گره و تراکم)، شبکه شهری منطقه بررسی می شود. نتایج مقاله بیانگر روند گرایش تغییرات نظام عملکردی شبکه شهری منطقه کلانشهری تهران در دوره های بررسی شده از تمرکز عملکردی در یک نقطه مسلط به سمت الگوی توزیع عملکردی است. همچنین الگوی ریخت شناسی شبکه منطقه کلانشهری تهران در طول سال های مذکور، در حال گسترش به سمت الگوی چندمرکزی از طریق ایجاد ارتباط با نقاط شهری جدید است. یافته های این مقاله نشان دهنده وجود رابطه معنادار میان نظام عملکردی و نظام ریخت شناسی در منطقه کلانشهری تهران است.کلیدواژگان: شبکه شهری، گره، تراکم، قابلیت دسترسی، منطقه کلانشهری تهران
واکاوی ابعاد کیفیت محیطی تاثیرگذار بر حضورپذیری فضاهای تجاری (نمونه موردی: خیابان تجاری راهنمایی مشهد)صفحات 71-92یکی از چالش های انسان امروز، کیفیت زندگی اوست. «کیفیت محیط» زیرمجموعه ای از مهم ترین ابعاد کیفیت زندگی انسان است. از طرفی دیگر، حضور در فضاهای شهری، پیش زمینه ای بر ایجاد روابط (تعاملات و مراودات) اجتماعی انسان شهرنشین است. اندیشمندان نیز، کیفیت را با حضور هم جهت می دانند؛ به طوری که انسان تا مکانی را مطلوب و رضایت بخش جهت حضور نیابد، به ندرت قدم در آن می نهد. هدف از مطالعه حاضر، در ابتدا، بررسی ابعاد کیفیت محیطی موثر بر حضور شهروندان در فضاهای شهری بوده و پس از آن، ارزیابی تاثیرگذارترین این ابعاد بر حضور ایشان در فضاهای تجاری است. نوع پژوهش، کاربردی و به لحاظ روش، توصیفی - تحلیلی است. گردآوری اطلاعات به دو صورت کتابخانه ای - اسنادی و پیمایشی - میدانی و با روش پرسشنامه انجام گرفته است. جامعه آماری پژوهش، شامل شهروندان در سه گروه شاغلین، ساکنین و رهگذران در خیابان تجاری راهنمایی مشهد بوده است. حجم نمونه، 300 نفر از این شهروندان است و برای هر گروه، حدود 100 پرسشنامه توزیع شده است. یافته های تحقیق نشان می دهد که ابعاد کیفیت محیطی موثر بر حضور شهروند، متشکل از ابعاد سازنده فضاهای شهری بوده که عبارت اند از ابعاد کالبدی، زیست محیطی، عملکردی و ادراکی- معنایی. همچنین یافته های پژوهش بیانگر آن است که از میان ابعاد موثر بر حضورپذیری در فضاهای شهری، تنها بعد ادراکی - معنایی در رتبه اول، و بعد عملکردی در مرتبه دوم تاثیرگذاری بر حضورپذیری در فضاهای تجاری شهری قرار می گیرند.کلیدواژگان: کیفیت محیطی، فضای شهری، فضای تجاری، حضورپذیری، خیابان راهنمایی مشهد
تحلیل آسیب پذیری بافت های فرسوده شهری در ارتباط با زلزله، با رویکرد پدافند غیرعامل، مطالعه موردی: بافت فرسوده شهر خرم آبادصفحات 93-116کشور ایران به دلیل قرارگرفتن بر روی کمربند زلزله خیز جهان به طور مکرر با زلزله روبه رو می شود. به تبع این، شهر خرم آباد نیز از این قاعده مستثنا نیست و با توجه به وجود گسل های اصلی و فعال در منطقه در پهنه خطر زلزله خیزی بالا قرار گرفته است. بافت قدیم شهرها یکی از مسائل مهم در برنامه ریزی شهری است که امروزه بر اثر قدمت بنا، فرسودگی بافت و دسترسی نامناسب، در برابر حوادث و سوانح طبیعی و انسان ساخت، در مراکز شهرها آسیب پذیر است. بافت قدیم شهر خرم آباد نیز بر اثر قدمت بنا، فرسودگی بافت و دسترسی نامناسب، در برابر این گونه سوانح آسیب پذیر شده است. هدف کلی این پژوهش بررسی و تحلیل عناصر تاثیرگذار بر آسیب پذیری بافت های فرسوده با هدف افزایش ایمنی این بافت ها با رویکرد پدافند غیرعامل است. روش پژوهش بر اساس هدف از نوع کاربردی و بر اساس ماهیت، از نوع توصیفی – تحلیلی است. از این رو، این پژوهش میزان آسیب پذیری بافت فرسوده شهر خرم آباد را در مقابل زلزله بررسی کرده است و با دیدگاه کل نگر شاخص های اجتماعی، اقتصادی، کالبدی، خدمات اضطراری، میزان زلزله خیزی و غیره مطالعه شده و با الگویAHP میزان آسیب پذیری شاخص های مذکور اولویت بندی و تحلیل گردیده است. نتایج پژوهش نشان می دهد که در اکثر شاخص های بررسی شده بویژه در زمینه شاخص های کالبدی مانند سطح اشغال، اندازه قطعات، مصالح ساختمانی، قدمت بناها، وضعیت دسترسی، دسترسی به خدمات اضطراری و غیره بافت فرسوده این شهر آسیب پذیر است و تمهیدات پدافند غیرعامل در آن رعایت نگردیده و کارایی لازم را در مقابل بحران های احتمالی ندارد.کلیدواژگان: بافت فرسوده، آسیب پذیری، زلزله، پدافند غیرعامل
