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اطلاعات جغرافیایی (سپهر) - پیاپی 101 (بهار 1396)
  • پیاپی 101 (بهار 1396)
  • 208 صفحه،
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1396/03/20
  • تعداد عناوین: 16
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  • میرنجف موسوی، مارال رحیمی صفحه 5
    توسعه پایدار در یک کشور با در نظر گرفتن توان اکولوژیکی، نیروی انسانی، تکنولوژی و منابع مالی متعلق به آن کشور و درخور آن می تواند تحقق یابد و انجام چنان توسعه ای تنها در محیط یاد شده، پایدار خواهد بود. از این رو، هدف تحقیق حاضر، تبیین نقش مولفه های جمعیتی بر تحقق ابعاد توسعه پایدار مناطق مرزی استان آذربایجان غربی بوده بنابراین، جامعه آماری تحقیق را تعداد 9 شهرستان مرزی استان آذربایجان غربی در سال 1390 تشکیل داده است. این تحقیق به روش «توصیفی تحلیلی» و با استفاده از مدل های کمی به انجام رسیده است. داده های تحقیق به روش کتابخانه ای (اسنادی) جمع آوری گردید. در این راستا، ابتدا به تحلیل جمعیت شناختی شهرستان های استان آذربایجان غربی طی سال های 1390 1355، پرداخته شد، سپس رتبه بندی شهرستان های استان از نظر شاخص های مختلف توسعه پایدار در سال 1390 با استفاده از مدل ویکور (در محیط نرم افزار Excel) و سطح بندی آنها با بهره گیری از روش تحلیل خوشه ایسلسله مراتبی با استفاده از نرم افزار SPSS 16 انجام شد. نتایج محاسبات حاکی از آن است که رتبه شهرستان ها در بخش های مختلف، متفاوت بوده و در نهایت نیز، شهرستان ارومیه بسیار برخوردار و شهرستان شوط محروم ترین شهرستان، شناخته شد. برای بررسی میزان نابرابری های میان شهرستان ها نیز از مدل ضریب پراکندگی (CV) استفاده گردید. کاربرد این مدل، نشان داد که در بین شاخص های مختلف، بیشترین میزان نابرابری در شاخص های اقتصادی و کمترین میزان نابرابری در شاخص های زیست محیطی بوده است. براساس نتایج مدل سازی معادلات ساختاریبا نرم افزار LISREL، مولفه های جمعیتی بیشترین تاثیر مثبت را بر بعد اقتصادی توسعه پایدار داشته اند. در آزمون فرضیه ها مشخص شد که تمامی مولفه های جمعیتی مورد بررسی، بر تحقق ابعاد توسعه پایدار موثر بوده اند.
    کلیدواژگان: اسکان جمعیت، توسعه پایدار، مناطق مرزی، استان آذربایجان غربی
  • سینا صابر ماهانی، محمدرضا سپهوند صفحه 25
    در این مقاله تشکیل ابر زلزله به عنوان پیش نشانگری که تاکنون کمتر شناخته شده و همچنین پیش نشانگر تغییرات دمایی، در زلزله محمدآباد ریگان بررسی شده است. در هنگام افزایش تنش در منطقه شکستگی های اولیه ایجادشده و با بالا رفتن دما شاهد تبخیر آب های موجود در شکستگی های بین سنگ خواهیم بود. در صورت وجود شرایط جوی مناسب –برای مثال؛ یک روز سرد- این بخارها می توانند به ابر تبدیل شوند. از آن جایی که منبع تولید این ابر ساکن است، لذا با وجود باد، موقعیت این ابر ثابت می ماند و همین مسئله راه شناسایی ابرهای زلزله است. در بخش اول تصاویر پانکروماتیک زلزله ریگان از 62 روز قبل از زمین لرزه دریافت شدند، پس از دریافت تصاویر پانکروماتیک، زمین مرجع نمودن تصاویر خام ماهواره ای انجام شد. مشاهدات نشان دادند که راستای ابر زلزله از 10 روز مانده به زمین لرزه (17 ژانویه) قابل شناسایی بود. در این تصاویر ابر زمین لرزه به صورت رقومی استخراج شده و این نتایج بر روی تصویر توپوگرافی منطقه موردمطالعه قرار داده شد. در بخش دوم، محتوای دمایی باندهای حرارتی (باندهای 31 و 32) تصاویر ماهواره MODIS استخراج شد و سری زمانی دمای سطح زمین تشکیل داده شد. سپس تاثیر عوامل جوی از سری زمانی کاسته شد و در مرحله بعد پالایه موجک بر این سری زمانی اعمال شد. با اعمال آزمون انحراف معیار از سری زمانی پالایه شده، وجود بی هنجاری دمایی 2 روز مانده به زمین لرزه آشکار گردید. همچنین در بخش دیگری از مقاله با رنگی کردن تصاویر ماهواره ای و تشکیل یک سری زمانی از این داده ها راستای گسل مسبب زمین لرزه مشخص شد.
    نهایتا با مقایسه روند ابر زمین لرزه با سازوکار کانونی و راستای ناحیه افزایش دما یافته، هماهنگی بالایی بین آن ها مشاهده شد. با این مقایسه می توان تشکیل ابر زلزله مورد بررسی را به زمین لرزه ریگان نسبت داد. همچنین ناحیه افزایش دمایی را می توان با احتمال زیاد به رویداد زمین لرزه منتسب نمود.
    کلیدواژگان: پیش نشانگر زلزله، ابر زلزله، پیش نشانگر حرارتی، محمدآباد ریگان، سازوکار کانونی، تصاویر ماهواره ای
  • سیده سمیرا حسینی، حمید عبادی، یاسر مقصودی مهرانی صفحه 33
    در دهه های اخیر توجه زیادی به تخمین زیست توده جنگلی شده است. تهیه نقشه های جامع و صحیح از زیست توده جنگلی جهت مدل کردن چرخه کربن جهانی و کاهش گازهای گلخانه ای از اهمیت بسیار زیادی برخوردار است. روش های قدیمی برای تخمین زیست توده براساس مقادیر بازپراکنش ها به کمک آنالیزهای رگرسیون صورت می پذیرفت. مشکل اصلی این روش ها، سطح اشباع پایین آنها در طول موج ها و پلاریزاسیون های مختلف بدلیل در نظر نگرفتن پارامترهای ساختاری بود. به کمک تکنیک های اینترفرومتری، تحقیقات به سمت استخراج پارامترهای ساختاری سوق پیدا کرد. ارتفاع یکی از پارامترهای ساختاری می باشد که جهت تخمین زیست توده جنگلی می تواند استفاده شود. بهبود روش های بازیابی ارتفاع درختان نقش بسیار مهمی در استخراج صحیح زیست توده جنگلی ایفا می کند. در این مقاله یک روش جدید به منظور بهینه سازی ماتریس پراکنش به کمک تغییر پایه پلاریزاسیون جهت تخمین ارتفاع معرفی شده است. به کمک تغییر ماتریس پراکنش در پایه پلاریزاسیون های مختلف برای هر دو تصویر پایه و پیرو، پارامترهای همبستگی مختلف استخراج شده و با روش های مختلف تخمین ارتفاع، ارتفاع درختان تخمین زده شده است. داده های مورد بررسی، داده های تمام پلاریمتری از سنجنده هوایی SETHI در باند P می باشد که در منطقه جنگل های شمالی واقع در Remningstorp در جنوب کشور سوئد برداشت شده است. نتایج نشان می دهد که روش هایی که در آنها تغییر فاز وجود دارد در اثر تغییر پارامترهای هندسی بیضوی، بهبود چشمگیری داشته اند بطوری که روش های فاز حجم تصادفی برروی زمین با 76/0= R2 و76/3 = RMSE و تفاضلی مدل رقومی با 69/0-= R2 بهترین بهبود در نتایج را داشته اند و روش وارونگی دامنه همدوسی که با مقدار کوهرنس ارتفاع را استخراج می کند، با 17/0= R2 بهبود چندانی در نتایج آن ملاحظه نشده است.
    کلیدواژگان: اینترفرومتری پلاریمتری، تخمین ارتفاع، ماتریس انتقال، بهینه سازی، ماتریس پراکنش
  • ابوالفضل رنجبر، فرشاد حکیم پور، سیامک طلعت اهری صفحه 45
    مساله مکانیابی بانک ها به فاکتورهای زیادی نیاز داشته و جزء مسایل NP-HARDطبقه بندی می شود. استفاده از روش های فراابتکاری برای حل مسایل NP-HARDعلیرغم تقریبی بودن، مناسب ترین راه حل به نظر می رسد. در این تحقیق از روش های بهینه سازی گرگ خاکستری، علف های هرز، ژنتیک، اجتماع ذرات و الگوریتم فرهنگی در حل مساله مکانیابی بانک ها استفاده شده است. برای این کار هدف به صورت جذب مشتری بیشتر و محدودیت در تعداد نفرات جذب شده به بانک جدیدالتاسیس تعریف شد. روش ها به طوری آماده شدند که قابلیت پیدا نمودن مکان بانک جدید با وجود بانک های دیگر در منطقه را دارند و مکان بانک جدید باید از بانک های هم نوع خودش تا حد ممکن دورتر شده (هدف بازاریابی) و همچنین در مجموع کل مشتریان این نوع بانک نبایستی از یک حدی کمتر شده و میزان جذب مشتری شعبه جدیدالتاسیس بانک از یک تعدادی کمتر نشود (محدودیت ها). بدین منظور قسمتی از کلان شهر تبریز جهت پیاده سازی انتخاب شد. به منظور ارزیابی کیفیت و دقت الگوریتم ها از تست تکرارپذیری و مقایسه اعداد همگرایی برای نتایج حاصل از اجرای هر الگوریتم روی داده ها اجرا شد. همچنین نتایج الگوریتم ها با آزمون آماری ویلکاکسون مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفت. نتایج حاصل از این آزمون ها عملکرد دقیق تر، الگوریتم علف های هرز نسبت به روش های بهینه سازی مذکور در مکانیابی بانک ها را نشان می دهد.
    کلیدواژگان: الگوریتم های فراابتکاری، بهینه سازی، مکان یابی، بانک ها، سیستم اطلاعات مکانی
  • بی بی مریم سجادیان جاغرق، علیرضا وفایی نژاد، علی اصغر آل شیخ صفحه 61
    فراگیر شدن دستگاه های تلفن همراه (مانند گوشی های هوشمند و تبلت ها) باعث توسعه سیستم های فراگستر مانند سیستم های ناوبری و سلامت شده است. خصوصیت اصلی سیستم های فراگستر وجود امکان پیکربندی مجدد و انطباق مناسب برنامه کاربردی با توجه به وضعیت جاری کاربر در شرایط محیطی مختلف است. وجود قابلیت های دینامیکی که در طراحی و پیاده سازی سیستم های فراگستر بافت آگاه باید مد نظر قرار گیرد، عمدتا شامل کسب بافت، پردازش و تصمیم گیری و نحوه نمایش اطلاعات می شود. این مقاله بر روی طراحی و پیاده سازی یک سیستم بافت آگاه برای گروه های حساس در شرایط محیطی نامناسب (به طور خاص، آلودگی هوا) متمرکز شده است. آلودگی هوا به عنوان یک پدیده زمانی-مکانی باعث تغییرات شرایط سلامتی می گردد و گاهی اوقات عامل افزایش میزان مرگ ومیر محسوب می شود.در این پژوهش از پلت فرم اندروید، زبان های برنامه نویسی جاوا، PHP و بانک اطلاعات MySQLو SQLit و همچنین از Google Maps API جهت پیاده سازی سیستم استفاده شده است. رویکرد طراحی سیستم پیشنهادی بر اساس معماری توزیع یافته در قسمت جمع آوری و پردازش داده است. جمع آوری داده با استفاده از سنسورهای سخت افزاری و نرم افزاری انجام می شود. سیستم بافت آگاه پیشنهادی می تواند به طور خودکار بافت جاری کاربر را شناسایی کند و داده ها و اطلاعات مورد نیاز را پس از پردازش و استدلال ارائه نماید. ارائه نتایج معمولا به صورت توصیه هایی براساس شرایط جاری کاربر صورت می پذیرد. ویژگی های بارز این سیستم استقلال نسبی آن از ورود داده ها به صورت دستی توسط کاربرو شرکت فعالانه داده ها در تصمیم گیری است. استدلال خودکار بافت بر اساس مجموعه قوانین تعریف شده در قالب قوانین اگر...آنگاه... اجرا می شود. نتایج خروجی متناسب با علایق و ترجیحات کاربر تفسیر و در رابط کاربر نمایش داده می شود. نحوه نمایش اطلاعات نیز با توجه به شرایط محیطی کاربر سازگار می شود. سیستم پیشنهادی، الگوی مناسبی از خود مراقبتی در محیط شهری با آلودگی بالا را ارائه می دهد.
