فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:11 Issue:1, 2017
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1395/10/12
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Mohammad Hussein Abnosi *, Somayeh Gholami Pages 1-9
    Background
    The mechanism of cadmium induced osteoporosis is not well understood, so in this study, we examined the toxicity of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (MSCs) following treatment of rats with CdCl2 in drinking water, to revile the effect of this chemical on differentiation potential of MSCs.
    Methods
    At the end of third passage, MSCs were grown in the osteogenic medium for 21 days. To study the differentiation property the viability, morphology, intracellular calcium, and matrix mineralization via quantitative alizarin red were evaluated. Besides, biochemical parameters including activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate amino transaminase (AST), alanine amino transaminase (ALT) as well as antioxidant enzyme such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase were determined too. In addition, level of lipid peroxidation based on determination of malondialdehyde (MDA) content was studied.
    Results
    The results showed significant reduction in the viability of cells after differentiation compared to control (P
    Conclusions
    Oral consumption of cadmium affects osteogenic differentiation potential of MSCs via membrane damage, reduction of calcium deposition and metabolic changes. Thus, it might be considered as a probable factor involve in cadmium related osteoporosis.
    Keywords: Antioxidant Enzymes, Cadmium, Lipid Peroxidation, Osteoblasts, Stem Cells
  • Raliat Abimbola Aladodo *, Elizabeth Abidemi Balogun, Taofik Olatunde Sunmonu, Ismaila Olanrewaju Nurain Pages 11-17
    Background
    Combinatorial effects of aqueous root extract of Jatropha curcas (Jc) and J. gossypiifolia (Jg) in alloxan-induced diabetic rats was investigated in this research.
    Methods
    Thirty-six wistar rats were randomized into six groups of six animals each. Group I (control) was not induced but received 0.5 ml of distilled water. Groups II, III, IV, V and VI were induced with diabetes mellitus using alloxan monohydrate and received 14.2 mg/kg body weight (b/wt) glucophage, 0.5ml of distilled water, 250 mg/kg body weight of the root extracts of J. curcas, J. gossypiifolia and the combined extract respectively for 15 d.
    Results
    The mixture of J. curcas and J. gossypiifolia in alloxan-induced diabetic rats resulted in significant reduction in the blood glucose between 39.7% reduction by day 3 and 73.3% reduction by day 13 (P
    Conclusion
    The mixture of roots of J. curcas and J. gossypiifolia has a greater potential for effective antidiabetic activity compare with individual plant extracts and may be safe for consumption.
    Keywords: Alloxan, Diabetes, Jatropha Gossypiifolia, Jatropha Curcas, Mixture
  • Edmund Richard Egbe, Augusta Chinyere Nsonwu, Anyanwu *, Sunday Jeremaiah Offor, Chinyere Adanna Opara Usoro, Maise Henrieta Etukudo, Deborah Ifunanya Egbe Pages 19-25
    Background
    Cement production is associated with heavy metal emissions and environmental pollution by cement dust. The degree of contamination of drinking water sources by major and trace elements present in cement dust generated by united cement factory (UNICEM) is still uncertain. This study estimated the element content of ground and surface water samples (hand-dug wells, boreholes and streams) around the factory site to determine the impact of cement dust exposure on the water levels of these elements.
    Methods
    This study was conducted at UNICEM at Mfamosing, Akamkpa local government area, Cross River State, Nigeria. Drinking water samples (5 from each location) were collected from the cement factory quarry site camp, 3 surrounding communities and Calabar metropolis (45 km away from factory) serving as control. The lead (Pb), copper (Cu), manganes (Mn), iron (Fe), cadmium (Cd), selenium (Se), chromium (Cr), zinc (Zn) and arsenic (As) levels of samples were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS). Data were analyzed using ANOVA and LSD post hoc at P = 0.05.