سنجش جدایی گزینی مسکونی پایگاه های اجتماعی - اقتصادی شهر شیراز با استفاده از شاخص های اندازه گیری تک گروهیصفحات 117-136به منظور شناسایی نقش بالقوه شهرها در ایجاد توسعه، از میان برداشتن موانعی که ساختار و قالب شهرها را از توانایی ارتقای رشد و توسعه متعادل بازمی دارند، ضروری است. جدایی گزینی شهری، یکی از این موانع را فراهم می کند، زیرا این موضوع محرومیت اجتماعی در شهرهای جهان در حال توسعه را در پی دارد. انواع مختلفی از جدایی گزینی شهری از قبیل جدایی گزینی درآمدی و قومی - نژادی وجود دارد که وابسته به سازوکارهای موجود درون یک شهر است. به دست آوردن اندازه درست جدایی گزینی شهری، در چند دهه گذشته همواره موضوع بحث بوده است. روش های متعدد و متنوعی از سنجش جدایی گزینی شهری وجود داشته که از جهات گوناگون با هم تفاوت دارند. پژوهش حاضر پرکاربردترین شاخص های سنجش جدایی گزینی مسکونی تک گروهی (13 شاخص) در 5 بعد موجود در مطالعات رایج بین المللی پدیده جدایی گزینی را با استفاده از نرم افزار تحلیل گر جدایی گزینی در سطح شهر شیراز و میان پایگاه های مختلف اجتماعی - اقتصادی این شهر مطالعه کرده است. در مجموع نتایج پژوهش تمایل اعضای پایگاه ها به زندگی در میان اعضای گروه خودشان و به تبع آن وجود پدیده جدایی گزینی در میان این پایگاه ها را نشان می دهد. از این میان در اکثریت شاخص ها بیشترین میزان پدیده جدایی گزینی مسکونی به ترتیب در پایگاه های اجتماعی - اقتصادی پایین، بالا و متوسط مشاهده می گردد.کلیدواژگان: جدایی گزینی مسکونی، شاخص های اندازه گیری تک گروهی، شهر شیراز، نرم افزار تحلیل گر جدایی گزینی
تحلیل نقش تقسیمات کشوری در تمرکززدایی و ایجاد توسعه و تعادل منطقه ای، نمونه مطالعه: منطقه خراسانصفحات 137-154تقسیمات کشوری و تمرکززدایی، شرط ضروری برای سامان دهی فضایی و توسعه و تعادل منطقه ای است، چرا که متون نظری و تجربی مرتبط با تمرکززدایی در قالب تقسیمات کشوری نشان می دهد که این فرایند منجر به انتقال مسئولیت به سطوح پایین تر مدیریتی، بهبود عملکرد دولت های محلی، کاهش تمرکز شهری و افزایش برابری فضایی، افزایش اختیارات استان ها و شهرهای حومه ای در ارائه خدمات و سرمایه گذاری برای زیرساخت ها و تسهیل در امر توزیع عادلانه منابع فنی، انسانی و مادی بین مناطق و افزایش رقابت در این زمینه می گردد. در ادامه با توجه به چارچوب نظری تحقیق، به بررسی شاخص های توسعه در حوزه های اجتماعی - فرهنگی، زیرساخت های بهداشتی - درمانی و خدمات پشتیبان آن و اقتصادی - مالی در منطقه خراسان که در سال 1383، بر اساس تقسیمات کشوری، به سه استان خراسان شمالی، خراسان رضوی و خراسان جنوبی تقسیم گردیده، پرداخته شده و نقش تقسیمات کشوری بر توسعه و تعادل منطقه طی دو دوره 1385 و 1390 ارزیابی و سنجش شده است. بدین منظور با استفاده از مدل F’ANP ضریب اهمیت نسبی شاخص های سنجش توسعه یافتگی شهرستان های بررسی شده محاسبه گردیده و درنهایت سطح توسعه یافتگی آن ها برای مقایسه خوشه بندی شده است. نتایج نهایی تحقیق نشان می دهد که منطقه خراسان پس از تقسیمات کشوری با تحولات زیادی همراه بوده است و ارتقای سطح توسعه یافتگی مراکز استان های تازه تاسیس و کاهش اختلافات درون منطقه ای بین شهرستان مشهد واقع در خوشه اول (کاملا توسعه یافته) نسبت به شهرستان های واقع در خوشه دوم(توسعه یافته)، نمایانگر این امر است. از طرفی در دو دوره بررسی شده، کاهش تعداد شهرستان های واقع در خوشه چهارم (محروم) و افزایش تعداد شهرستان های واقع در خوشه سوم (نسبتا توسعه یافته)، دلیل دیگری بر ارتقای سطح توسعه یافتگی این منطقه است.کلیدواژگان: تقسیمات کشوری، تمرکززدایی، مدل F' ANP، توسعه و تعادل منطقه ای، منطقه خراسان
Evaluating status of global indices of age-friendly city in Tehran Metropolis (AFC)Pages 1-22ObjectivesThis study aims to assess the global indices of age-friendly city in Tehran, which have been developed by World Health Organization. Finally, the design solutions carried out based on the successful works in other countries will be presented for city of Tehran.Materials And MethodsIn the present study, World Health Organization's standard questionnaire was duplicated in 110 copies and given to urban designers and planners, rehabilitation specialists, doctors, nurses, and other aging-related professionals and experts. Then, the resulting data were imported into SPSS22 software and analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics.
