فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:8 Issue: 1, 2017
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1395/10/29
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Mina Tajvidi, Mahnaz Roayaei, Simin Hematti, Hadi Faezi Pages 1-6
    Background
    Metastatic prostate cancer is one of the most important cancers among men worldwide. Androgen ablation therapy can be used in treatment of these patients; however, most will progress to metastatic hormone-refractory prostate cancer. In this regard, docetaxel has been approved to treat metastatic hormone-refractory prostate cancer in the United States. In this study, we aimed to investigate the results of this treatment modality in metastatic prostate cancer patients from Iran.
    Methods
    We evaluated PSA response and bone pain relief in 18 metastatic prostate cancer patients who underwent treatment with docetaxel at a dose of 75 mg/m2 intravenously on the first day of treatment. The treatment was repeated every three weeks (6 cycles) along with 10 mg of prednisolone.
    Results
    Of 18 patients, 39% had >50% decline in PSA levels.There were 16% of the patients with a PSA decline of approximately 30% to 50% of the pre-treatment levels. In addition, 29% of the patients had progressive PSA levels during chemotherapy. Among them, 55% had significant pain relief.
    Conclusion
    This research showed the effectiveness of docetaxel to decrease PSA levels in metastatic hormone-refractory prostate cancer patients from Iran. Docetaxel was also valuable in alleviation of pain in these patients. However, prospective studies should validate this approach.
    Keywords: Docetaxel, Metastatic hormone, refractory prostate cancer, PSA
  • Ait Boujmia Oum Kaltoum, Nadifi Sellama, Dehbi Hind, Kassogue Yaya, Lamchahab Mouna, Quessar Asma Pages 7-12
    Background
    Acute myeloid leukemia, as most cancers, results from exposure to carcinogens and an impaired inherited individual capacity to eliminate xenobiotics. The present case-control study measures the relationship between glutathione S-transferase (GST) T1 and M1 null genotypes and the risk of acute myeloid leukemia.
    Methods
    We identified the GSTT1 andGSTM1 genotypes by multiplex polymerase chain reaction in 129 acute myeloid leukemia patients and 129 controls.
    Results
    Individuals that carried GSTT1 null had a risk of acute myeloid leukemia when compared to GSTT1 present carriers (OR: 2.80; 95% CI: 1.63-4.80, P=0.00036). However, GSTM1 null did not influence the risk for acute myeloid leukemia (OR: 1.20; 95% CI: 0.72-1.97, P=0.53). The combined GSTT1 null/GSTM1 present genotype showed an association with the risk for acute myeloid leukemia compared to those that carried both functional genotypes (OR: 8.85; 95% CI: 3.09-23.8, P=0.0001). The double null genotype also showed an association with the risk for acute myeloid leukemia (OR: 2.32, 95% CI: 1.15-4.66, P=0.019).
    Conclusion
    Both GSTT1 null and GST double-null genotypes may be risk factors for acute myeloid leukemia. Further studies are needed to confirm these results.
    Keywords: GSTT1, GSTM1, AML, Susceptibility
  • Sanaa Shawky, Mona Salem, Hoda Abou Seif, Salah El Din El Salmy, Manal Sheta, Eman El, Abd Pages 13-30
    Background
    The current study investigated the possible role of the cell cycle regulator, cyclin-dependent kinases regulatory subunit-2; the angiogenic factor, plateletderived endothelial cell growth factor; and the cell adhesive molecule, neural cadherin, as prognostic factors in schistosomal and non-schistosomal-associated urothelial carcinomas. We also investigated the possible correlation between cyclin-dependent kinases regulatory subunit-2, platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor, neural cadherin, tumor grade, and stage.
