فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:11 Issue:4, 2017
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1396/03/07
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Anahita Alizadeh, T. Professor Mahdi Balali-Mood, Adeleh Mahdizadeh, Bamdad Riahi-Zanjani * Pages 1-3
    Background
    The potential toxicity of human exposure was investigated to heavy metals from diverse sources but few or none was on Iranian soaps. Hence, we aimed to determine the presence of lead and mercury in selected soaps commonly used in Mashhad, northeastern Iran.
    Methods
    Different common brands of cosmetic, hygiene and contraband soaps were purchased from retail market of Mashhad in 2016. Levels of these metals were determined using atomic absorption spectroscopy technique.
    Results
    All samples had the mercury and lead levels but did not exceed the maximum acceptable level (1 µg/g for mercury and 20 µg/g for lead) recommended by FDA. The mean levels of mercury were 0.02, 0.08 and 0.23 µg/g, respectively in cosmetic, hygiene and contraband soaps. These levels for lead were 0.10, 0.19 and 0.13 µg/g. The highest mercury and lead levels were detected in Halazoon contraband and P hygiene brands, respectively.
    Conclusion
    The content of mercury and lead in common soaps is currently not a concern in this city. However, as human body may be exposed to several toxic metals from different care products simultaneously, cumulative toxic effects of these metals must be considered important.
    Keywords: Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy, Iran, Lead, Mercury, Soap
  • Hamid Evaz-Zadeh Samani, Dr. Mahdi Banaee *, Dr. Parvaneh Shoukat, Dr. Ahmad Noori, Dr. Laleh Mousavi Dehmoredi Pages 5-12
    Background
    Contamination of feeds with cadmium leads to oxidative stress in vital tissues such as gills and affects the fish survival. Therefore, an increase in the capacity of the antioxidant defense system and detoxification system of fish may reduce adverse effects of pollutants. This study investigated the protective effects of microalga Spirulina platensis against oxidative stress in gills of cadmium-treated rainbow trout.
    Methods
    This study was conducted at Fish Farm, Almas-Dime Village, Koohrang, Charmahal & Bakhtiari Province, Iran from April to July 2016. Rainbow trout were allocated into five groups of which one group received normal feed and served as control. Fish from group II received 0.2 mg CdCl2 per 1 kg feed. Groups III-V were fed with enriched diet with 2.5, 5 and 10 g S. platensis per 1 kg feed, respectively and simultaneously treated with 0.2 mg kg-1 CdCl2 for 21 d. Changes in biochemical parameters including alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), malondialdehyde (MDA) as marker of lipid peroxidation and cellular total antioxidant capacity were evaluated.
    Results
    Oral exposure to CdCl2 caused a significant increase in MDA levels and altered AST, ALT, ALP and LDH activities in gills (P
    Conclusion
    The findings indicate that S. platensis has protective effects against toxic influence of CdCl2 on certain biochemical parameters in gills of fish.
    Keywords: Biochemical Parameter, Cadmium, Microalga, Oxidative Stress
  • Aliakbar Hedayati *, Fatemeh Darabitabar, Reza Tarkhani Pages 13-17
    Background
    The expansion of herbicide used in aquatic ecosystems as well as in terrestrial if is not properly controlled may produce harmful effects on freshwater fisheries. Residue limits of these agricultural chemicals in tropical fishery waters should be established. The aim of this study was to determine the acute toxicity of butachlor and pertilachlor as potential dangerous herbicides to assess mortality effects of these chemicals to the Mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus.
    Methods
    This study was carried out in Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran at summer 2013. Culex samples were exposed to different concentrations of butachlor and pertilachlor (0-200ppm for butachlor and pertilachlor) for 96 h.
    Results
    The low toxicity of LC50s obtained for butachlor (23.81±0.04) and pertilachlor (27.97±0.05) indicate that butachlor and pertilachlor were lowly toxic to Mosquito Cu. quinquefasciatus.
    Conclusion
    Although pretilachlor and butachlor are low toxic but pretilachlor is less toxic in field conditions, these data are useful to potential ecosystem risk assessment.
    Keywords: Aquatics, Mortality, Pollution, Toxicity
  • Mohammad Taimur Islam, Anup Kumar Talukder, Milton Talukder, Khondoker Jahengir Alam, Mohammad Golam Haider Pages 19-26
    Background
    Mercury in any form is poisonous and mercury toxicity most commonly affects the nervous, gastrointestinal (GI) and urinary systems. The aim of this study was to investigate the specific effect associated with mercury toxicity and to evaluate the effectiveness of iron and vitamin B6 supplement on mercury-induced toxicities in rats.
    Methods
    This experiment was performed on 25 rats. All rats were randomly divided into five equal groups (5×5). Toxic signs and body weight change, hematological parameters like total erythrocyte count (TEC), total leukocyte count (TLC), hemoglobin content (Hb%) and packed cell volume (PCV) and postmortem changes in rats were investigated.
    Results
    Rats treated with mercury intoxication showed severe toxic signs and significantly (P
    Conclusion
    Combined use of iron and vitamin B6 is highly protective against mercury toxicity.