Findings: The results indicated that, among 8 indices of age-friendly city including open spaces and buildings, transportation, housing, social participation, respect and social inclusion of the elderly, citizen participation and employment of the elderly, communication and information facilities, as well as health and local services, transportation factor had a more favorable condition in Tehran for the elderly and citizen participation and employment index was very inappropriate for them.ConclusionIt can be said that urban designers and researchers should deal with the planning of housing and building's open spaces in a more detailed manner in their future works and pursue more accurate plans and programs in this regard. This study aims to only evaluate the mentioned issue, and special and detailed research is expected to be conducted on these two subjects in the future.Keywords: Evaluation, age, friendly city, design, Tehran, World Health Organization
Analysis of urban growth and social- economic sustainability in the large cities (case study: Orumiyeh)Pages 23-461.IntroductionRapid urban growth and rapid urbanization in recent decades has led to changes in the structure of human settlements and has created enormous economic and social changes, and this factor, reveals the importance of sustainable development and urban sustainability. Sustainable urban development theory is the necessary preconditions for todays urban planning. However, in the literature of sustainable development, that is derived primarily from the environmental movement, Social and economic aspects of sustainability, less considered and generally regarded as a tool to achieve sustainable development. While Sustainability, is the Interaction of all three social, economic and environmental aspects of it. Urban population growth on the one hand and the formation of massive migration due to economic growth and spatial imbalance between rural and urban cities, towns and cities, on the other hand, was led to the physical growth of cities, especially large cities. So that the growth of the city, in many parts of the country, outpaced from population growth, and cities were faced with major environmental, social and economic challenges. In addition, the loss of agricultural land and environmental destruction caused by rapid growth and urban sprawl, also Social and economic aspects of this growth, with influence on the price of land and housing Followed by the lack of balanced distribution of services and Facilities, growth suburbanization and informal settlements, causes class gap and the issues of north - south urbanization in the city, Economic and Social Damages, and eventually leads to social segregation. Therefore, if the growth of the city was not accompanied with proper planning and management, could endanger the urban sustainability. In the city of the Orumiyeh, reduction of urban density and increasing of population growth and migration (27,000 immigrants in the first ten months of 2013) cause the sprawl Growth of the Orumiyeh city. Considering that, the Orumiyeh city, sometimes known as Metropolis, the sprawl growth of this city, have negative social, economic and environmental consequences and by turning it into a metropolis, this problem is more widespread and become an urban dilemma. Therefore, identification of unstable blocks from social and economic dimension could be an important step for moderated effective factors on the sustainability of the Orumiyeh city.
2. Theoretical basis: Social Sustainability Definition presented by Sajs. This term refers to the medium Level of Social homogeneity, Equal distribution of Income, Employment, Equal access to Resources and Social Services as well as Issues such as Participation in the decision-making process and Social Cohesion. There is little consensus on the definition of social sustainability and many varied definitions have been proposed. Such variation can be explained by one of the following reasons: The definition of social sustainability is classified in three groups:
Definitions of Conditions: In the first group usually describe social sustainability as either a currently existing positive condition, or as a goal that remains to be achieved stated that policies contributing to social sustainability.
Definitions of Measurement Framework: In the second group, definitions utilize measurement frameworks. These definitions present main principles and dimensions and often involve a series of indicators.
Attributes of Social Sustainability Definitions: Future focus and process are the two most imperative attributes in preciseness and usefulness of urban social sustainability discussions. Future focus refers to the improvement of a just society for current and future generations.
3.DiscussionThis study was descriptive, analytical and comparative. Using the software SPSS, 30 socio-economic indicators, were factor analyzed. Parameters are loaded in each factor that are top of 0.5 form same factor. The result was the reduction of 30 indicators, in to 6 effective factors in 1996. And 6 factor mentioned explain 84.47% of the variance. As a result of factor analysis to 30 indicators in 2011, was the reduction it in to 7 effective factors. 7 factors mentioned explain 83.9% of variance. By comparing the combined factor of 1996-2011 and check the availability levels of statistical blocks, the results show blocks with very good stability in 1996 years, from 1.65 percent to 0.6 percent in 2011 and blocks with good stability from 10.48 to 5.18 has decreased. The percentage of blocks with medium stability has increased and reached from 68.19 to 79.19 percent in 2011. Blocks with Poor stability, reached from 19.55 percent to 14.95 percent And blocks with very poor stability have a slight decrease from 0.15% (6 blocks) to 0.08 percent (5 blocks) has decreased.
4.ConclusionThe pattern of growth in Orumiyeh by using the Holdren model showed that 66 percent of the urban growth caused by population growth and 34% of horizontal growth and has been dispersed. Using factor analysis and study for two periods in 1996 and 2011 show that the growth of Orumiyeh city has increased number of medium stable blocks. And on the other features of blocks have reduction effects. By combining factors that were extracted by factor analysis and the creation a combination factor for 2011, Hot spots analysis for the statistical blocks for mentioned year was done. Result shows that the place with good socio-economic stability has located in the city center and from center to the side edges of the city, from stability of indicators has reduced.
5. Suggestions : According to location of the unstable points on outskirts, Officials and custodians of city as much as possible Prevent unplanned and unauthorized construction of the municipality.