    Methods
    The study included 40 patients with primary bladder cancer (25 nonschistosomal- associated and 15 schistosomal-associated) who had no prior anticancer treatment. Tumor specimens were collected at the time of the transurethral resection. The vivid portions of the resected tumors were subjected to routine pathological examinations to determine stage, grade, and schistosomal infestation. Control bladder tissues (5 cases) were obtained by cystoscopic biopsies from patients who underwent transurethral resection of the prostate. Platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor and neural cadherin protein expressions were evaluated by immunohistochemical staining. RNA was extracted, reverse transcribed, and amplified by PCR using cyclindependent kinases regulatory subunit-2 specific primers. Relative expression was detected by a comparison of the expression in normal and tumor samples relative to GAPDH (housekeeping) gene expression.
    Results
    We detected a positive correlation between neural cadherin and plateletderived endothelial cell growth factor proteins in schistosomal-associated and non-schistosomal-associated bladder cancer. Significant overexpression of relative cyclin-dependent kinases regulatory subunit-2 gene, neural cadherin, and plateletderived endothelial cell growth factor proteins were detected in invasive stages and higher grades of bladder cancer. Differential expressions of neural cadherin and plateletderived endothelial cell growth factor proteins, tumor recurrence, and tumor progression were detected between schistosomal-associated and non-schistosomal-associated bladder cancer.
    Conclusion
    Cyclin-dependent kinases regulatory subunit-2, neural cadherin, and platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor may be used as biomarkers for predicting bladder cancer outcome and aid in selecting patients for more aggressive treatments.
    Keywords: Bladder cancer, CKS2, N-cadherin, Platelet, derived endothelial cell growth factor, Schistosomal infestation
  • Ashkan Zandi, Taraneh Moini Zanjani, Seyed Ali Ziai, Yalda Khazaei Poul, Mostafa Haji Molla Hoseini Pages 31-38
    Background
    Combination therapy has generated remarkable motivation in the clinical setting since it boosts the therapeutic potential of anticancer drugs. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and aggressive malignant brain tumor which affects patients in all ages, and being principally resistant to treatment.
    Methods
    In this study, temozolomide as a standard chemotherapeutic drug for Human GBM, was combined with ciprofloxacin to know whether ciprofloxacin can potentiate the cytotoxic effects of temozolomide. Glioblastoma A-172 cell line was exposed to ciprofloxacin and temozolomide either alone or in combination for 24, 48 and 72 h. Cytotoxicity was measured by MTT assay.
    Results
    Ciprofloxacin and temozolomide induced tumor cell death in a dose-dependent manner with an IC50 value of 259.3 μM for ciprofloxacin and 62.5 μM for temozolomide in 72 h. These values shifted to 22.8 μM for ciprofloxacin and 8.6 μM for temozolomide in the presence of IC50 of the other drug. The combination-index (CI) values were found less than 1.
    Conclusion
    These results indicate synergism across a broad range of concentrations of ciprofloxacin and temozolomide in glioblastoma tumor cell line and that CPF increased the anti-tumor cytotoxic effect of TMZ in glioblastoma A-172 cell line.
    Keywords: Temozolomide, Ciprofloxacin, Glioblastoma A, 172 cell line, Synergism, Cytotoxicity
  • Salman Khazaei, Erfan Ayubi, Mokhtar Soheylizad, Kamyar Manosri Pages 39-42
    Background
    Geographic differences in the incidence of cancers may suggest unique genetic or environmental exposures that impact the risk of acquiring cancer. This research aims to determine the incidence rate and geographical distribution of common cancers among Iranian children.
    Methods
    In this ecological study, we extracted data that pertained to the incidence rate of common cancers among children from reports by the National Registry of Cancer and Disease Control and Prevention in 2008. A map of the cancer incidence rates was designed by using geographic information system.
    Results
    The most common cancer sites among children were the hematology system, brain and central nervous system, and lymph nodes. The central provinces had the lowest cancer incidences.
    Conclusion
    The considerable variation in incidence of childhood cancers in Iran suggests a possible potential environmental risk factor or genetic background related to this increased risk among children.