    کلیدواژگان: بافت آگاهی، فراگستر، توصیه گر، آلودگی هوا
  • فریده سبزه ای، محمدعلی شریفی شریفی، مهدی آخوندزاده هنزائی صفحه 73
    مطالعه و سنجش یون سپهر در علوم مختلف از جمله مطالعات فضایی و برای بهبود آنالیز و پیش بینی فضایی هوا شامل طوفان های ژئومغناطیسی، بررسی پدیده ها و ناهنجاری های یون سپهری، سیستم های مخابراتی،ژئوفیزیکی، مطالعه پیش نشانگری زلزله و مخاطرات طبیعی بسیار کارآمد می باشد. برای توصیف فرآیندهای فیزیکی و شیمیایی رخ داده در لایه یون سپهر تغییرات پی در پی چگالی الکترون این لایه با تغییرات زمان و موقعیت جغرافیایی موسوم به پروفیل عموی لایه یون سپهر (پروفیل چگالی الکترون) مورد استفاده قرار می گیرد. اهمیت پایش چگالی الکترون یون سپهر بدلیل تاثیری که لایه یون سپهر بر روی امواج رادیویی GPS در ناوبری و مخابرات می گذارد، سبب مدلسازی و بررسی پارامتر یون سپهری در این مقالهگردیده است. تغییرات ناگهانی و زیاد چگالی الکترون در بخش های مختلف یون سپهر مدلسازی آن را برای تصحیح خطای یون سپهری بسیار پیچیده می نماید.یکی از جدیدترین روش های سنجش از دور برای استخراج پروفیل چگالی الکترون در لایه ی یون سپهر، روش نهفتگی رادیویی (GPS RO) است که قادر به تولید پروفیل های چگالی الکترون با توان تفکیک قائم بالامی باشد. دراین روش گیرنده های GNSS بر روی ماهواره های ارتفاع پایین (LEO) قرار گرفته و سیگنال فرستاده شده در راستای خط دید ماهواره های LEO و GNSS خم گردیده و اطلاعات لایه های اتمسفری (بویژه یون سپهر) را ثبت و ضبط می نماید. در این مقاله، ابتدا ماهواره ی COSMIC معرفی و سپس برایسال های 2006تا2007 (کمینه فعالیت خورشیدی) بکارگیری الگوریتم های هوشمند توانسته است کارآیی مناسبی در جهت مدلسازی پروفیل های چگالی الکترون ارائه دهد.نتایج بدست آمدهبا پروفیل های چگالی الکترون سه نوع مدل مرجع بین المللی یون سپهریIRI-NEQ،IRI-Corrو IRI-001 مقایسه شده اند و چنین نتیجه گرفته شده است که برای کشور ایران، مدل ایجاد شده با شبکه عصبی شباهت بیشتری با پروفیل های مشاهداتی ماهواره ی COSMIC نسبت به پروفیل های چگالی الکترون مدل های مرجع بین المللی یون سپهری از خود نشان می دهند.
    کلیدواژگان: پروفیل چگالی الکترون، ماهواره ی COSMIC، شبکه ی عصبی، مدل مرجع بین المللی یون سپهری، لایه یون سپهر
  • زهره فنی، عبدالله روشن صفحه 81
    یکی از اصول بنیادی در پدافند غیرعامل، مکان گزینی ایستگاه های آتش نشانی است. ایمنی شهر در برابر سوانح و حوادث بویژه آتش سوزی در کاربری های مختلف و تضمین امنیت جانی و مالی شهروندان برعهده این عنصر مهم شهری است. ایستگاه های آتش نشانی از جمله مراکز مهم و حیاتی خدمات رسانی در شهرها هستند که نقش مهمی در تامین ایمنی و آسایش شهروندان و توسعه شهرها دارند. بدیهی است خدمات رسانی به موقع ایستگاه های آتش نشانی، بیش از هر چیز مستلزم اسقرار آن ها در مکان های مناسب می باشد که بتوانند در اسرع وقت، بدون مواجه شدن با موانع و محدودیت های محیط شهری از یک سو و با ایجاد کمترین آثار منفی به زندگی ساکنان شهر از سوی دیگر به محل حادثه برسند و اقدامات امدادرسانی را به انجام برسانند. از این رو می توان به ارزش زمان در امدادرسانی و کاهش زمان تاخیر برای کمک به مصدومین در شبکه شهری پی برد. از اهداف این پژوهش می توان به بررسی وضع موجود ایستگاه های آتش نشانی، عملکرد آن ها در هنگام بروز سوانح، سطح پوشش ایستگاه های موجود و یافتن بهترین مکان برای ساخت ایستگاه های جدید آتش نشانی در شهر بهبهان اشاره کرد. نتایج این تحقیق نشان می دهد که شهر بهبهان، دارای دو ایستگاه آتش نشانی، یکی در شرق و دیگری در جنوب غرب است و بخش های شمال شرق و شمال غرب شهر، خارج از سطح پوشش آن ها قرار دارند. از این رو، پژوهش حاضر با استفاده از مدل AHP به تجزیه و تحلیل ایستگاه های موجود و وضعیت خدمات رسانی آن ها در هنگام بروز سوانح پرداخته و در نهایت با تاکید بر اصول پدافند غیرعامل، به مکان گزینی بهینه احداث ایستگاه های جدید آتش نشانی که به کمک ایستگاه های موجود، قادر خواهند بود کل منطقه را تحت پوشش قرار دهند، اقدام شده است.
    کلیدواژگان: پدافند غیرعامل، مکان گزینی، ایستگاه آتشنشانی، AHP، شهر بهبهان
  • عزت الله قنواتی، محمدرضا ثروتی، رضا منصوری، سمیرا نجفوند صفحه 93
  • محسن احمدخانی، محمدرضا ملک صفحه 109
    با وجود گستردگی استفاده از سیستم تعیین موقعیت جهانی GPS، این سیستم برای محیط های بسته و مسقف قابل استفاده نیست.روش های مختلفی برای توسعه ی سیستم تعیین موقعیت محیط های مسقف ارائه شده که عموما بر اساس دریافت امواج رادیویی ارسالی از فرستنده هایی با موقعیت مشخص هستند. زمان دریافت سیگنال، اختلاف زمان دریافت سیگنال، زاویه دریافت و اثرانگشت مکانی از جمله این روش ها هستند. اما توجه به این نکته ضروری است که برخی از این روش ها برای محیط داخل که محیط پیچیده ای است، مناسب نیستند. روش های مبتنی بر زمان دریافت سیگنال، اختلاف زمان دریافت سیگنال و زاویه دریافت سیگنال برپایه ی تکنیک های مثلث بندی هستند که نیاز به دید مستقیم فرستنده و گیرنده خواهد بود. همچنین سنجش دقیق زمان و زاویه سیگنال دریافتی نیاز به ابزارهای خاص دارند که در بیشتر مواقع گران و پرهزینه هستند. درنهایت روش اثرانگشت مکانی می تواند به عنوان روشی بهینه مورد استفاده قرار گیرد. روش اثرانگشت مکانی به علت عدم نیاز به زیرساخت ویژه و امکان ایجاد ساده تر، به عنوان یک روش رایج مورد استفاده قرار می گیرد. روش اثر انگشت مکانی برای تخمین موقعیت دستگاه همراه کاربر از توان سیگنال دریافتی استفاده می کند. برای این روش الگوریتم های مختلفی جهت کشف الگوی مکانی نقاط نمونه به کار برده می شود که از آنها به روش های احتمالاتی، روش نزدیک ترین همسایگی و الگوریتم شبکه عصبی مصنوعی می توان اشاره کرد.در این مقاله این سه روش با یکدیگر مقایسه شده و در نهایت یک روش بهبود یافته نزدیک ترین همسایگی ارائه شده است. با مقایسه روش پیشنهادی با سایر روش ها، برتری روش پیشنهادی تایید می شود
    کلیدواژگان: سیستم اطلاعات مکانی همراه، سیستم تعیین موقعیت محیط مسقف، اثر انگشت، نزدیکترین همسایگی، شبکه عصبی، GIS، RMSE
  • سید اسدالله حجازی، شبنم محمودی صفحه 119
    یکی از مهم ترین فرایندهای فرسایشی در مناطق بیابانی از جمله محدوده مطالعاتی (شرق شهرستان جاسک)، فرسایش بادی است که منجر به ایجاد اشکال فرسایشی مختلفی از جمله تپه های ماسه ای می شود. اهمیت مطالعه تپه های ماسه ای در این منطقه بخاطرخساراتی است که این تپه ها در صورت متحرک بودن به منابع طبیعی، تاسیسات انسانی و غیره وارد می آورند. لذا بررسی تپه های ماسه ای در مدیریت این نواحی اهمیت دارد. یکی از اولین ویژگی هایی که در اغلب مطالعات مربوط به مناطق بیابانی از جمله بررسی فرسایش بادی، روند یابی حرکت تپه های ماسه ای و غیره مورد بررسی قرار می گیرد، ویژگی مربوط به بافت ذرات ماسه می باشد. بنابراین در تحقیق حاضر به مطالعه ویژگی بافتی و محیط ته نشست رسوبات ماسه ای پرداخته شده است. محدوده مطالعاتی جزء سواحل بیابانی بوده، در شرق شهرستان جاسک و در استان هرمزگان واقع است. این تحقیق بر اساس جمع آوری نمونه از محل و مطالعه بافت رسوبی با استفاده از نتایج گرانومتری و بررسی میکروسکوپی و ماکروسکوپی رسوبات پس از آماده سازی آن است. برای محاسبه پارامترهای بافتی مانند میانگین، جور شدگی و کج شدگی از روش لحظه ای استفاده و نمودارها با استفاده از نرم افزار اکسل تهیه شد. با استفاده از نقشه های توپوگرافی و تصاویر ماهواره ای نقشه های مورد نظر در نرم افزارهای GIS تهیه گردید. از نقشه زمین شناسی نیز برای مطالعه سنگ شناسی استفاده شد. نتایج حاصل بیانگر نزدیک بودن قطر میانگین دانه ها و نشان از عدم نوسان انرژی در محیط رسوبگذاری است. کج شدگی منفی، جورشدگی خوب، وجود فسیل های دریایی و وجود دانه های شفاف در نمونه های 1، 2، 5، منشا ساحلی را برای این نمونه ها مشخص می کند. کج شدگی مثبت، جور شدگی خوب، منحنی هیستوگرام بایمدال و انحنا رو به بالا منحنی تجمعی در نمونه های، 6، 7، 9، و 10، نشان از وجود مواد طغیانی رودخانه و رسوب های کناری دارد، بنابراین می توان برای این نمونه ها منشاء رودخانه ای را متصور شد.