    Results
    As and Pb content of samples from camp were above the WHO recommendations of 0.01mg/l and 0.01mg/l respectively. Chromium and cadmium content of all water samples were above and others below WHO recommendations. Water levels of Mn, Fe, Zn, As, Se, Cd, Ca and Si were significantly elevated (though below WHO recommendations) in camp than other locations (P
    Conclusion
    Production of cement results in As, Pb, Cr and cd contamination of drinking water sources near the factory. Treatment of all drinking water sources is recommended before public use to avert deleterious health consequences.
    Keywords: Cement Dust, Contamination, Drinking Water, Elements
  • Mohammad Kazem Koohi, Hamid Staji, Farzad Hayati, Mahmoud Ghazi, Khansari, Reza Jamshidi, Ebrahim Shahroozian* Pages 27-32
    Background
    Activation of inflammatory cells can cause more chemicals induced-hepatotoxicity. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a fungal toxin that induces acute hepatotoxicity in humans and animals. This study was conducted to examine the effect of co-exposure LPS and various aflatoxin B1 doses on the damage hepatic parameters in isolated perfused rat liver.
    Methods
    Thirty-two male wistar rats (250-300g) were divided to eight groups including Control and LPS; three groups with various doses of AFB1 (0.01, 0.1 and 1 ppm) and three groups with various doses of AFB1 and Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (300 ppm). Activity of Aspartate transaminase (AST) and Alanine transaminase (ALT) were determined in perfusate. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and Glutathione (GSH) concentrations were measured in homogenate liver.
    Results
    At two groups of AFB 1 (with LPS and without LPS) at AFB1 concentrations of 0.1 and 1 ppm, elevation of AST and ALT enzymes activity were indicated. Values of GSH in both of groups (AFB 1 with LPS and without LPS) had reduced at concentration of 1 ppm. TBARS concentrations were enhanced in AFB1 concentration of 1 ppm in both of groups (with LPS and without LPS), however in comparison between groups (with LPS and without LPS) in similar concentrations significant different did not observe (P
    Conclusion
    Non-injurious dose of LPS did not enhance liver susceptibility to various doses of AFB1 in perfused rat liver. This may be in part of due to extrahepatic factors, which contribute, in more liver damage.
    Keywords: Aflatoxin B, 1, Isolated Perfused Rat Liver, Lps
  • Mohammad Mohiseni, Mehrdad Farhangi *, Naser Agh, Alireza Mirvaghefi, Khalil Talebi Pages 33-41
    Background
    Artemia urmiana are small crustaceans that because of its non-selective filter feeder pattern potentially may absorb high level of heavy metals through their living environment. In this study, the effects of different levels of cadmium and copper on survival, catalase activity and metals bioconcentration rates in A. urmiana nauplii have been investigated.
    Methods
    The research was carried out in February 2012 at University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran. First experiment was conducted in nine concentrations with six replication, then LC50 and probable interactions between experimental metals were evaluated. In the second experiment, concentrations of metals absorbed by Artemia and catalase activity were measured based on the acute toxicity indices, including NOEC, LOEC and LC50 at individual and mixed concentrations.
    Results
    The toxicity of copper sulphate (LC50= 29.87) was 2.5 times greater than cadmium chloride (LC50=79.08) and the toxicity interaction between cadmium and copper was synergistic. The rate of copper uptake in Artemia was higher than cadmium and increased concentration of heavy metals significantly decreased the bioconcentration factor. Comparison of mixed and individual concentrations showed that cadmium significantly decreased copper uptake, while it seems that cadmium bioconcentration was improved consequently. Biochemical analysis showed that the catalase activity was affected undesirably in different individual and mixed concentrations; however, these changes were not significant.
    Conclusion
    A. urmiana nauplia seems to be highly resistant toward cadmium and copper in their culture medium and demonstrated excessive potential for uptake of heavy metals from their rearing environment.