    Keywords: Childhood cancer, Epidemiology, Incidence
  • Mansour Ansari, Hamid Nasrollahi, Majdaddin Rajaei, Maral Mokhtari, Seyed Hasan Hamedi, Mohammad Mohammadianpanah, Shapour Omidvari, Ahmad Mosalaei, Niloofar Ahmadloo Pages 43-48
    Most bladder tumors are epithelial in origin. Nonepithelial cancers are rarely located in the bladder. Sarcomas are the most common malignancies among nonepithelial cancers. Primary bladder lymphoma is rare and mostly low grade. Here, we have reported a case of diffuse large cell lymphoma of the bladder. The patient, a 64-year-old man, had urinary frequency for 18 months. Abdominal sonography indicated a thick bladder wall and transurethral biopsy showed diffuse large cell lymphoma. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) results showed that the tumor was positive for CD20, CD45, and Pax-5 and negative for BCL-2, cytokeratin, and S100. He had a normal bone marrow biopsy, abdominal, pelvic and chest CT scans. He had no B symptoms. The patient received 6 cycles of R-CHOP followed by radiotherapy (36 Gy) to the pelvis. Six months after treatment, the patient is well and has returned to work. We have searched PubMed for primary diffuse large cell lymphoma. Primary diffuse large cell lymphoma of the bladder is best treated according to treatment for diffuse large cell lymphoma of other sites, which includes chemotherapy and radiotherapy. As seen in our review, primary diffuse large cell lymphoma of the bladder has a similar clinical course to diffuse large cell lymphoma of other sites.
    Keywords: Bladder, Lymphoma, Treatment
  • Sonia Chhabra, Namita Bhutani, Sunita Singh, Mansi Aggarwal, Rajeev Sen Pages 49-55
    Struma ovarii is an uncommon highly specialized ovarian teratoma that accounts for less than 5% of mature teratomas. It is composed predominantly of mature thyroid tissue. Thyroid tissue is observed in 5%-15% of teratomas; however, to qualify as a struma ovarii tumor, the thyroid proportion must comprise more than 50% of the overall tissue. The combination of pseudo Meigssyndrome and elevation of CA 125 with struma ovarii is a rare condition that can mimic ovarian malignancy. The majority of strumas are benign, however occasionally malignant transformation may be seen. We have reported a case of benign struma ovarii that presented with the clinical features of advanced ovarian carcinoma: complex pelvic mass, gross ascites, bilateral pleural effusion, and markedly elevated serum CA 125 levels. The patient underwent total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo oophorectomy. Ascites and pleural effusion resolved completely, and the CA 125 levels have returned to normal following surgical excision. Patients with pseudo-Meigs’ syndrome may present a diagnostic problem as they masquerade as carcinoma with malignant effusions. In addition, the coexistence of struma ovarii and pseudo-Meigs’ syndrome is a very rare event. We emphasize by this report that, despite its rarity, a differential diagnosis of struma ovarii should be included for an ovarian mass.
    Keywords: Struma ovarii, Ovarian neoplasms, Postmenopausal women, Pseudo, Meig's syndrome, Monodermal teratoma
  • Fatemeh Nili, Elham Asadinejad, Hana Saffar, Alireza Ghanadan Pages 57-62
    Sarcomas of the breast are rare and comprise less than 1% of mammary cancers. Myxofibrosarcoma as an unusual variant of malignant fibrous histiocytoma in the breast and during pregnancy has not previous been reported in the literature. We present the case of a 32-year-old woman with a rapidly growing subcutaneous left breast mass that appeared during her first pregnancy. After ultrasonography and core needle biopsy, she underwent a modified radical mastectomy. Pathologic examination revealed a multinodular subcutaneous mass with characteristic microscopic features consistent with myxofibrosarcoma. Immunohistochemistry findings supported the diagnosis and excluded other differential diagnoses. There has been no consensus about proper management and surveillance in these rare groups of malignancies, however wide local excision and adjuvant treatment for moderate and high grade tumors are recommended
    Keywords: Breast, Sarcoma, Myxofibrosarcoma, Malignant fibrous histiocytoma, Pregnancy