    کلیدواژگان: ویژگی بافتی رسوبات، گرانومتری، تپه های ماسه ای، شرق شهرستان جاسک، سواحل عمان
  • مرضیه مکرم، علی درویشی بلورانی، سعید نگهبان صفحه 131
    شناخت عوامل هیدروژئومورفولوژیک و عملکرد آنها در حوضه آبخیز به منظور شناخت و مدیریت محیط حوضه آبخیز، اهمیت زیادی دارد. در این پژوهش یکی از زیرحوضه های آبخیز رودخانه ارومیه (نازلوچای) واقع در شمال غرب ایران با مساحت 75/948 کیلومترمربع با محاسبه و آنالیز مورفومتری و استفاده از فنون سیستم اطلاعات جغرافیایی مورد بررسی قرارگرفته است. برای استخراج آبراهه های منطقه و بررسی حوضه آبخیز از نظر مورفومتری از مدل رقومی ارتفاع (DEM) 30 متر استفاده شد. پارامترهای مورفومتری بررسی شده در این مقاله شامل تعداد آبراهه ها (Nu)، رتبه آبراهه (U)، مجموع طول آبراهه (L)، ضریب بیفرکاسیون (Rb)، پستی و بلندی (Bb)، چگالی زهکشی (Dd)، فراوانی آبراهه (Fs)، فاکتور شکل (Rf)، ضریب گردی (Rc) و ضریب مستطیل معادل (Re) می باشد. نتایج نشان داد که با توجه به تعداد آبراهه ها (489 آبراهه)، وجود آبراهه های درجه اول، دوم و سوم، زیاد بودن طول آبراهه ها، بالا بودن نسبت طول آبراهه ها نسبت به مساحت حوضه، ضریب رلیف بالا که نشان دهنده وجود ارتفاعات و شیب زیاد، منطقه فرسایش پذیر بوده و نیاز به مدیریت بیشتر دارد. همچنین مطالعات لندفرم در منطقه مورد مطالعه نشان داد که به کمک ویژگی های مورفومتری می توان میزان حساسیت لندفرم ها به فرسایش را در منطقه مشخص نمود. به طوری که بعد از تهیه نقشه لندفرم ها با استفاده از شاخص موقعیت توپوگرافی (TPI)، و در نظرگرفتن مناطق حساس به فرسایش از طریق ویژگی های مورفومتری، لندفرم های حساس به فرسایش در منطقه مورد مطالعه مشخص شد. به طوریکه افزایش تعداد آبراهه ها و طول آن در حوضه آبخیز نشان دهنده افزایش فرسایش است. با مقایسه نقشه لندفرم ها و نقشه آبراهه های منطقه مورد مطالعه مشخص شد که لندفرم های کلاس 4 (دره های U شکل) و لندفرم های کلاس 3 (زهکش های مرتفع) دارای بیشترین فرسایش پذیری هستند. نتایج نشان داد که با افزایش میزان چگالی زهکشی میزان فرسایش پذیری افزایش می یابد که در لندفرم های کلاس 4 (دره های u شکل) و کلاس 6 بیشترین میزان فرسایش پذیری با توجه به بالا بودن چگالی زهکشی دیده شد.
    کلیدواژگان: مورفومتری، فرسایش پذیری، لندفرم، چگالی زهکشی
  • بهروز نصیری، زهرا یارمرادی صفحه 143
    افزایش گازهای گلخانه ای در چند دهه اخیر باعث بر هم خوردن تعادل اقلیمی کره زمین شده که به آن پدیده تغییر اقلیم اطلاق می شود. مهم ترین تبعات تغییر اقلیم افزایش دمای متوسط کره زمین، افزایش پدیده های حدی اقلیمی نظیر سیل، طوفان، تگرگ، امواج گرمایی، افزایش سطح آب دریاها، ذوب شدن یخ های قطبی و سرماهای نابهنگام خواهد بود. استفاده از مدل های ریز مقیاس نمایی آماری در برآورد نوسانات اقلیمی، این امکان را فراهم ساخته که بتوان داده های آب و هوایی را در مقیاس مکانی و زمانی مناسب تولید کرد. چنین قابلیتی کمک شایانی به مطالعه نوسانات اقلیمی در مقیاس محلی و منطقه ای کرده است. در این تحقیق کارایی مدل LARS-WG برای تولید و شبیه سازی داده های روزانه دما، بارش و ساعت آفتابی در استان لرستان با استفاده از پارامترهای آماری MAE، T-STUDENT،MAE،R2 مورد بررسی و ارزیابی قرار گرفت و تغییرات ناشی از آن ها نیز در آینده آشکارشد. نتایج حاصل از آن نشان داد که در سطح اطمینان 99 درصد تفاوت معنی داری بین داده های واقعی و داده های حاصل از مدل وجود ندارد و مدل کارایی لازم را در جهت تولید داده های روزانه داراست. پس از اطمینان از کارایی مدل، از خروجی های مدل HADCM3 استفاده شد و داده های روزانه دما، تابش و بارش برای دوره پایه (2005-1961)، تحت سه سناریوی A1B(سناریوی حد وسط)، A2(سناریوی حداکثر) و B1 (سناریوی حداقل) شبیه سازی گردید.بر اساس برآورد مدل HADCM3 برای سناریوهای مورد بررسی در دوره های آتی، میانگین دمای بیشینه و بارش استان به ترتیب حدود(9/0 تا 03/1 درجه) و(04/12 درصد)افزایش و میانگین ساعات آفتابی حدود6/0 کاهش خواهد یافت.همچنین با وجود تغییرات کمتر دمای بیشینه نسبت به دمای کمینه، افزایش متوسط دمای هوا در این دوره قابل انتظار می باشد. طبق این نتایج شرایط اقلیمی استان لرستان در 50 سال آینده تفاوت محسوسی با شرایط فعلی خواهد داشت و برنامه ریزی های بلند مدت و استراتژیک برای مدیریت این شرایط ضروری بنظر می رسد.
    کلیدواژگان: تغییر اقلیم، ریزمقیاس گردانی، HADCM3، سناریو، لرستان
  • ناهید سجادیان، هادی علیزاده، علی شجاعیان، حسین صابری صفحه 155
    اساس ظهور رویکردهای جدید نظریه ای در ساخت، طراحی و برنامه ریزی شهری مانند شهرهای سبز، شهرهای سالم و شهرهای اکولوژیک توجه به محیط زیست شهری و توجه بیش از پیش به برنامه ریزی کاربری فضاهای سبز در ساخت و طراحی شهرهای پرتراکم از لحاظ کالبدی و جمعیتی می باشد. بنابراین وجود چنین کاربری در شهرهای امروزی حیاتی و ضروری است. از این رو در مطالعه حاضر با روش شناسی «توصیفی – تحلیلی» هدف پژوهش ارزیابی و تحلیل مکان های بهینه برای استقرار فضاهای سبز شهری در شهر ماهشهر می باشد. در این راستا با توجه به داده های در دسترس شاخص های تعیین کننده در دستیابی به هدف موضوع پژوهش، 11 کاربری عمده شهری در شهر ماهشهر تحت عنوان کاربری های تجاری، فرهنگی، درمانی، آموزشی، فضای سبز، صنعتی، مذهبی، اداری، راه های ارتباطی، ورزشی و مکان های توریستی- تاریخی می باشند که برای تحلیل استقرار بهینه مکانی فضای سبز از آنها استفاده شده است. برای تحلیل داده ها ابتدا با استفاده از توابع فازی درمحیط نرم افزار Arc GIS 10شاخص های پژوهش (کاربری های 11 گانه طبقه بندی شده) به عضویت فازی در آمده و سپس با استفاده از عملگر گامای فازی (Fuzzy Gama) مورد تحلیل قرار گرفته اند. نتایج پژوهش نشان می دهد آزمایش حد آستانه های 7/0، 8/0 و 9/0 در عملگر گامای فازی با توجه به شرایط موجود کاربری ها، گامای فازی با حد آستانه 9/0 بهتر از بقیه حد آستانه های مورد آزمایش با لحاظ اهمیت و تعادل در گرایش های کاهشی و افزایشی کاربری ها به تحلیل استقرار مکانی فضای سبز شهری در شهر ماهشهر پرداخته است. همچنین مطابق با نتایج این عملگر قسمت های مرکزی شهر در دو بخش غربی و شرقی آن مناسب ترین مکان ها برای استقرار و مکان گزینی برای کاربری فضای سبز شهری می باشد.
    کلیدواژگان: سنجش فازی، استقرار مکانی، فضای سبز، شهر ماهشهر
  • احسان الوندی، مهتاب فروتن دانش، محمدرضا دهمرده قلعه نو صفحه 169
    تغییرات کاربری اراضی در اثر فعالیت های انسانی یکی از موضوعات مهم در برنامه ریزی های منطقه ای می باشد. در بسیاری از مناطق ایران، کاربری اراضی و مدیریت زمین بدون توجه به قابلیت و توان سرزمین می باشد که سبب اتلاف سرمایه و کاهش ظرفیت محیطی می گردد.در این تحقیق از روش توصیفی- تحلیلی همراه با بهره گیری از ابزارهای مدیریتی (روش های تصمیم گیری چند شاخصه) در کنار قابلیت های بالای نرم افزار ArcGIS امکان مدل سازی تناسب زمین برای توسعه شهری در حوضه آبخیز زیارت استان گلستان، با توجه به معیارهای شیب، ارتفاع از سطح دریا، بافت خاک، پوشش گیاهی، جهت شیب، سنگ مادر، فاصله از گسل و فاصله از رودخانه، فراهم شده است. در این تحقیق با مراجعه به 10 نفر از متخصصین در رشته مربوطه و با استفاده از فرایند تحلیل سلسله مراتبی(AHP) وزنی برای هر معیار تعیین شده است. در ادامه به منظور تلفیق نقشه های معیار و محاسبه میزان تناسب زمین برای توسعه شهری از تکنیک های SAW و TOPSIS همراه با بهره گیری از قابلیت های نرم افزار ArcGIS 10.1 استفاده شده است. در نهایت در این تحقیق به بررسی سازگاری بین کاربری های موجود در حوضه آبخیز زیارت استان گلستان پرداخته شده است. با توجه به نتایج بدست آمده از مدل سازی تناسب زمین، وسعت مناطق دارای شرایط توسعه شهری با استفاده از تکنیک های TOPSIS و SAW به ترتیب 37 و4/79 هکتار از کل مساحت حوضه آبخیز زیارت محاسبه شده است، اما در حال حاضر وسعت مناطق مسکونی در این حوضه 3/141 هکتار می باشد. در مدل سازی تناسب زمین برای توسعه شهری با توجه به وجود وابستگی های مکانی میان نقشه های معیار، بهترین روش در تلفیق معیارها و محاسبه میزان تناسب کاربری ، استفاده از تکنیک TOPSIS است.نتایج سازگاری کاربری ها نشان داد، کاربری اراضی مسکونی با میزان سازگاری 118245/0 کمترین سازگاری را بین کاربری های فعلی موجود در این حوضه دارد. در پایان می توان گفت، با توجه به توانایی های بالای روش های تصمیم گیری چند شاخصه و ArcGIS در مدل سازی تناسب زمین برای توسعه شهری، هر قدر نظرات کارشناسی دقیق تر و داده ها و اطلاعات به روز تر باشند، استفاده از این فنون و ابزار با نتایج بهتری همراه است.
    کلیدواژگان: سیستم اطلاعات جغرافیایی(GIS)، تصمیم گیری چند معیاره، تناسب زمین، حوضه آبخیز زیارت
  • سیدحسین میرموسوی، زهرا حیدری منفرد، شهاب شفیعی صفحه 183
    توفان های تندری به همراه پدیده های فرعی ناشی از آن به مانند تگرگ یکی از جلوه های خشن طبیعت است. بنابراین در تحقیق حاضر برای دستیابی به مدیریت ریسک تگرگ در شمال غرب کشور، جهت کاهش خسارات ناشی از آن، با استفاده از شاخص های ناپایداری به ارزیابی این پدیده مخرب پرداخته شد.برای شناسایی شرایط ترمودینامیکی وقوع این پدیده طی دوره آماری 18 ساله (2009-1992)، شاخص های ناپایداری جویSI، LI، SW، KI، C.T، V.T، T.T، PWCو سطح یخبندان نمودارهای اقلیمی Skew-TlogP، 23 مورد وقوع تگرگ ایستگاه های تبریز و کرمانشاه- به منظور پوشش کامل منطقه- از وب سایت دانشگاه وایومینگ آمریکا استخراج وبررسی شد. نتایج حاصل از کلیه شاخص های فوق با استانداردهای ناپایداری جوی مورد مقایسه و ارزیابی قرار گرفت. در این بررسی مغایرت هایی بین ارقام مشاهداتی و ارقام پیشگویی شده ملاحظه گردید و نهایتا شاخص های ناپایداری منطقه به شرح زیر تعیین شده اند:SI≤،71/20LI≤،63/16SW،99/19≤KI،30/14≤C.T،50/11≤V.Tو 70/24≤T.T80/41≤
    همچنین مشخص گردید که در سال های اخیر بر شدت ناپایداری جو منطقه افزوده شده است. به طوری که شاخص SIو LIدر این سال ها به مقدار صفر نزدیک شده و سایر شاخص ها، هر یک میل صعودی به سوی حداکثر آستانه های خود داشته اند و نیزسطح یخبندان در روزهای تگرگی مورد مطالعه، بین 850 تا 650 هکتوپاسکال یعنی بین ارتفاع 1393 تا 3788 متری در نوسان می باشد که در ماه های گرم سال این سطح افزایش می یابد.