With a balanced distribution of services in all cities in the province, especially in rural areas to control migration and the growth of the city and thereby prevent the growth of socio-economic instability.Proper oversight of urban plans, particularly in the context of demographic predictions wrong and assign space to accommodate a population that is still not the extent, should be very serious.Keywords: Sustainable Development, social sustainability, economic sustainability, the Statistical blocks, the city of Orumiyeh
Examining the urban network of Tehran Metropolitan region using the components of nods, density and accessibilityPages 67-70IntroductionIn changes made in urban networks relying on new theories, the made researches cannot describe any more the structure and function of urban networks of state completely, but the need of using integrated and interactive approach based on networks felt for assessing the situation of this system. Increasing the number of metropolises, is an expression of extraordinary concentration of population in certain regions of developing countries and these changes are dependent on a new logic of development-the logic in which the new image of regions is primarily a mix of links and nodes ,and has the more emphasis on integrated look to centers and regions. Each center in urban network has different situation, status, and character according to degree, type, composition, and opportunity in relation to others. In this study, we will try to consider both physical and interactive approach simultaneously, and study about different views of urban network aim to draw out different spatial representations of under-changing urban network of Tehran metropolitan region based on three views of node, density, and accessibility. In this regard, we will study about how is changing process of functional and morphological systems of urban network of Tehran metropolitan region, and the relationship between them in three time periods.
Theoretical bases: Essentially, the morphological approach shows size and distribution of urban centers of country, and considers the more balanced distribution as equal with network model and multi-centralization. The morphological approach focuses mainly on the fact that the centers should be, physically separated from each other through open spaces distinctly. At the same time, the distances should be such that allow region to be considered as a regional identity through interaction and the lease proximity. From morphological point of view, the centers should not be superior to each other in terms of importance; therefore, chronological ranking between cities is normally evaluated according to population of them. Functional (communicational) dimension imply functional links between residences which consider mutual and multi -lateral communication as equal with more functional network model. From functional point of view, centrality and centralism should not be formed in interactions between urban centers of region.
Therefore, chronological ranking of cities is measured with relation scale, which often done in the stream of people, goods, or information using network analysis. Functional look with inclusion of morphological dimension insists on interaction in distribution of functional relation. Such a balance show equality of distribution of internal flows of a system which is not driven to one center, but it is bilateral and crossover. Recently, main contribution of functional approach adds another dimension which is network congestion. The rate of network congestion shows the extent of centers dependency in one center functionally, and could be conceptualizes as the ratio of actual relations between centers to sum of their potential relation.Discussionfunctional analysis: The outlines degree of urban system has been measured based on network analysis, and ranking point of outline has been achieved using measured value. Studies indicate that Tehran city ranked first outline in 2001 and play athlete role in the region, while the cities of next rank deployed Western and Southern parts of under-study region which shows the dominant situation of metropolis of Tehran, and its dominant relation with Western part of region.The results of analysis during 2006 shows that the degree of existing urban network outline has been changed compared to previous period and the differences of outlines degree decreased , and intensity of concentration of urban network has been reduce totally. Nonetheless, during this period to urban points of Tehran and Karaj are still known as dominant points in region. It can be said in spite that the activity system of region is developing between urban points, total collection has been more dependent on Tehran. Surveying the results of urban network analysis in metropolis region of Tehran on 2011, shows that urban network communication in Eastern part of limited region could have better function in relation to previous periods and increase its functional role in urban structure. However, strong communication between Central and Western regions has standard function.The functional ranking of cities in metropolitan region of Tehran has been changed in each period compared to previous period and the differences between points has been reduced with regard to outline power, while three top cities is still fixed. There are meaningful differences between two top cities, that is Tehran and Karaj, compared to other points. However, changes of outline power between other cities indicates changes made in network and also strength of achieving urban points of the region. morphological analysis: Surveying the morphological pattern of urban system of metropolitan region of Tehran in 2001 is expression of a relatively linear structure drawn from West to Center part and extended from Center to East and South parts of collection. According to analyses stated, the centrality of this structure is Tehran, Where all main communication leads to. Changes of pattern of urban system during 2006 have been emerged in the form of previous period development. In fact the structure of pattern of this period is the same as previous period structure which has been developed in Eastern, South, and Western parts. Of course this development is in the form of creation the chronological relationship from small centers of marginal zone of metropolitan region of Tehran to urban adjacent points. The Eastern parts of the limited region have been more than other parts in development of urban system. Surveying the pattern of urban system of metropolitan region of Tehran in 2011 shows that the urban system of the region has been undergone changes compared to previous period ,and the old pattern is developing to Star Pattern such that Tehran city direct all the relations of region toward itself as center of this pattern as well as the prominence of ridge of Star pattern toward the West indicates more importance and influence of this part of region in forming the pattern of urban system of region. Adaptive analysis of urban network function on morphology: In surveying and local analyzing of the extent of conformity of functional analysis with urban network pattern, it can be seen that in 2001, there is much conformity between these two indices in central and south parts. However, the western parts of the region has also compliance to a large extent, while the eastern parts of region has not much local correlation between these two indices. local analyze of the situation of functional system and pattern of urban network in metropolitan region of Tehran in 2006 shows that functional field and the role of urban point in analyzing the functional system in this period has been increased compared to previous period and the network congestion in region has been provided more expand surface in this period. From this, it can be concluded that the urban relationship has been increased during this period, and the system of urban network has been led to a greater integration. On the other hand, surveying the pattern of urban network