    Keywords: Artemia Urmiana Nauplii, Bioconcentration, Catalase Activity, Heavy Metal, Survival
  • Sara Molla Ali Akbari, Mohammad Rabbani, Mohammad Sharifzadeh, Ali Hosseini, Sharifabad* Pages 43-47
    Background
    Alpha Methyldopa (AMD) is a well-known treatment for the pregnancy induced hypertension and commonly used in several countries. Indeed the possible effect of AMD on the behavioral activities of offspring, whom are exposed during fetus period, has not been studied. The present study evaluated the possible effect of maternal administration of AMD on the rat offspring memory in the growing age.
    Methods
    This study was carried out in Isfahan Faculty Of Pharmacy in 2015. Pregnant wistar rats were injected 400 mg/kg AMD or saline every day from 14th to 21st pregnancy period, respective to their group (n=8). The spatial memory of male offspring (n=9) was evaluated one, two and three month after the birth in the object recognition task. Also two groups of adult animals (n=7) were daily administered 400 mg/kg AMD or saline one week prior to the memory evaluation. The discrimination (d2), recognition (R) and frequencies of exploration of new object (FB) in the T2 trials are used as the memory indicating factors.
    Results
    Daily single dose of 400 mg/kg AMD to the mothers one week prior to the delivery significantly decreased the d2 index, R index and FB in two and three months offspring rats compare to the their respective control groups.
    Conclusion
    The newborn rats exposed maternally to the AMD during the fetus period show cognitive impairments in the growing age. Indeed the rate of memory enhancement follows a slow pattern compare to the control offspring rats.
    Keywords: Alpha Methyldopa, Memory, Pregnancy, Offspring, Rat
  • Babak Mostafazadeh, Reihaneh Ebrahimi, Vahid Titidej, Hossein Sanaei, Zadeh* Pages 49-54
    Background
    The pattern of drug abuse in Iran has dramatically changed in recent years, turning from the traditional opioids [opium, opium dross, and refined opium dross (Shireh)] into drugs with newer forms. The present study is aimed at investigating the frequency of pathological changes in the lungs of bodies with positive postmortem toxicology results for narcotics and psychotropic substances autopsied in the forensic dissection hall of Tehran, Iran [the Iranian Legal Medicine Organization (LMO)].
    Methods
    The present study is a cross-sectional descriptive study. The sample consisted of 153 bodies, which had been referred to the LMO with positive results in postmortem toxicology for narcotics and psychotropic substances.
    Results
    We found that narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances were used more in men than women. Moreover, the average age of death due to drug use was 36 years old. In addition, methamphetamine was the mostly-used type of substances, and smoking was the most widely used method to use the drugs. Besides, the dominant consistency and color of the lungs of half of the bodies investigated were elastic brown-gray. Moreover, the most common pathologic changes observed in the lungs of the bodies investigated were congestion and edema.
    Conclusion
    Given the prevalence of pathological changes in the lungs of the examined bodies and congestion, edema, and pulmonary hemorrhage, the results of the present study can be particularly effective in determining the drug use and the resultant death in the absence of any previous records and/or a negative result of toxicology.
    Keywords: Forensic, Lungs, Narcotics, Pathologic Changes, Psychotropic Substances
  • Abdulhakeem Olarewaju Sulyman*, Jubril Olayinka Akolade, Asiat Naallah, Raliat Abimbola Aladodo, Habeeb Olasunkanmi Jamiu Pages 55-58
    Background
    The alcoholic decoction of root ethanolic extract of Aristolochia ringens is taken orally to treat various ailments in South-west Nigeria without prior knowledge of its potential toxic effect. Therefore, this study aimed at assessing the toxicity potentials of root ethanolic extract of A. ringens on functional indices and histology of the liver.
    Methods
    Twenty male rats were randomized into four groups of five animals each. Group A (control) received 0.5 ml of distilled water, group B, C and D received 75, 150 and 300 mg/kg b. wt. of the extract respectively. The administration was done orally and lasted for fourteen days.
    Results
    The extract significantly reduced the activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) as well as reduction in the level of serum albumin and direct bilirubin (P
    Conclusion
    Ethanolic extract from A. ringens root may not be completely safe when administered repeatedly.
    Keywords: Aristolochia ringens, Functional indices, Hepatocytes, Toxicity