    کلیدواژگان: تحلیل ترمودینامیکی، تگرگ، شاخص های ناپایداری، شمال غرب
  • فاطمه محمدیاری، حسین اقدر، رضا بصیری صفحه 199
    آب های زیرزمینی در مناطق خشک و نیمه خشک اهمیت ویژه ای دارند .دراین تحقیق، با استفاده از روش های زمین آمار، خصوصیات شیمیایی آب های زیر زمینی مناطق خشک و نیمه خشک مهران و دهلران مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. سدیم، کلر،سولفات،TDSوTH متغیرهای مورد ارزیابی بودند. نیم تغییر نمای تجربی هر یک از پارامترها با استفاده از نرم افزار GS+ محاسبه و مدل های مختلف برازش داده شد. پس از بررسی نرمال سازی داده ها و اریوگرامترسیم، و در نرم افزار GIS درون یابی به روش وزن دهی عکس فاصله (IDW) وکریجینگ انجام شد. معیار انتخاب مدل مناسب درونیابی مقدارRMSE کمتر و ساختار مکانی قوی تربود. نتایج نشانگر برتری روش کریجینگنسبت به روشIDW می باشد. بنابر این نقشه ها با این روش تهیه شد. نتایج بیانگر همبستگی قوی داده های کیفی آب منطقه و ساختار مکانی تابع مدل گوسین می باشد. در پایان با استفاده از منطق فازی و طبقه بندی شولر نقشه پهنه بندی منطقه جهت شرب تهیه گردید. مطابق نقشه نهایی، 37 درصد از منطقه برای شرب مناسب، 13 درصد نسبتا مناسب و 50 درصد نامناسب می باشد. در نتیجه، کیفیت آب منطقه مورد مطالعه برای شرب در حد مطلوب نیست. باروی همگذاری نقشه پهنه بندی و نقشه حاصل از تحلیل نقاط بارز مشاهده شد که نقاط با غلظت های زیاد و در آستانه هشدار در کنار هم و در طبقه نامناسب نقشه پهنه بندی، قرارگرفته اند. بالا بودن میزان سختی و سایر عناصر در بخش هایی از منطقه روند افزایشی دارد. این موضوع به دلیل جانشین شدن رسوبات آبرفتی با سازند گچساران است. لذا عامل اصلی کاهش کیفیت آب ها را می توان سازند گچساران دانست.
    کلیدواژگان: آب های زیرزمینی، تحلیل نقاط بارز، طبقه بندی شولر، کریجینگ، IDW
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  • Mir Najaf Mousavi, Maral Rahimi Page 5
    Introduction
    Regional inequalities between border and central regions of most third world countries is inevitable, that created Centralized system of planning structures in the historical process(Ebrahim-Zadeh et al., 2012: 214).This imbalance has negative effects on the development of those areas. On the one hand, makes it difficult the development in border areas, in a general sense, and it puts many obstacles in the way and on the other hand, growing public insecurity because of the position of the border regions and also due to the lack of development.
    This mutual influences between development and security are related to each other as a chain, and to create action and reaction that affecting the essence of sustainable development in the border region (Andalib and Motawef, 2009: 73). The border regions due to away from the city center, geographical isolation and underdevelopment and ... has Significant differences in terms of welfare and development compared to other major population centers, that this difference leads to the disconnect the two regions and create exploitative relationship for benefit of Center (Andalib and Motawef, 2009: 73).
    Today, Uncontrollable population growth due to poor security and maintain the population (population stabilization) in the border region, has created a complex horizon for the future of rural areas (Ghaderi Hajat et al., 2010: 122). Imbalance in the distribution of resources, services and capital and the lack of development of the border regions and marginal country, causing massive migration to the axis of development.West Azerbaijan province with 890 kilometer border with Iraq, Turkey and Azerbaijan and having a diversity of cultural, ethnic, is one of the most important border provinces of Iran.
    According to the above issues with crises in Iraq, Azerbaijan and ethnic conflicts in Turkey caused insecurity in border area and in terms of development, puts it in last in the ranks of the region.
    Accordingly, in this study, trying to investigate and analyze the role of population settlement as a way of achieving sustainable development in the border regions in West Azerbaijan province.
    Materials And Method
    This is a practical study that was carried out with descriptive analysis approach. For data collection in order to achieve the research objectives are used of the Library research methods and related data and information to indicators of research from statistical yearbooks 2011 in West Azerbaijan and municipality statistics. To analyze the data in the research valuation index was used of entropy weighting method and VIKOR model(Ekhtiari, 2012: 168-166 and Fatah et al., 2013: 74-73 and Akman, 2014: 6 and Zhu et al, 2015: 4) and to determine the disparities between the cities was used of the scattering coefficient formula (Hekmatnia and Mousavi, 2013: 280,279).
    To test the hypothesis and to measure the impact of independent variables on the function variables was used ofregression analysis method in SPSS 16.0 software (Mahdavi and Taherkhani, 2006: 190,177).Also, by using structural equation modeling software LISREL 8.50 Was attempting to design research model.
    Discussion and
    Results
    Demographicanalysis of West Azerbaijan Province during 1976-2011 West Azerbaijan province’s population development investigated in border and non-border cities and with separation of urban and rural areas. According to the official statistics in country, the number of cities of this province in the years 1976, 1986, 1996, 2006 and 2011 respectively was 9, 9, 12, 14, 17 cities.
    During the period of 1976 to 2011, the growth rate of population in rural and urban areashad downward trend. This process is applied to border cities and the urban and rural areas. Figure No. (2) Shows the average population growth and border and non-border cities.
    Ranking West Azerbaijan districts ranking in terms of sustainable development indicators
    According to performs calculations, by using the VIKOR Multi-criteria decision-making model to rank the cities of West Azerbaijan province in terms of economic, social, environmental and consolidated indicators in 2011, the amount of Q represents the ultimate rank of any city from Studied indices. This amount is determined between zero to one and whatever this number be closer to zero indicates the desirability of stability and whatever this number be close to one is sign of Weakness of sustainability. The calculated average for Q in social, economic, environmental indicators respectively is obtained 0.8585, 0.8907, and 0.6883, so the cities of West Azerbaijan province in terms of this indices has been lower than average.
    With examining the compilation factors under study,the city of Urmia was most developed city and Showt city is in the last rank. The inequality in investigating the consolidated indices was also high also high and the average is 2.09. Calculated Average for Q in consolidated indices is obtained at 0.8392, so West Azerbaijan province in terms of consolidated index was also below the national average.
    Conclusion
    In this study, was investigated the role of population settlements in achieving sustainable development in the border areas of West Azerbaijan province.According to the official statistics in country, the number of cities of this province in the years 1976, 1986, 1996, 2006 and 2011 respectively was 9, 9, 12, 14, 17 cities.In 1976 the total population was 1,407,970 people of which, 445,364 people were living in urban areas and 962,606 people were living in rural areas. In this year, There was 6border city that 6 890 035 people lived in them.
    The figure in 2011, which increased to 1,993,229 people that include about 64.7 percent of the population of the province. During the period of 1976 to 2011,the growth rate of population in rural and urban areashad downward trend. This process is applied to border cities and the urban and rural areas.
    Among the West Azerbaijan province in 2011, in term of the consolidated indicators of sustainable development, 70 indicators constituted in the social, economic and environmental well;the most enjoyed city was Urmia and the most disadvantages was showt city. The application of the scattering coefficient model for all cities showed that among the different indices, the greatest inequalities were in economic indicators and the lowest inequality has been on environmental indicators.The results of structural modeling, demographic factors have the greatest impact on theeconomic dimension of sustainable development which has been positive and promotion.
    Keywords: Population settlement, Sustainable development, Border region, West Azerbaijan Province
  • Sina Saber Mahani, Mohammadreza Sepahvand Page 25
    Hence Iran locates on Alpine-Himalayan seismic belt and it has high seismicity, Study of earthquake seismology is necessary. Part of alpine-Himalayan seismic belt is Iran plateau that demonstrates high seismicity behavior and it has unique deformation.
    Seismotectonic studies indicate very density of active fault existence in this plateau. In all of Iran seismotectonic regime, east of Iran seismotectonic zone due to presence of strike slip fault system and occurrence of large earthquake has a great importance. Happening of destructive earthquakes such as Bam (2003) 6.6 Mw and Rigan (2010) 6.7 Mw reveal high potential of occurring. Intended area in this study is Rigan that locates in Kerman province, Iran. This area has important faults such Kahurak, Bam, Nosratabad, Shahdad, Guk, Golbaf, Sirch and Sabzevaran that they are have high seismicity.
    In this paper, we considered cloud formation as earthquake precursor for Mohammad Abad Rigan earthquake (2011) that ever known less. Also thermal precursor was considered in this study. According to existing theories, raises in stress can produce initial fracture in region. So with raising in temperature, water evaporation in pore of stone is created. When vapor has appropriate condition (for example; lower temperature and existing enough water), it convert to clouds. One of fantastic feature of this phenomena is these clouds can’t move in presence of wind Because of steady source of their generation. This fact is a distinguishable thing for recognizing of this cloud among other clouds. In first part, panchromatic images of 62 days before the event was got and then these row images was georeferenced. So earthquake clouds digitally extracted and the result superposed on topography map of intended region. Also it should be mentioned that earthquake clouds, 10 days prior to earthquake (17th January) was detected. 10 days is suitable time for decision in determiner organization for example; Governorates, Municipalities and etc. for good conclusion about earthquake occurring, verdict based on cloud earthquake is not enough and it is necessary that we applied other precursors. One of them is thermal infrared that has great results.
    In another part of study, temperature content of thermal bands (bands 31 and 32) of MODIS is extracted and Land Surface Temperature (LST) time series was created. Temperature variations is always considered as an important and effective factor in earthquake phenomenon studying. Thermal anomaly can be seen within 1-24 days before earthquake and the temperature increases 5-12 degrees and then returned to the previous mode after the earthquake. Some other researchers presented the increase of 2-10 degrees. The idea that earthquake may interrelated with temperature proved by applying it in Russia, China and Japan. However, notice that thermal anomaly may occur due to other reasons except earthquake. When it is because of earthquake, actually it is because of the stress exists in underground layers and change in soil properties. Zuji et al. (1990) proved that gases such as methane, carbon dioxide and hydrogen released from soil cracks before earthquake which lead to intensification of chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) and magnetic fields of the earth. There are some other theories about this phenomenon such as piezoelectric and expansion forces of the elastic strain that increase temperature.
    After getting images from NASA website and preprocessing, by deduction of Air temperature time series from LST time series, atmosphere effects that exist because of air weather condition, is eliminated. Obtained signal was some noisy. In the next step, the wavelet as a powerful filter is applied on time series. For extracting Interpretable results, Statistical test such as standard deviation must be perform on filtered time series. Standard deviation (ST) can create normal limited area. By using limited area that produced by ST, thermal anomaly is detected 2 days prior to earthquake. Also with colorization of thermal images and then creation of visual time series, strike of fault line is found.
    Finally, by Comparison between earthquake cloud line, focal mechanism and high temperature zone, high correlation was found. These results show that observed cloud related to Rigan earthquake and also show that high temperature zone related to earthquake event, too.
    Results of this study can be used in two aspects. One of these is application in early warning system. Other aspect is application in geology usage. Second usage helps geophysicist and geologist to detect hidden and caused fault.