during this period shows that the urban points developing the pattern of urban network have been increased and the indices of pattern of urban network have been developed. With regard to relative local conformity of these tow analyze, it can be said that the results of these two analyze during this period have more local dependency compared to previous period. In local surveying of the situation of functional system and the pattern of urban network of metropolitan region of Tehran in 2011 it can be seen that there is relative conformity between these two variables with regard to local situation. However, The central and medial parts of metropolitan region has more network congestion which indicates the functional role of this region in metropolitan region, whereas the pattern of urban network un this period also insists on medial part; such that the metropolis of Tehran, as the center of Star pattern, has important role and station in the pattern of urban network. On the other hand, developed indices of the manes of star pattern govern on the urban network of are also located in relation with streams arising from network analysis , such that it can be said the functional system governing the region is in compliance with pattern of urban network. Of course it is worth noting that the degree of conformity in western regions is more than eastern one in terms of location. Examining the regression relationship indicates that there is a relative relation between regional functional system and the pattern of urban network of metropolitan region of Tehran during 2001 and 2006. This indicates he relative dependency of these two indices. In fact it can be said that, this dependency in medial parts is more than other parts according to local analysis, because marginal parts of pattern of urban network has little relationship with medial parts according to network analysis and this reduces the dependency coefficient, Such that the farther urban points has more relationship with urban points around itself than metropolis of Tehran (as the central of Tehran metropolitan region). Surveying the regression relationship during the period of 2011 shows that this coefficient has been decreased compared to last period; however, this amount which is equal to 0.635 has been more than first period (2001). This means that a casual relation can be visualized between these two variables in under-examine region totally; because, the regression coefficient higher than 0.6 indicates the casual relation between tow variables. It can be said that the functional system and the pattern of urban network in Tehran metropolitan region is fit and connected together in the course of this developed period. This means that the morphological characteristic of urban network of metropolitan region of Tehran in this period has been shaped based on functional characteristics and vice versa.ConclusionThe results and surveys showed that, during the examined periods, the changes process of functional system of urban network of metropolitan region of Tehran tends from functional concentration in a dominant point to network and functional distribution pattern. Aslo, the morphological pattern of network of metropolitan region of Tehran during the examined periods is developing with cluster patterns through providing relationship in new urban points, and finally the existence of meaningful relationship between functional system and morphological system of network of metropolitan region of Tehran proved.
Suggestions: It is suggested that the relationship between fashion pattern of urban network and activity system and spatial pattern be noted in regional programming ,such as region logistics which surveys and studies about the metropolitan region of Tehran. On the other hand, with regard to this relationship in the region, another suggestion is developing regional balance in terms of urban network using residence system and activity system. Such that the regional balances in different fields based on this relation can be regulated and programmed for the region according to this relation. This research could explain the relationship between two main components of urban network of metropolitan region, but in order to assess the raised relationship, indices and other factors have been considered isolated which can be considered as new issues to achieve even more precise results in future researches.Keywords: urban network, Node, Density, accessibility, Tehran metropolitan region
Analysis of environmental quality impacts dimensions on citizen presence in commercial spaces. Case study: Rahnamayee Commercial Street, MashhadPages 71-921.IntroductionHuman beings needs to presence in urban areas. One of the most important types of psychological needs is communication and social interaction. Social interactions in life, Due to the importance, can be an asset for the individual and society. Therefore, human presence occurs when its external environment condition is in favorable state and so, prepares space for such interactions to increase the number of citizens. On the other hand, commercial streets have an important role to contribute to creating and sustaining social interaction citizens greatly. But, in today urban areas, shopping malls and commercial spaces do not appeal much to citizens and so, too, constructive social interaction doesnt form in them.
2- Theoretical bases: The citizen and the urban space have inevitable mutual relationship with each other. So that the activities of citizens is ambient of environment, conditions and their qualities. For many members of the community and many individual activities and social satisfaction from quality of urban spaces, is an important key to determine the use or non-use of urban spaces. Thus, to achieve the quality of urban spaces, a quick and summary look at the quality of the urban environment theorists and researchers on criteria and indicators; at First. Then, according to various models witch offered by theorists, can conclude advantage and strengths dimensions of the desired environmental quality models: § The physical dimension (those indices that have been raised and dealt with structure and exterior space).
§ The environmental dimension (environment and urban spaces that contribute to space sustainability).
§ The functional dimensions (this aspect of urban spaces to meet the different needs and depends on a variety of citizens by available space)
§ The perceptual dimensions (taken from the indices witch meaning and understanding by human beings).
3.DiscussionFirst, the aim of this study is examining the quality of environmental aspects affecting on citizens presence in urban areas. Then, another aim is to indicate and assessment of commercial spaces quality and its effects and dimension on presence. This research is a descriptive analysis and used questionnaire method for following objectives. Collected data analyzed by using SPSS statistical software. The case study consisted of three groups of citizens, residents, workers at Rahnamayee Commercial Street, in Mashhad urban area. The sample of study is 300 people in each of citizen groups which have been completed 100 questionnaires. The linear regression analysis was used In order to explain the role and importance of the qualitative aspects of the environment on the presence of citizens in commercial spaces. Accordingly, the findings show that about 28 to 31 percent of the citizen dependent variable explained by the independent quality of the environment variables and other variables indicated about 65 percent of other changes. Among the qualitative aspects, the perceptual indicators has distinctive role on citizens behavior and then, functional and the physical dimensions, have the least roles. While, according to significance factor, the of perceptual and functional parameters are meaningful dimensions. Thus it can be said that the perceptual and functional parameters have a distinctive role in environmental quality and other aspects (physical and environmental) havent determination role in such areas.