    Keywords: Hematological Parameter, Iron, Mercury Intoxication, Vitamin B6
  • Reza Kheirandish, Shahrzad Azizi *, Jalil Abshenas, Anis Adabi Pages 27-31
    Background
    Atrazine (ATZ) is a common herbicide in agriculture for control of grass and broad-leaved weeds. It persists in the environment and causes reproductive problems in both human and animals. The present study was aimed at protective effect of green tea against ATZ toxicity in the reproductive system of male rats.
    Methods
    The present study was performed in Veterinary School, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman in 2016. ATZ and treatment groups received ATZ daily 200 mg/kg BW orally for 14 d. In addition, 0.2% methanolic green tea extract was administrated in the treatment group.
    Results
    In histopathologic investigation, number of germinal layers reduced in the most seminiferous tubules in the ATZ group and spermatids were absence. Necrotic spermatocytes, spermatids, and spermatozoa were evident in the testicular tubules. In the morphometric measurements, tubular diameter, germinal epithelium height, and meiosis index decreased significantly.
    Conclusion
    Green tea extract had reduced testicular toxicity of atrazine significantly. ATZ induces toxicity through oxidative damage and green tea extract can protect the testes due to antioxidant activity of its polyphenols especially flavonoids.
    Keywords: Atrazine, Histopathology, Rat, Reproductive System, Testis
  • Mehrnaz Shirmohammadi *, Negin Salamat, Mohammad Taghi Ronagh, Abdolali Movahedinia, Gholamreza Hamidian Pages 33-41
    Background
    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) such as phenanthrene (Phe) represent one of the most abundant forms of organic pollutants. The aim of this study was to assess changes in plasma levels of aminotransferase enzymes, total protein and liver tissue as biomarkers of yellowfin seabream (Acanthopagrus latus) exposed to Phe for 14 d.
    Methods
    The research was carried out in January 2016 at Khorramshahr University of Marine Sciences and Technology, Khorramshahr, Iran. Some 72 fish were injected with 2, 20, 40 and 70 mg/kg of Phe. Then tissue and blood samples were obtained at 1, 4, 7 and 14 d after injection.
    Results
    Exposure of fish to Phe resulted in a significant increase of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and decrease of total protein after 7 d of the experiment (P
    Conclusion
    The studied biomarkers such as changes in concentrations of ALT, AST and total protein as well as tissue damages in liver may be served as beneficial biomarker to assess Phe toxicity in yellowfin seabream.
    Keywords: Aminotransferase Enzymes, Live, Phenanthrene, Yellowfin Seabream
  • Mostafa Yarinia, Maryam Amirahmadi, Mahsa Ostadgholami, Masomeh Babaei, Azadeh Emami, Mehdi Elmi, Shahram Shoeibi Pages 43-49
    Background
    Lack of farmers’ knowledge, illegal production and import, and economical situation are the main reasons for non-authorized usage. In this study, one of the major center of cucumber cultivation at south west of Iran, Darreh shahr City in Ilam Province were studied for non-authorized pesticides usage, which health authorities and national standard organization do not recommend.
    Methods
    A reliable, rapid and accurate method based on spiked calibration curves and modified QuEChERS sample preparation was developed for determination of 7 non-authorized pesticides. During 2014 fifty cucumber samples were collected and analyzed by gas chromatography Electron Capture Detector (GC/ECD). For overcoming matrix effects, calibration curve was prepared by spiked samples.
    Results
    Method was validated with related parameters. The recovery of pesticides at five concentration levels (n=3) was in the range of 81.02-91.66%. The method was proved repeatable with RSD lower than 20%. The limits of quantification for all pesticides were 10 ng/g.
    Conclusion
    There are some pesticides which are legally used with identified MRL in cucumber, but for better protection farmers used another pesticides which are not permitted by health authorities, consequently are harmful for consumers. Related fields inspections showed that some specific pesticides were applied for this purpose, such as α-endosulfan, β-endosulfan, endosulfan sulfate, α-HCH, β-HCH, γ-HCH and phosalone that was found in three cucumber samples (6%).
    Keywords: Cucumber, Electron Capture Detector, Gas Chromatography, Mass Spectrometry, Pesticide Residues
  • Alireza Ebadollahi Natanzi *, Gholamreza Arab-Rahmatipour Pages 51-56
    Background
    Medicinal plants have potential to affect therapeutically procedures. In this study, the therapeutical effects of psyllium on a patient with highly increased level of uric acid, creatinine, and urea have been studied.
    Case Report: The case was a 50-yr-old woman affected by diabetes mellitus. Her blood biochemical analyses, showed an increased levels of uric acid (9.70±0.30mg/dL), urea (93.00± 3.60mg/dL) and creatinine (2.30±0.20 mg/dL). She was taken allopurinol (100 mg /daily) followed by consumption of 5 gr/daily from psyllium seeds which continued for two consecutive weeks. Then, the levels of uric acid, urea and creatinine were reached the normal value so that their measured levels were 5.60±0.26; 34.00±1.73 and 1.10±0.10 mg/dL, respectively. Psyllium together with allopurinol could also reduce cholesterol and triglyceride levels in this patient.
    Conclusion
    We can conclude that psyllium along with allopurinol can synergistically decrease the increased levels of uric acid, creatinine, and urea.
    Keywords: Allopurinol, Creatinine, Psyllium, Urea, Uric Acid