    Keywords: Earthquake precursor, Earthquake clouds, Thermal precursor, Mohammad Abad Rigan, Focal mechanism, Satellite images
  • Samira Hosseini, Hamid Ebadi, Yasser Maghsoudi Mehrani Page 33
    Introduction
    Estimation of forest biomass has received much attention in recent decades including assessing the capability of different sensor data (e.g., optical, radar, and LiDAR)and the development of advanced techniques such as synthetic aperture radar (SAR) polarimetry and polarimetric SAR interferometry for forest biomass estimation. Accurate estimation of forest biomass is of vital importance to model global carbon cycle. Deforestation and forest degradation will result in the loss of forest biomass and consequently increases the greenhouse gases. Radar systems including SAR have a great potential to quantify biomass and structural diversity because of its penetration capability. These systemsare also independent of weather and external illumination condition and can be designed for different frequencies and resolutions.Moreover, SAR systems operating at lower frequencies such as L- and P-band have shown relatively good sensitivity to forest biomass. Regression analysis is among the common methods for evaluation forest biomass which have been investigated for many years on different areas. This analysis is based on the correlation between backscattering coefficient values and the forest biomass. However, previous studies demonstrated that such approaches are very simple and they do not consider structural effects of different species. One of the restrictions and limitations of these methods is the low saturation level. The level of saturation is lower in higher frequencies and vice versa. Considering the structural parameters, researchers have tried to use the interferometry techniques.Forest canopy height is one of the important parameters that can be used to estimate Above Ground Biomass (AGB) using allometric equations.
    Materials and Methods
    Recentforest height retrieval methods rely on model based interferometric SAR analysis. The random volume over ground (RVOG) model is one of the most common algorithms. This method considers two layers, one for the ground under the vegetation and one for the volumetric canopy. This model has been investigated in different forest environments (e.g. tropical, temperate and boreal forests). Estimation of forest biomass based on forest height using allometric equations can overcome radar signal saturation to some extent.Improvement of Forest height estimation can play an important role to retrieve accurate forest biomass estimation. In this paper, a new method using scattering matrix optimization is introduced to extract forest height by changing polarization bases. Scattering matrices for slave and master images have been extracted by changing polarization bases. Then polarimetric interferometry coherences have been calculated and forest height was estimated by various forest height methods including DEM Difference, coherence amplitude inversion, RVOG Phase, Combined and RVOG.
    Results and Discussion
    P-band full Polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images acquired by SETHI sensor over Remningstorp (a boreal forest in south of Sweden) were investigated for forest biomass estimation.Mean of Lidar height values which fall in each shapefile was used to check corresponding results with the heights of retrieval methods.
    The results of tree height retrieval methods without changing polarization bases between PolInSAR tree height and LIDAR height show that three methods including coherence amplitude inversion, RVOG Phase and RVOG have low R2 value. DEM Difference and combined methods yielded better results in comparison with the other three aforementioned methods; however the results are not satisfactory.DEM Difference method underestimated the tree height compared to that of LIDAR. This is perhaps due to the fact that volume phase center does not lie at the top of the tree.Temporal decorrelation decreases volume correlation, consequently small values in the SINC function lead to generate large values in results; therefore RMSE of coherence amplitude method is relatively high.New master and slave scattering matrixes in arbitrary polarization basis were extracted by altering  and  in transformation matrix.Results show that RVOG phase has the best result with R2=0.76 and RMSE=3.76. Following this method, DEM difference method shows R2=-0.69.It is likely that methods which include phase information by changing geometrical parameters, in transformation matrix (e.g. RVOG phase and DEM difference) significantly increase the tree height accuracy.On the other hand, methods that only apply magnitude of coherence such as coherence amplitude method do not show notable improvement for retrieving tree height.
    Conclusion
    Robustness of forest height estimation using Scattering Matrix Optimization by changing Polarization Bases was studied in this paper.PolInSAR data was acquired by SETHI on Remningstorp, a boreal forest in south of Sweden. Results indicated that forest height retrieval methods which included phase parameter shows remarkable improvement by changing the geometrical parameters for height estimation.Therefore RVOG phase method with R2=0.76, RMSE=3.76m and DEM Difference method with R2=-0.69 gave the best results, whereas coherence amplitude method which only included magnitude of coherence with R2=0.17 showed the lowest correlation.
    Keywords: PolInSAR, Height Estimation, Transformation Matrix, Optimization, Scattering Matrix
  • Abolfazl Ranjbar, Farshad Hakimpour, Siamak Talat Ahary Page 45
    Introduction
    Bank branches location-allocation problem belongs to NP-Hard problems which can be possibly solved only in exponential time by the increase in the number of banks and the large number of customers; especially when the location model includes various datasets, several objectives and constraints. As a consequent, we need to use heuristic methods to solve this type of problems. Also, since majority of data and analyses applied in the location-allocation problems are spatial; GIScience’s abilities should be employed beside optimization methods.
    Nowadays, to perform particular financial tasks bank customers often need to be present at their bank. For the sake of its customers, a bank should increase its branches in the city to attract more customers in the race with competing banks. However, establishing new branches is too expensive and banks prefer to carry out an optimal location finding procedure. Such procedures should consider many criteria and objectives including spatial data of customers, new and existing bank branches as well as level of attraction of banks –in the real-life. Customers often select a bank that is closer to them, has better services or financial records and also consider other human or physical factors. Hence, planning to increase the number of customers for a new branch of a bank considering spatial criteria and various other objectives appear necessary.

    Materials and Methods
    This paper determines the location of bank branches. Finding an optimum location of branches depends on many factors and these problems are known as NP-hard problems. Despite being approximate methods, meta-heuristic algorithms seem suitable tools for solving NP-hard problems. In this paper, Grey Wolf Optimizer (GWO), Genetic Algorithms (GA), Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Cultural Algorithms (CA) and Invasive Weed Optimization (IWO) are applied for finding the best location of bank branches. From marketing point of view, the aim is to attract more customers while the number of attracted persons to a new branch should be acceptable. The new methods have capability to find the optimum location of new branches. The location of a new branch should be as far away as possible from branches of the same bank. The other condition is that the total number of customers for the new branch should not be less than a specified number, while the new branch should not attract customers of old branches of the same bank more than a threshold. To fulfill this propose a part of the Tabriz city was selected for implementation.
    The assumptions for the defined problem can be expressed as the following statements: a)We consider four different banks (Melli, Mellat, Sepah and Meher) in our study area.
    b)Population density (of people over 15 years of age) is available at the building block level.
    c)Banks have infinite capacity for accepting customers.
    d)Each customer refers to only one bank.
    e)New bank branches should have maximum distance from branches of the same bank, so that; it attracts minimum number of customers from branches of the same bank.
    According to the above-mentioned assumptions, mathematical model of the function for optimization is as follows:
    Objective
    Maximizes the distance between newly established branch and other existing branches of the same bank.
    Constraint1: Not less likely to attract new customers to the bank established a certain extent.
    Constraint2: Other branches of the same bank customers not less so after the creation of a new bank branch.
    Results and Discussion
    To assess the accuracy of the algorithms in the problem, suggests, in this study, repeatability and convergence of the algorithm is used. The results from the convergence of the algorithms used in this study, 100 iteration, is provided. For comparison, the cost for the logarithmic axis is provided. The axis can be said that IWA algorithm has better convergence than the other four algorithms. The convergence of the algorithm optimization methods, PSO and GW are next in priority. The answer and the cost of repeated 5 times 50 algorithm implementation of this algorithm is compared. It also answers the PSO algorithm and GW are next in priority. It should be noted that the number of adjustable parameters optimization algorithm optimization method IWA far more than the PSO and GW.
    Conclusion
    Finally, to evaluate quality and accuracy of the algorithms, several iterations are performed. The results of statistical and final tests indicate that the accuracy and convergence speed of Invasive Weed Optimization are more than other Algorithms in finding optimal location of bank branches.
    Keywords: Meta-heuristic algorithms, Optimization, Location, Banks, Geospatial Information System
  • Bibi Mariam Sajadianjaghargh, Alireza Vafaei Nezhad, Ali Asghar Alesheikh Page 61
    The ubiquity of mobile devices, such as smart phones and tablets, has contributed to the development of pervasive systems, including navigation and health systems. The main characteristicsof pervasive systems are the necessity of dynamic reconfiguration and proper adaption to the continuous changes in different contexts. The existence of dynamic capabilities has been considered in the design and implements of a context aware system, including context acquisition, context understanding and computing, decision making, and context presentation.Context acquisition: This domain of research focuses on using personal sensing devices which measure various parameters by means of portable devices and save them on the external/internal database for further processing. The aim of researches is collecting, sharing, and/or reusing data in other applications or through a web interface.Context understanding and computing: The most works are in the field of context monitoring, data management, understanding or computing. The ability to automated context reasoning about various types of contexts and their properties are considered using various context models and algorithms. Most applications are customized for a specific case such as air pollution, tourist, navigation, and health-care. Context presentation: This category of research has commonly focused on context-aware application adaptation. The adaption happens between the real world, the map and user’s location and orientation. A number of studies have been carried out in the field of tourist guides or navigation adapting the presentation style to the changing requirements of the user.Most studies in ubiquitous health care have only been carried out in a small number of areas and using external portable sensors and developing applications on mobile phones. A major problem with this kind of applications is collecting and sharing data, monitoring, or reasoning without having an active role in decision making in different environmental conditions. Using external tools such as portable devices is costly and limits using the systems.
    This paper has focused on design and implementation of a context aware ubiquitous system which has been customized for severe environmental conditions (in particular, air pollution). Air pollution is a spatio-temporal phenomenon and it causes changes in health conditions and it increases mortality. Eclipse Kepler software, java, PHP programming language and MySQL and SQLit database and also Google Maps API was used in this research. The proposed system design approach is based on distributed architecture in the portion of data collection and processing. Data collecting is done by means of software and hardware sensors. The context aware system is able to automatically identify the user’s context and represent required data and information after computing and reasoning. Contexts based on their impact on the decision-making process can be divided into two categories: passive and active contents.We used an active context in the research such as time, location, traffic, direction, air pollution. Collecting required data is done automatically with high speed and accuracy, and data plays an active role in decision making. In the system architecture, servers were embedded to enter data automatically and only data relating to health conditions is entered manually. Processing environment was divided into two parts, in case of abounding calculations, processing is transferred to the server so that only light processing is performed on the client. At every stage of the process, the user interface provided outputs in the form of recommendations and notifications. The system represents user-friendly environment. Context information can be posted on the process server and retrieved from the history. The proposed system can become an important tool to enable patients to be aware of air pollution conditions, not only to be applied in managing and monitoring their health information, but also in decision making, finding the best solution in severe environment, sharing data and communicating with family and doctor. The application represents suitable solution for solving the shortest path problem according to spatial-temporal and traffic condition. In fact, the path with the lowest level of air pollution is chosen as the best path.The system indirectly encourages greater use of the ubiquitous health system and motivates patients to acquire an active role in their health management and helps them to improve their health condition. The information collected and posted on the server can be reused in professional station and it presents useful information to health experts. We broadly concern about patients’ privacy in the design of the system.
    Keywords: Context aware, Ubiquitous, Recommender, Air pollution
  • Farideh Sabzehee, Mohammad Ali Sharifi, Mehdi Akhoondzadeh Hanzaee Page 73
    Electrondensity is one of the significant parameters for monitoring and describing the ionosphere.The ionosphere is a consequential source of errors for the GPS signals that traverse through the ionosphere on their way to the ground-based receivers because there is a high concentration of free electrons and ionsreleased by the ionizingaction of solar X-ray and ultraviolet radiation on atmospheric formers.Radio Occultation(RO) is one of the most modern satellite techniques to study on vertical profiles of neutral density, temperature, pressure and water vapor in the stratosphere and troposphere and ionospheric electron density profiles with high vertical resolutions.Since the RO technique using the GPS signals was employed for the first time by the Global Positioning System Meteorology (GPS/MET), the low-earth-orbit-based GPS RO technique has been proven as a successful method in exploring the earth’s lower atmosphere and ionosphere.
    Abel transformation is the basic hypothesis made in the retrieval of radio-occulted ionospheric parameters.The Abel inversion is a powerful tool to retrieve high-resolution vertical profiles of electron density from GPS radio occultation collected by satellites into Low Earth Orbit(LEO).
    COSMIC satellite records measurements during the whole day and is not limited to the specific times and special atmospheric conditions.It should be noted that the GPS radio occultation techniques provide continuous and useful ionospheric layers information and are not obtained from the point wise measurements by other satellites.