4.ConclusionFrom the past to the present, purpose of commercial spaces and refer people to them is to fixe human needs, However, the shopping is a "recreational activity", today. So today there is no accommodation between the objectives and functions of commercial space. The most significant variables that have changed over time: first and foremost, human needs, and secondly, is the performance of commercial space. What people today towards commercial spaces, touching atmosphere due to human emotions, pleasure, joy, peace, walking, seeing and being seen, and etc, and all of them referred and returned to psycho-spiritual needs of human communication. Therefore, increasing the satisfaction of citizen's outcome can be attributed qualities of urban spaces. There are also qualities of space, resourced from components of urban space parameters, such as: the physical, environmental dimension, the functional and perceptual sense dimensions. Thus, the findings indicate that the qualitative aspects that influence the presence in commercial spaces, primarily due to the perceptual sense, then, are the functional properties. This means that man be entered to where the space that be understood, and the next time the priority place related to function and fixed his needs. Finally, such as true defined spaces and management could improve environmental quality and citizen satisfaction, and are encouraged to attend the much more citizen's presence.Keywords: Environmental Quality, commercial space, presence, Urban Space, Rahnamayee Street of Mashhad
The analysis of the vulnerability of the decay urban fabric in connection with the earthquake with passive defense approach, case study: decay fabric of KhorramabadPages 93-116IntroductionOne of the important aspects in planning the development of attention to the vulnerability of the country and most importantly the vulnerability of cities in front of threats caused by war and natural disasters, 1993: 1). Savadkoohi,) today, according to the program, and different designs has been compiled with the aim of preventing passive defense coming losses and injuries caused by the numerous financial and Johnny crisis and reduce the amount of these losses in the event of a crisis in the political and defense officials from different countries, at the national programs (Josie and taghvai 2013, 33-34). old city is one of the important issues of tissue in urban planning that is today as a result of exhaustion, and access by dating Inappropriate, to vulnerable areas against natural disaster and human accidents and construction, the center of the city has been transformed (Kamran and others, 2012:1) the decay of the old cities of Khorram abad Iran in recent years for various problems encountered in the economic margins social and physical. The migration of the poor and low income people to the financial weakness of the texture and the improvement and renovation of its building to residents, with low permeability and inefficient network of passages, there has been worn out.
Theoretical bases: In accordance with the sustainable development approach is the lack of damage prevention initiatives investment, high economic costs for the reconstruction of the country will be on the shoulders. While the venture is in line with the measures of prevention and preparation costs have greatly lowered and reduce environmental waste and achieve sustainable development. In the system, the crisis will be found when the system has been disrupted. Since each system contains contiguous components that make up a single whole, each type of disorder in a system, it may be the entire system suffered from irregularities and splitting. Based on the economic approach to vulnerability in the face of political hazard arises from social, economic and political processes. (Ahadnezhad rooeshty, 2010:77). Therefore, the vulnerability is not the result of the risk, but also the socio-economic and political processes and the final status of an accident that is caused by this process, and the vulnerability of social and economic processes as the effect can be seen.DiscussionAfter you have reviewed the criteria the following criteria and weight in the hierarchical model was specified, the weight obtained by any of the criteria of the relevant criteria below separately multiplied and eventually obtained the final criteria weights as can be observed in table 2 the weight gained between zero and one is the results of this step shows that the most effective factors in research, what are the results of the check table. The above shows that the amount of horizontal earthquake acceleration has the most impact on this research are able to and should pay special attention to this matter. safety distance from the fault of the gas network, distance to the Park and green space and open, the width of your employment status,, passages, access to the fire, the life of the building, type of construction material, the amount of income, how to property, environmental situation, place of birth, the condition of the water network, Access to medical centers, the number of classes, access to the station.ConclusionCheck the indicators studied in Khorram abad city decay range proves that serious and numerous problems with the texture of the hands to the administrations. The status of the job and an inappropriate financial weakness and poverty, residents and their incomes in order to renovate their buildings, low penetration, lack of respect for hierarchy, there are passages of low passages, a lack of green spaces and open and inappropriate distribution, Fine-grained texture tissue and deterioration of tissue and its weak strength, inappropriate materials and buildings dating back to the top of them, the weakness in the infrastructure and services, there are numerous knots and heavy traffic in the range and surrounding tissue, there server communication when the earthquake relief with the crisis problem Encountered and weaknesses in the design and equipping of sensitive networks like gas network fits the earthquake of the most worn texture problems of Khorram abad, which in terms of vulnerability and on the whole it can be said that the non-observance of the requirements of the non-operating. Therefore, it is necessary to other non-operating principles on the agenda and Executive strategies for the provision of these problems.
Suggestions: Rehabilitation and construction of urban non-defense approach in Khorram abad agent
The design of the urban form a flexible, proximity and fit and distribution of urban density (construction and demographic) which can be important role in reducing vulnerability and increasing urban sustainability. In this regard, as well as the population density reduction policy, locate some green space in central areas particularly in the Poosht bazar and the Darbe dalakan.
Attracting the participation of volunteer groups and non - governmental organizations for assistance and cooperation in times of crisis
Continuous education and persistent people residing in urban to get familiar with the concepts of non-defense operating in line with preparedness and response during the occurrence of the earthquake crisis
Boost Shariati, streets and main streets as keeper and widening the street to facilitate the construction of auxiliary or in an emergency evacuation or rescue in times of critical tissue
Select the appropriate locations for the establishment of emergency and ad hoc crowd seen in the accident and around the worn out tissues. in this regard, the Western margin of the neighborhood open spaces behind the Poosht bazar in the mountain range, the Park City Center, Shariati Park, Paradise Park and open spaces East neighborhood stack of options suitable for the establishment of emergency and ad hoc crowd incident seen offered.