    Also, COSMIC satellite records the altitude for the measurements of the electron density profile. COSMIC satellite provides more than1000 electron density profiles per day with approximately global coverage and also parts of them cover IRAN country.In this approach, the LEO-GPS line of sight is occulted by the Earth’s limb with the setting(or rising) motion of the LEO satellite. The GPS-LEO radio connection successively records the atmospheric layers at different altitudes. The ionosphere is highly variable in space and time. Thus, for modelling the electrondensity profile, it must be considered the time changes(diurnaland seasonal) and location changes(geographical position of station). In this research, the input space includes the day number (seasonal variation), hour (diurnal variation), latitude, longitude, height and F10.7 index (measure of the solar activity). The output of the model is the ionospheric electron density profile(Ne).The COSMIC observations and IRI-2007-based data of electron density profiles were also analyzed during the solar minimum period. In this research,we used a feedforward Artificial Neural Network (ANN) with 55 neurons in hidden layer for modelling profiles of electron density of COSMIC satellite.Performance of the ANN models was evaluated using correlation coefficient (R=92%),R-Squared(0.83). It was found that the ANN model could be applied successfully in estimating the electron density profiles retrieved from FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC.The comparison of the IRI model electron density profile with COSMIC RO measurements during each month of the year 2007 over IRAN region is performed.The electron density profile from all the three International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) models, namely IRI-Neq,IRI-2001, and IRI-01-Corr are used.
    The results showed that the results of the IRI2007 model electron density is not satisfactory over IRAN and ANN model electron density profile is in very good agreement with COSMIC RO measurements.
    It was concluded that IRI_NEQ model is more appropriate thanthe other two models.
    The results showed that the differences between the modeled profile electron density and theobserved profile electron density are very lower than the differences between the IRI-2007 models.Maximum changes occurred in January and December months at analtitudeof ~450 km and minimum changes was recorded in November month at heightof 250 Km and in April month at height of 450 Km . Also, the differences decreased in the summer at higher altitudes and in winter at lower altitudes.
    Keywords: Electron density profile, COSMIC Satellite, Artificial neural network, International reference ionosphere (IRI) model
  • Zohreh Fanni, Abdollah Roshan Page 81
    Introduction
    One of the fundamental principles of passive defense, switching the location of fire stations. Safety of city against accidents, particularly fires in various applications and ensuring the safety of life and property of citizens are the responsibilities of the most important element of city. Fire stations, including vital service centers in cities that have an important role in ensuring the security and safety of citizens and the development of cities. Obviously the timely service of fire stations, more than anything else is requires placement in suitable locations to be able as soon as possible Without encountering obstacles and constraints of the urban environment on the one hand With the creation of the lowest negative to the lives of residents of a town on the other hand to reach the location of the accident and to carry out disaster relief efforts. Therefore can be realized the value of the aid and Reduces latency to help victims of the urban network.Traditional localization of these stations was depending more of the land ownership and the management tastes and so on. Failure of traditional Iranian cities (including Behbahan City) in terms of urban infrastructure such as entanglement facilities, low permeability roadway, particularly in the ruined areas, the importance of civil defense in these areas and localization the fire stations are much highlight.
    Now, Behbahan city has two fire stations, which one of them is located in the East and the other in the South West; so the North East and North West of the city are out of coverage.
    Materials And Methods
    Behbahan, as one of the traditional cities of Iran, because of centeral dense tissue as well as improper positioning of the existing station, in times of crisis, has the possibility of irreparable damages. The aim of this research is by using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), is switching the optimal the location of fire stations in Behbahan is acting. The objectives of this research can be cited review existing fire stations, their performance during disasters, coverage stations available and find the best places to build the new fire station in Behbahan.Using the values from Table 1, the following test matrix for city of Behbahan was formed which in this matrix is visible binary comparison between the criteria for switching the location of fire stations in the city.
    Discussion and
    Results
    The characterization of the physical space available stations show that: Eastral station (Central), close to the user in terms of residential, office, medical, law enforcement, education and warehousing centers, the situation is favorable;East station entrance road width is less than 24 meters;
    In standard mode, each of the stations, must cover 5 square kilometers, while the status quo, they cover much more areas;One of the problems, congestion and traffic in the central part of the city; According to a radius of 2 km standard performance, none of these stations, not a good situation and in case of an accident in remote areas, these stations can not actually have the necessary performance; According to international standards, within the industrial estate should have a fire station, while the status quo, Behbahan Industrial Park (BIP) in the North West of the city, within any one station is not functional;In the narrow alleys, creating fire hydrants are necessary, but there is not even a tap in these areas (the central district of the city, located in the old pattern).
    Conclusion
    The results of this research on the case of Behbahan, shows that in this city, two fire stations, one in the East and another in the South West, and according to number of population, per 50 thousand people, 1 station is appropriate. But because of the extent of the city, the two stations are not enough for whole of city and establish another station is essential. Finally, its results can use in optimal localization for the construction of new fire stations that they will be able to cover the entire area.After reviewing existing fire stations in Behbahan, as well as to obtain the weight of each of the criteria for locating the station, the construction of one new site fire department in the northwest part is essential.
    Keywords: Civil defense, Localization, Fire station, AHP, Behbahan City
  • Ezzatollah Ghanavati, Mohammad Reza Sarvati, Reza Mansouri, Samira Najafvand Page 93
    Introduction
    Urban streams have great potential for building a green space network for an entire city. In essence, urban streams have great potential to function as a key part of an urban green infrastructure providing valuable ecosystem services to urban residents. Urban stream organizing has one of the key topics in water management and land use planning in iran, there are still ongoing controversies associated with organizing plan. Vegetation is one of the key components of urban stream restoration to increase its natural and esthetic attributes. However, formulating and maintaining planting/vegetation is not easy because it requires consideration of not only the usual factors for general open space design such as ground-level ecological capacity and residents’ preference, but also plants’ hydrophilic aspects. To be selected for stream basin vegetation, plants and vegetation should not be easily washed away during flooding and have a high survival rate even with extended submergence. One of the situations that of concern to the applied geomorphologist is that in which geomorphologist events have a direct impact on man. The irregular development in Tehran, over the past half-century, addition to the destruction of parts a coherent historical context and cultural assets and historical heritage surviving the cause is of a large part the natural heritage of floodways.
    Materials And Methods
    Farahzad stream is one floodways in north of the metropolitan Tehran. Farahzad basin in terms of geological structure is part of Central Alborz and has semi-dry climate. With the organizing floodways, urban landscape, walkways and recreational confines, as well as environmental and urban landscape conservation sustainable development will be realized. In the urban areas sections of society play an important role in the organizing the floodways. Farahzad basin at coordinates of geographical longitude of 51ú 19´, and 00 up to east 51ú ,22´, and 00 and geographical latitude 35ú ,45´, and 00 up to north 35ú,53´, and 00 with an area of 28 square kilometers in north Tehran city (North of Tehran Province) is located. The maximum amount of rainfall in the area is more than 600 mm and its average of 422 mm per year.
    This study aims to assessment the organizing appropriateness the Farahzad city-floodways with the geomorphological factors such as elevation, slope, aspect, precipitation, soil, land use and land cover (vegetation), distance from liner features (such as: fault, river, road), and overlying of them, with emphasis on organizing floodways using geographical information system (GIS), remote sensing (RS), and AHP done. Methods based on analytical - descriptive, library studies using geographical Information system (GIS) software and analytic hierarchy model in Expert choice software over the map of organizing proportion Farahzad city-floodways based on the geomorphological factors have been proposed.
    Among layers used in this study, the most weight allocated to elevation. The next layer in order of importance include: slope, aspect, rainfall, vegetation, soil, distance from streams, faults and roads have been. Among the factors and layers used in this paper, the lowest relative weight assigned to the layer distance from the road.
    Results And Discussion
    Knowledge of key geomorphological processes is integral to the understanding of the evolution of any landscape. Results of this study show that most organized floodways area of geomorphological factors in considering a very low and low status proportion (44 per cent). Also, 33 per cent of the area has been organizing high and very high to fit the situation with the geomorphological factors. The results show that in environmental management and urban planning have not been paying attention to the morphological parameters.
    Conclusion
    In this paper, the Farahzad Basin was studied using topography maps with 1:50000 scales and geology maps with 1:100000 scales, Landsat satellite imagery with high resolution and the overlying and weighed methods. The Landsat ETM satellite image analysis during 2005 and 2010 (before and after organizing) and their comparison revealed that the Farahzad floodways vegetation after the organizing than in the previous year’s organizing has grown to 26 per cent. Also, hazards such as landslides, slope instability and even protection of the environment, was affected from landforms and geomorphological parameters.
    Keywords: Organizing city-floodways, Farahzad floodways, Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), Geomorphological assessment
  • Mohsen Ahmadkhani, Mohammad Reza Malek Page 109
    Despite of widespread usage of Global Positioning System (GPS), this system is considered inefficient for indoor areas. Although the most prominent positioning system is Global Positioning System, this system uses some electromagnetic waves which are unable to pass thick obstacles such as concrete roofs and trees [1]. Thus, it cannot be considered as a robust infra-structure for indoor positioning purposes. Since, other signal networks like Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) can be an appropriate alternative for indoor spaces. In addition, widespread usage of mobile smart instruments has provided the possibility of ubiquitous system’s development.
    Several methods have been proposed to obtain indoor positions which are generally based on received radio waves from fixed points. Time of Arrival (TOA), Time Difference of Arrival (TDOA), Angle of Arrival (AOA) and Location fingerprinting can be used in this case. It is noteworthy that some of these methods are not really appropriate for indoor areas which maybe contain complex structure [2]. Time of Arrival, Time Difference of Arrival and Angle of Arrival methods use triangulation techniques so direct lines of sight are desired for them. And also acquisition of accurate time and angle of received signal without professional instruments, which are usually expensive, sounds almost impossible. Furthermore, for most of indoor areas such as commercial centers and museums direct line of sight is rarely available and signals are likely to be affected by multipath phenomena [3].
    In recent years methods based on Inertial Measurement Units (IMU) have been proposed and programmed [4], [5]. These methods which are usually called Pedestrian Dead Reckoning (PDR) often employ sensors such as Gyroscope, Accelerometer and Magnetic sensors to obtain the position of the client [6]. It can be regarded as an important limitation along the objectives of the Ubiquitous systems. Such systems are restricted to clients equipped by platforms having these expensive modern sensors. Therefore, the methods using WLAN signals are usually preferred for location based services.
    WLAN Fingerprinting can be regarded as a most appropriate technique that uses signal strength as an identification parameter, which can be simply obtained. Furthermore, fingerprinting does not have any special infrastructure to establish and it can be conveniently laid out. In order to apply this method there are several ways to recognize the pattern of signals received from active transmitters. Stochastic method, Artificial Neural Network and K-Nearest Neighbor methods are some of classic pattern recognition techniques [7] that were investigated in this study. In this article these three methods were scrutinized and relatively compared, eventually an enhanced method has been offered. After using several data sets in order to assess the pattern recognition techniques, the proposed method got the first rank of the accuracy and also other techniques were ranked based on the accuracy.
    One of the most important differences between indoor positioning systems might be utilizing of various algorithms to recognize the spatial pattern. In this study, three popular classic methods including Probabilistic algorithm, Nearest Neighbor and Artificial Neural Network were investigated. The flowchart presented in Figure 1 has depicted the major steps of the study.
    Figure 1. The flowchart of the study.
    This study focuses on Nearest Neighbor in Signal Space method as the most accurate method among all and tries to enhance the output accuracy of the method. NNSS Method computes the difference between received signal strength in a point from each transmitter and the received strength of that signal in the rest of the sample points (Equation 1).
    Where Sij be jth sample point of the database from ith transmitter and Si received signal strength from ith hotspot in online phase and also for m hotspots and n sample points, i= 1,2,…,m and j=1,2,…,n [8].
    By applying this formula, the most likely sample point as the location of the observer can be obtained. Since the number of sample points in the design of the model in offline phase is limited and the distance between two adjacent sample points is constant in the whole model, the accuracy might be affected. Regarding these limitations, in order to increase the output accuracy of the system, the medium of first and second candidate location points was proposed as the position of the user. After applying this change, the highest accuracy was acquired (Figure 4). The study area was the third floor of the building of Geomatics faculty of K.N.Toosi university of Technology (Figure 2). For this building with dimensions of 70×14 meters, totally 6 hostspots with reasonable distribution, covering the whole area, were taken into account. The best distance between each adjacent pair was 0.9 m and for each sample point four directions were observed and recorded in to the database and also JAVA programming language was chosen to develop the user friend software. Figure 3 depicts an instance of the database.
    Figure 2. Plan of the study area.
    Figure 3. A part of the produced database.
    In order to evaluate the accuracy of each method, observations in the online phase were categorized in 6 separate classes containing 10, 20, to 60 obser-vation in each class. Based on the output results of the system, although the accuracy of Artificial Neural Network raised up to 2.7 m by increase in the number of observations, it showed the worse accuracy among all methods. Probabilistic and KNN methods with final accuracy of 1.8 and 0.9 meters respectively were more accurate than ANN. Our extended Nearest Neighbor method was the most accurate method almost in all sets of observations. In the first observation class, ANN with 3.6 m, KNN and Probabilistic methods with 2.7 m were not really reliable to locate the position of the user, however, extended KNN with 1.5 m seemed more acceptable than the rest of methods (See Figure 4).
    Keywords: GIS, Indoor positioning, Finger printing, Nearest neighbor, Neural network, RMSE
  • Seyyed Asadollah Hejazi, Shabnam Mahmoodi Page 119
    Introduction
    One of the most important wilderness areas, including the study area wind erosion processes that lead to coastal erosion features such as sand dunes in the absence of migration consolidation of its location addressing. Various erosion processes are involved in desrt areas, and wind erosion is one of the major constraining factors that limited human activities in this area like resources, natural resources, human facilities, etc. Identifying resources that constituted this area's sandy hills will be effective in management of this area because unstability hills damage water and soil resources ,human constructions and so on. Study area situated in eastern of Jask county coast in Hormozgan province of Iran.
    Materials And Methods
    The use of hydrodynamic granulometry analysis and interpretation of the environment by Hill strom (1939) was used. The results of sedimentology were used for the computation of sediment texture. For this purpose, 200 grams of each sample prior to sift according to the proposed method Ingram (1971) with hydrochloric acid to separate the organic material is washed and then dried in it. because, according to Petty, John (1936), Swan (1979), Friedman and Johnson (1982), the results of the moment, especially in the stretch and tilt towards drawing closer to the reality of the index calculated median, mean, sorted, is tilting. Using textural parameters of sediments such as diameter, average, compatibility and skewing is an attempt towards recognition of mechanism and understanding environment of sediments. In this study 10 cases are sampled and after granulometry, considered parameters were explored. Texture parameters are calculated by moment method. In addition microscopic and macroscopic investigation are used. Charts were prepared using Excel software. Using topographical maps and satellite images to the software of GIS maps were provided .The geological map was used for petrography. To search for fossils in sediment samples and help to identify the type of sedimentary origin from two sediment samples were studied thin sections were prepared with binocular microscope.
    Results And Discussion
    Samples 1, 2 and 5 has a negative tilt, sorting good, transparent particles greater than 20 percent and also has fossils of marine environments that show these characteristics is the origin of coastal sediments.In Example 3, there are fossils of sea and transparent grain of marine origin shows.The Histograms and cumulative curves of samples 1, 2 and 5 is similar to Example 3 but sample 3 has a positive skewness and sorting the sample average. The reason could be that the samples greater distance from the beach and the relative humidity at a distance from the sea ratio declined slightly as a result of adhesion of deposits is low and wind power, carrying sediment fine and deposits of fine to this place More fine-grained sediments brought abundance and samples have been positive skewness and sorting average. Sorting good indicator of river flooding and sediment samples 4 may be the side that is not there to carry sediments. Samples, 6, 7, 9 and 10 will be caused by the action of wind and removing the sediment is fine. Cumulative curves of samples, 6, 7, 9 and 10 bends upward, which indicates the presence of flooding and sediment side. According to the geological map of examples 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 near the deposition of alluvial zones, flood, sabkha, salt mud, sand clay coastal been picked to be the origin of the sediments when torrents or the sediments brought by the wind to the region. The average median and mean of the samples is high In addition more examples that show relatively good sorting, so it can be said, sediments have traveled low distance from origin to the samples area. More sediment samples diameter in classes 125 and 250 microns, the median in the sample were on average 210 microns, the mean diameter grains in a sample of 178 microns and more samples were sorted relatively good show so are constituent particles hill not far from the lands of origin are close to the samples.
    Conclusion
    Regarding to average diameter of mean and most of the samples had better compatibility, it can be said that distance of sediments carrying was less. Similarity of average diameter of grains is the sign of lack of energy fluctuation in sediments environment. Negative skewing, better compatibility, existence of sea fossils and transparent grains in 1, 2, 5 samples determine coastal source for samples. We can see positive skewness and good sorting compatibility biomodal histogram and Curvature of accumulative curve of 6, 7, 9, and 10 samples is marker of river overflowing materials. Thus it can be said the origin of the samples is river.
    Keywords: Textural characteristics of sediments granulometry, Sandy dunes, Eastern Jask County, Omman coasts
  • Marzeyeh Mokarram, Ali Darvishi, Saeed Negahban Page 131
    Introduction
    Watershed is area of land that surface water of rain and melting snow conduct towards a single point, which is usually out of the basin. Check of watershed is one of the main strategies for integrated management of natural resources and sustainable development. Recently, the availability of remote sensing (RS) data and geographical information system (GIS) technologies has allowed for improved understanding of the morphometric properties and surface drainage characteristics of many watersheds in different parts of the world (Parveenet al., 2012; Nayar& Natarajan, 2013). For example, Shrimaliet al. (2001) presented a case study of the 42 km Sukhana lake catchment in the Shiwalik hills for the delineation and prioritization of soil erosion areas. In addition, Srinivasaet al. (2004) used GIS techniques for morphometric analysis of sub­watersheds in the Pawagada area, Tumkur district, Karnataka. Nookaratnamet al. (2005) carried out a study on dam positioning through prioritization of micro­watersheds using the sediment yield index (SYI) model and morphometric analysis. Khan et al. (2001), used RS and GIS techniques for watershed prioritization in the Guhiya basin and subwatersheds in Odisha, India respectively.
    Materials and Methods
    The study area is one of sub-watershed of rivers of Urmia (Nazloochaei) that located in North West of Iran with an area of 948.75 km2. The study area wasselectedfordetailedmorphometric analysis using Geography information system (GIS). The input data for morphometric analysis was DEM with resolution of 30 m from ASTER satellite. The steps of stream extraction consist of: 1.Extraction of drainage networks from the DEM using the flow direction method, which consists of the followingsteps (O’Callaghan&Mark,1984): i.FillSinks:Asinkisanuncompletedvaluelowerthanthevaluesofits neighborhood.Toensureproper drainage mapping, these sinkswere filled by increasingelevationsofsinkpointstotheirlowestoutflow point.
    ii.Calculate FlowDirection: Using the filledDEMproduced inStep1,theflowdirectionswerecalculatedusing theeight-direction flow model,whichassigns flowfromeachgridcelltoone of itseightadjacentcellsinthe direction with thesteepest downward slope.
    iii.CalculateFlowAccumulation: Using theoutputflowdirectionrastercreatedin Step2,the numberofupslopecells flowingto alocation wascomputed.
    iv.Define Stream Network: The next step is todetermine acriticalsupportareathatdefinesthe minimumdrainage area that is requiredtoinitiate achannelusinga threshold value.
    v.Stream Segmentation:After the extractionof drainagenetworks,a unique value wasgivenforeachsectionofthenetworkassociatedwitha flow direction.
    Morphometricanalysisofthe study area consist of: Stream number (Nu)
    Nu is number of segments in order U
    Stream order (U)
    Cumulative length of streams (L), L = ∑Nu, L is calculated as the number of streams in each order and total length of each order is computed at subwatershed level (Horton, 1945).
    Bifurcation ratio (Rb)
    Rb=Nu/N(u) N(u)=Numberofsegments of the nexthigherorder (Schumms, 1956),
    Watershed relief (Bb),Bb = Hmax – Hmin ,Bb is defined as the maximum vertical distance between the lowest and the highest points of a subwatershed. Hmax and Hmin are maximum and minimum elevations respectively (Schumms, 1956)
    Drainage density (Dd)
    Dd=Lu/A, A=Watershed area(km2), L(u) is totalstream length (Horton, 1932)
    Stream frequency (Fs),Fs = Nu/A, Fs is computed as the ratio between the total number of streams and area of the watershed (Horton, 1932)
    Form factor (Rf)
    Rf=A/Lb2, Rf is computed as the ratio between the watershed area and square of the watershed length. 𝐿 is the watershed length (Horton, 1932)
    Circularity ratio (Rc)
    Rc=4π*A/P2, P is the watershed perimeter (km)
    Elongation ratio (Re)
    Re=(2/Lb)*(A/π)0.5
    Results And Discussion
    The results show that according to high streams (489 streams), streams of 1, 2 and 3, high length of rivers, the high of the catchment area, the high watershed relief (Bb) that represent the high mountains and slope in the study area. Using morphologic characteristics can be determined sensitivity landforms to erosion in the region. So that after preparing landform map using the topography position index (TPI), and considering the areas susceptible to erosion through morphometric features, landforms susceptible to erosion in the study area were determined. With the increasing number and length of channels increases the erosion. By comparing the landform map and waterways map of the study area was found that landforms Class 4 (U-shaped valleys) and landforms in class 3 (high draining) had the highest erosion. Also with increasing relief factor, the erosion was more.
    Conclusion
    So that ridge landforms such as in high altitude (landforms in class 9 and 10), had the highest erosion and were therefore the most sensitive landforms. The drainage density features as the most important factor for determination of erosion and its relation to landforms were used. The results showed that by increasing the amount of drainage density increases the erosion that they were for landforms Class 4 and Class 6. This study has demonstrated that morphometric characteristics can be used to predict other watershed characteristics.
    Keywords: Morphometry, Geographic Information Systems (GIS), Erodibility, Morphometry of Nazloochaei watershed, Digital Elevation Model (DEM)
  • Behrouz Nasiri, Zahra Yarmoradi Page 143
    Introduction
    The indiscriminate use of fossil fuels, changes in land use and population growth and increased industrial activities cause some changes in the Earth's climate events that increased climate extremes such as floods, storms, heat waves, droughts. It is the most important. Today, these variations are a major concern climatologists and atmospheric scientists has become.General circulation models of the atmosphere, can be used on a smaller scale are not, therefore, need to downscaling. Statistical downscaling models, the output of general circulation climate models using statistical methods to establish statistical correlation between atmospheric general circulation models output data period in the past with climate models stations in the network somehow, nearly as downscaling is very similar to the observed data at scale station. Statistical downscaling model studies made it possible to estimate the climate fluctuations that can weather data at appropriate spatial and temporal scale production. This feature helps to study climate variability at local and regional scale. Using the manufacturer of weather can be fine-scale atmospheric general circulation models to be output. One of the most common and the most appropriate method for assessing future climate, using general circulation models of the atmosphere. The main objective of these models, three-dimensional climate index is specified in the network. These models, the right tools and the ability to study and assess the risks of climate change such as occurrence of dry periods, storms and torrential rains and more. It also approved the use of scenarios Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, to be able to create long-term time series of temperature, minimum temperature, maximum temperature, radiation and evapotranspiration in the daily scale.
    Materials and Methods
    In this study, data for downscaling of general circulation models HADCM3 LARS-WG5 model, which is one of the most famous models are weather-generating random data is used. The model for daily precipitation amounts, minimum temperature, maximum temperature and radiation or sundial at one station and the next base can be used under all environmental conditions. In general, the data produced by LARS-WG model in three stages that include calibration data, evaluation and production of meteorological data for future periods. And remnant stations removed. After processing and sorting data and preparation of input files, the model was run for the base period. In the next stage using statistical coefficient of determination (R2), root mean square error (RMSE) and mean absolute error (MAE), which follows their relationship, to evaluate the data generated by the model and the actual data ( observed) were included in the base period. Then Normal monthly averaged model output and climate parameters in the 50-year period under study was based on climate change scenarios listed. The normal distribution for the series of wet and dry season, between monitored data and simulated using the Kolmogorov-Smirnof test was calculated.