Observe the regulations for the construction and the observance of the regulations in regard to 2800 and zoning of earthquake based on the amount of horizontal acceleration
Optimizing gas transmission path and other sensitive network and equip them to seismic codes and central control
Due to the lack of open space in the city of Khorram abad decay range it is necessary the versatile spaces such as parks and green space within the scope of the design so that in times of crisis, particularly for the occurrence flight and run away to use it. The Park City Center Park and Park wards due to the closeness and distance of a good fit with decay options for this purpose.Keywords: Decayed fabric, vulnerability, Earthquake, Passive Defense
The measure of residential segregation of socio-economic groups by using one-group indices in Shiraz CityPages 117-1361.IntroductionTo realize the potential role of cities in fostering development, it is essential to remove the barriers that inhibit the formation of inclusive cities, that is, cities capable of promoting growth with equity. Urban segregation represents one of these barriers because it has reinforced social exclusion in the cities of the developing world. There have been many developments of segregation measures. Some evolved and some remained unchanged. This paper is studied the most widely used one group measures of residential segregation (13 indicators) in five dimensions of segregation in Shiraz city and between different socio-economic groups of it by using of the Segregation Analyzer Software.
2. Theoretical bases: Different types of urban segregation exist, including income and racial or ethnical segregation, depending on the contextual mechanisms within a city. At a general level, residential segregation is the degree to which two or more groups live separately from one another, in different parts of the urban environment. This general understanding masks considerable underlying complexity, however, for groups may live apart from one another and be segregated in a variety of ways. Minority members may be distributed so that they are overrepresented in some areas and underrepresented in others, varying on the characteristic of evenness. They may be distributed so that their exposure to majority members is limited by virtue of rarely sharing a neighborhood with them. They may be spatially concentrated within a very small area, occupying less physical space than majority members. They may be spatially centralized, congregating around the urban core, and occupying a more central location than the majority. Finally, areas of minority settlement may be tightly clustered to form one large contiguous enclave, or be scattered widely around the urban area.
Over the years, researchers have proposed a variety of indices to measure each of these distributional characteristic, and have often argued for the adoption of one index to the exclusion of others. But massey and denton concluded that segregation should be measured not with one index, but with several. Residential segregation indices, usually grouped according to five dimensions - evenness, exposure, concentration, clustering, and centralization - are today well known. Authors such as Massey and Denton (1988), Apparicio (2000), Hutchens (2001), have reviewed the literature on segregation indices, including the formulas and properties of each.
3.DiscussionThe one group measures are the measurements that only capture the indices for one group only over the total population in the study area. This research uses indices include the five dimensions of measures mentioned by Massey and Denton.
Dimension of Evenness: Evenness refers to the distribution of one or more population groups across the spatial units of the metropolitan area (e.g., census tracts). According to Evenness indexes, in Shiraz city, the low Socio-Economic Group has the highest level of residential segregation and then groups with high and medium.
Dimension of Exposition: Exposure is the degree of potential contact between members of the same group. According to Exposure indexes, the Low socio-economic group has the highest level of residential segregation and shows the members of this group only encountere to members of their group in the extensive space.
Dimension of Concentration: Concentration refers to the physical space occupied by a group. In Shiraz city, the Low socio-economic group in comparison with its population, has the lower area of the city and the area of their statistical units is less than other groups. Consequently, this group has the higher density and is more segregated.
Dimension of Centralization: Centralization refers to the degree to which a group is spatially located near the center of an urban area. The closer to the center tends to be spatially concentrated. According to Centralization indexes, In the city of Shiraz, the subject of the concentration in the CBD doesnt matter same as in the western countries and the distributions of all groups are across the city. However, we can say that both the high and low group rather than medium group, tend to concentration in the CBD.
Dimension of Clustering: The more contiguous spatial units a group occupies - thereby forming an enclave within the city - the more clustered and therefore segregated it is, according to this dimension. In Shiraz city, the low group rather than the high and medium groups, has the higher degree of spatial clustering and so this group is more segregated.
4.ConclusionIn general, the results show the tendency of members of all groups to live among the members of their own group and so the existence of segregation between groups. In addition, the majority of indicators show the highest residential segregation in the socio-economic low group, and after that in high and medium groups.
5. Suggestions: Attention to the basic needs of the residential areas (Regardless of high or low groups of areas) can increase the stability of habitation and to prevent the unnecessary movement of different socio-economic groups in Shiraz city(Fair distribution of services and investment in the districts).
Try to eliminate poverty and marginality in some neighborhoods of Shiraz city such as southwest and southeast neighborhoods, and Preventing the spread of poverty and marginality to the other urban neighborhoods, because If they spread, the negative aspects of segregation will increase in the city.Keywords: One, group Indices, Residential Segregation, Segregation Analyzer Software, Shiraz City
Analysis of administrative divisionâs role in decentralization, regional development and equity, case study: region of KhorasanPages 137-1541.IntroductionFailure of policies and centralized approach forced planners and policy makers to using the decentralized methods to can lead according to regions and thus overcome the negative consequences of centralized policies (yasouri, 2011). So administrative division is necessity in order to decentralize the country and this is the cause of using the local ability in regional economic development, strengthen socio-cultural identity and improve infrastructure and services can be expected, finally this process led to the Development and regional balancing and in this regard, spatial organization and administrative division of territories in to geographical units in order to better governance that is compatible whit the new condition gained by governments (Etaat, Mousavi, 2010: pp. 1-3).
In other words, spatial planning of countrie's political system, implemented in the frame work of administrative division and management without smaller units is not possible (Alimohammadi et al, 2009, p. 177).
In Khorasan region as case study, before administrative division, Mashhad city as the capital province, has a very high share of infrastructure and services compared to the other city of the region. Administrative division with the aim to reduce the centralization of infrastructure facilities and services and creating regional balance and development in 2004 took place and after it, the region divided to three provinces of provinces of North Khorasan, Khorasan Razavi and South Khorasan.
It seems that after the administrative division of country and to achieve the province's relative development, regional iniquity during 2006-2011 has reduced and with respect to decentralization in the region, is expected to increasing level of development in new provinces. So the present study investigates the role of decentralization in the framework of administrative division in development Khorasan region.
2. Theoretical basis: In definition of political divisions, could be said to facilitate the administration of each political unit, the divisions occur to all sectors to manage better (Mirheydar, 2001, pp. 10-11). The aim of the governments of divisions and changes in the political situation, is improving the management of regions and making sustainable development and allowing the provision of services and basic need of people (Hafznya, 2002, p. 159). In other hand, division of land and administrative division with the local government system can be cause of decentralization and distribution of power and in general, all effects of divisions is decentralization (Karimipour, 2002, p. 1).
In other word, if the decision made in more divided geographical areas, the degree of decentralization will enhance (Ahmadypoor, 2014, p.8).
Surveying the global viewpoint about decentralization, Egziabher (1988) said the process of decentralization is the step to empowerment of local people and is cause of regional development and balance (Egziabher, 1988). Henderson (2002) believes that all dimension of economic, marketing and political/ institutional will be affected by decentralization (Henderson, 2002). Bahl and Linn (1992) also believe that decentralization is associated whit the higher level of economic development and is an important part of development strategy (Bahl, Linn, 1992). In the other side, the reason of multiple part of governments is providing public infrastructure and different levels of service according to the priorities of local units (Hennel, 2012, Kaiser, Biela and Tanzi, 1995). Also Hayek (1993) says that central government has no enough time and information about all of the country (Hayek, 1993). Therefore if decentralization occurred appropriate, it the way to promoting efficiency of allocated resources (Jütting et al., 2004). Steiner also says that if the power of decision making transfer to the local level, we can expect the positive effect on social services and infrastructures (Steiner, 2005). Also we can say that decentralized planning, facilitates equitable distribution of human and material resources (Semboja and Therkildsen, 1994). Maro (1980) has said that decentralization is main cause of promoting the accessibility to school, pure water and health services (Maro, 1990). Weimer also said that local governments can provide public services (Weimer, 2009). Parker presented the effective factors of decentralization in rural scale (Parker, 1995).
Studies at the department of international development show that the outcomes and output of decentralization can be multiple. In the first phase, the services provided at regional and local level and continue to reduce poverty and improve living condition for residents. In the second phase is expected to improve transparency and accountability in local government and consequently also reduce administrative and financial corruption and further present technical training in order to provide better services (Local Development International, 2013).
Related Global experiences also show that decentralization process in the framework of administrative division, has positive effect in many dimension of development. For example decentralization process in Croatia, Bolivia, Ghana, India (West Bengal), Paraguay, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam was cause of power distribution and promoting the infrastructure and services (Bird and Rodriguez 1999, Timberman, 1988; Local Development International, 2013; AlibegoviÄ et al, 2013; Egziabher, 1988; Altman and Lalander, 2003; Von Braun and Grote, 2002; Mathew, 2003; Ciesin, 2003; Semidei et al., 1996; Turner; 1997, Vijetunge, 2001).
Some of failure experience is like china that decentralization occurred with an emphasis on the financial and economic and its consequences was increasing economic disparities between the cities and villages of country (Von Braun and Grote, 2002).
3.DiscussionAccording to the model outputs of FANP, observed that in both period of 1385-1390, the city of Mashhad located in the highest level of developing and the point is promoting the level of development of new province's center of north Khorasan and south Khorasan. Also the consequences of cluster analysis also shows that the number of city located in the deprived cluster has decreased along five years and increases the number of cities that located in developed cluster. Also along 1385-1390, the differences of development score has been reduced between Mashhad and Birjand and bojnurd (New provinces) and it means that the intra-regional differences are reduced. In conclusion we can say that the region of Khorasan has been experienced the equity and balance after the administrative divisions.
In 1385, the Importance coefficient of economic and health index was 0.263 and in 1390, the numerical value of this index divided to economic and financial index with 0.246 and health value was 0.249.
4.ConclusionIn this study, after surveying the theoretical basis and global experiences about administrative development and regional equity and balance, variables in different dimension was selected. With de model of FANP, the number values of development index determined and this index shows with the map and clustered by cluster. The consequences shows that In 1385, the Importance coefficient of economic and health index was 0.263 and in 1390, the numerical value of this index divided to economic and financial index with 0.246 and health value was 0.249. In other word decentralization in frame work of administrative division in Khorasan region, cause of shaping the relative balance in this region and the infrastructures of economic and health dimension were promoted.
Also the new provincial centers (Bojnourd and Birjand) promote development level and reduce disparities between them. Also in the period under review, number of counties which are in the deprived cluster, are promoted to the upper cluster and this is the reason of development of regions counties. It means that the intra-regional differences are reduced. In conclusion we can say that the region of Khorasan has been experienced the equity and balance after the administrative divisions.Keywords: Administrative divisions, decentralization, Regional development, equity, FANP model, Region of Khorasan