    In this study the performance of LARS-WG to produce data daily rainfall, maximum and minimum temperature and sunshine hours in the province were evaluated using changes in climate parameters were evaluated in the future. In the first model was implemented for the period 1961-2005 and average monthly climate observations and products mentioned parameters were compared. Correlation values using T-STUDENT test showed that the 99% difference between the actual data and data from the model does not exist. Mean monthly observation and meteorological variables produced using statistical parameters R2, RMSE, MAE also were compared and proved to be an efficient model for its daily production data. In the next step after ensuring efficiency in the simulation model meteorological parameters, data three scenarios A1B (middle scenario), A2 (maximum scenario) and B1 (minimum scenario) in the period 2005 to 2055 HADCM3 model with statistical model LARS-WG It was small scale.
    Conclusion
    The results showed that according to estimates of LARS-WG for the scenarios examined in future periods, the average maximum temperature of about 9.0 to 03/1 degrees, increase the amount of sunshine about 6/0 reduction in rainfall is about 12.4 percent will. The maximum temperature also changes less than the minimum temperature, increasing average air temperature during this period is expected. According to the results of climate Lorestan province in the next 50 years will be a significant difference with the current situation and long-term planning and strategic management of these conditions is necessary.
    Keywords: Climate change, Downscaling, HADCM3, Scenario, Lorestan
  • Nahid Sajadian, Hadi Alizadeh, Ali Shojaeean, Hoseyn Saberi Page 155
    Introduction
    It is said that world population in cities will receive until 70 percent in 2030 year. Increasing of air pollution, creating very noisy environment and to damage of citizen healthy can be why is attending to green space in cities environment. However green space land use is one of the vital land uses in cities environment to creating enjoyable and healthful places for all people who live in cities. Also with increasing population and expanding urbanization, humans gradually away from nature and population density and excessive interference in the natural environment and man-made environments, environmental needs, physical and spiritual man is further shown. To address this human need to create urban gardens and green spaces within cities is artificially which will form part of the face of the city. Many theories have been put forward for sustainable urban planning and urban design issues green spaces in the main base of these ideas. Therefore, given the need for urban green spaces in today's cities has been tried using fuzzy logic capabilities of GIS and spatial analysis for the optimal deployment of urban green spaces in the city should be Mahshahr.
    Materials and Methods
    This study was a descriptive - analytical methodology in order to evaluation of the optimal spatial fuzzy of green space in the city has been made Mahshahr. Access to research data from land-use map of 1:25000 and field studies has been used. To analyze the data of the first 11 index layers land use as a commercial, cultural, medical, educational, green, industrial, clerical, administrative, communication path, sporting and tourist places - historical Arc GIS software environment using fuzzy functions by fuzzy modeling and then using the fuzzy gamma operator data analysis study subject has been dealt with.
    Results and Discussion
    In this stage we use fuzzy functions that were fuzzy linear, fuzzy small and fuzzy large functions, to converting of all layers from raster form to fuzzy form. Then we examined some threshold to find better threshold for showing of the best places to locate green spaces in Mahshar city. So after the fuzzy data using the fuzzy analytic functions, the final analysis of the data was done using fuzzy gamma operator. According to the results obtained from the test threshold Gamma function with a threshold 9/0 would be better to create a flexible compatibility between a rising or falling trend indicators have been used in the analysis to establish the optimal place to create green space in the city Mahshahr. . This is because the role of the military land use, ways of communication and land use of educational and tourist places in Threshold 7/0 and the gamma function with a threshold of 8/0 and military users of open green spaces combined with its historic sites and tourist trend has been an increase in the maximum.
    Conclusion
    This study aimed to establish the optimal spatial analysis of urban green space in the city was Mahshahr. For it was used ability of GIS and fuzzy logic. For Data analyzing was performed using after the phased implementation of the fuzzy gamma operator. In this study, we used data from 11 land uses. After the fuzzy- making data was action the final analysis with fuzzy gamma operator. The final results showed that the fuzzy gamma operator with a threshold 9/0 is better able to establish the optimal spatial analysis of urban green spaces should Mahshahr. This analysis shows that the central part of both eastern and western sections of the city is suitable for localization of green space.
    Keywords: Fuzzy evaluation, Deployment location, Landscaping, Mahshahr
  • Ehsan Alvandi, Mahtab Forootandanesh, Mohammad Reza Dahmardeh Ghaleno Page 169
    Introduction
    Certain kinds of land use can change the hydrology of the Watershed, altering the way water and pollutants move through the drainage basin. For example, as an area of land is converted from open space (e.g., woodland) to residential, the amount of runoff for that area of land will increase as the amount of impervious surface increases. Rain, which would have once seeped into the soils beneath the forest floor and been absorbed by tree roots, instead flows off impervious surfaces (roofs, driveways, streets, parking lots, etc.) into the nearest stream, pond, or lowland area. Landuse change due to human activities is one of important issues in the regional planning. In many areas of Iran,land use and land management, regardless of land ability. This caused the loss of capital and reduce the capacity of the environment.Land suitability is the fitness of a given type of land for a defined use. The land may be considered in its present condition or after improvements. The process of land suitability classification is the appraisal and grouping of specific areas of land in terms of their suitability for defined uses. Land evaluation is a process for matching the characteristics of land resourcesfor certain uses using a scientifically standardized technique. The results can beused as a guide by land users and planners to identify alternative land uses.
    Materials and Methods
    In this study, using multi-criteria decision making and GIS to modeling suitability of land for urban development, and determining the compatibility between existing applications, in Ziarat watershed of Golestan province, was investigated. Ziarat watershed is important in Golestan Province and yet critical in terms of land use change, Erosion and flooding. In This basin in recent years, regardless of ecological capability for urban development and the lack of attention happened land use change. In this study, referring to the 10 experts in the relevant fields and using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) is a weight for each criterion.The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is a structured technique for organizing and analyzing complex decisions, based on mathematics and psychology.In this study combining maps of criterion and suitability of land for urban development of SAW and TOPSIS technique was used. Finally, the study examines the compatibility between existing land use in the Ziaret watershed of Golestan province has been paid.
    Results and Discussion
    According to the results, the residential areas using TOPSIS and SAW techniques were 37 and 79.4 hectares of the total area of the Ziarat watershed, respectively. But the current situation residential areas in the watershed were 141.3 ha. In modeling suitability land for urban development due to the presence of spatial dependence between criterion maps, the best way to combine criteria and calculate the suitability of the user, using the TOPSIS technique. The results land uses compatibility showed that, residential land use with compatibility 0.118245 was lowest compatibility between current land uses in the watershed.
    Conclusion
    In conclusion, given the ability of GIS and multi-criteria decision-making methods in modeling the suitability of land for urban development, the magnitude of the expert opinions are more accurate and more up to date data, the use of these techniques and tools associated with a better outcome.As a result this technique is very effective in the watershed the case lack of data. Also when there exist complications due to a number of qualitative and quantitative criteria, MCDM play an important role.As the results of land suitability modeling using SAW and TOPSIS techniques with the use of specific software functionality ArcGIS 10.1 is clear that a small area of the basin have been created conditions of urban areas. These areas are mainly in places where the experts and according to the evaluation criteria studied in this research are a perfect opportunity for urban development, has been created.According to results of Land suitability modeling in the catchment area of residential areas is more than twice the land area.Also residential areas have been constructed in the basin in inappropriate places such as steep slopes and river boundaries, and have not conditions residential.
    Keywords: GIS, Multi-Criteria Decision Making, Suitability, Ziarat Watershed
  • Seyyed Hossein Mousavi, Zahra Heydari Monfared, Shahab Shafie Page 183
    Introduction
    Identify patterns and synoptic models that create instability and precipitation in the region is necessary. If the systems that come into the area, contain the appropriate thermodynamic structure, ie of high volatility, with appropriate heat and humidity make good rainfall in the region. Thunder storms along with subsidiary phenomena arising from it, such as hailstone, are one of the violent manifestations of nature. . In the North West of the country due to geographical conditions, in addition to synoptic systems (front cold low pressure systems) instability of local causes urinals (in this instability rising moist air causes rain too) and sometimes because of both the (system synoptic and local instability) heavy showers and hail occur. Thus, in the present research, in order to obtain hailstone risk management in north western part of the country and reducing damages deriving from it, the evaluation of this destructive phenomenon has been taken into consideration using instability indices.
    Materials And Methods
    The data used in this study included daily information related to hail of the country's North West region is 25 synoptic stations. Codes of hail (27, 90, 87, 93, 94, 96 and 99) of the 100 Code of Group VII (ww air now) were extracted from the data of listed stations. In order for detecting thermodynamic conditions of the occurrence of this phenomenon during a 18 year statistical period (1992 2009), instability indices, 230 cases of the occurrence of Skew T log P, and glacial levels of PWC, T.T, V.T, C.T, KI, SW, LI, SI hailstone atmospheric climatic diagrams of Tabriz and Kermanshah provinces’ stations to thorough covering of the region were extracted from the Wyoming University website of the United States of America and were studied.
    Findings: Evaluating and comparing the instability indices of days of hail in the North West with the above table, the following conclusions emerged: the values of SI on all days of sampling except on 22 April 1994, 22 April and 29 May 2003, 27 January 2004, 19 May 2005 and 21 November 2009, about 9/73% of the days selected are larger than 4. LI values greater than zero on all days have been evaluated. It means the observed figures on the proposed figure of 100% are contrary to international indicators. SW values in all the days to the days of April 22, 1994, February 11, 2003, April 27, 2005 and November 21, 2009, about 6/82 are less than 150% of study days. Index values are less than 43 days T.T on December 18, 1993, February 11, 1997, January 16 and 6 March and 4 May 1998, 18 February 1998, 23 January and 27 April 2005, respectively. In other words, it can be noted that about 8/34% of observation days is contrary to the global indices. Days of less than 15, KI includes 30.4% of the studied days. it means on December 18, 1993, February 11 and March 8, 1997, January 16 and 6 March and 4 May 1998 and 23 January 2005, CT values of about 39% of studied days on December 18, 1993, April 22, 1994, February 11 and 3, 1997, January 16 and 6 March and 4 may 1998, 8 February 1999 and 29 may 2003 were lower. V.T index also includes amounts less than 25 days of December 18, 1993, February 11, 1997, January 16, 6 March 4, 1998, February 8, 1999, is April 4, 2002 and January 23, 2005. In other words, about 8/34% of studied days are incompatible with global indices figures.
    Conclusion
    The results obtained from all of the aforementioned indices were compared with the atmospheric instability standards and were evaluated. In this study, some contradictions between observatory and predicted values were discerned and finally, instability indices of the region were determined as follows: SI ≤ 20.71, LI ≤ 16.63, SW≤ 19.99, KI ≤ 14.30, CT ≤ 11.50, V.T≤ 24.70 and T.T ≤ 41.80
    Moreover, it was observed that atmospheric instability of the region has aggravated in recent years, so that SI and LI indices have approached zero in the past few years and other indices have each ascended one millimeter towards their maximum thresholds. Additionally, glacial level in the hailstone days under study fluctuate between 850 to 650 Hectopascal, i.e. between the altitude of 1393 and 3788 meters, which this level increases in the hot months of the year.
    Keywords: Thermodynamic analysis, Hail, Volatility indicators, The North West
  • Fatemeh Mohammadyari, Hossein Aghdar, Reza Basiri Page 199
    Introduction
    Groundwaters in arid and semi arid areas have a particular importance. Understanding and proper utilization of these resources, especially in arid and semi-arid regions, is very important in sustainable development. Therefore, for the proper management of these natural water resources and appropriate use of them, information on spatio-temporal variation of their quality is essential. Today, research has found wider range of water quality and pollution of surface waters and groundwater issues is also included Methods for evaluating the quality of groundwater resources and recognition of appropriate locations for urban and agricultural water demand has been known as an important item in water resources planning. Ground-water management is more difficult than that for surface water resource management; therefore, there is a need to seek for reasonable and cost-effective procedures to determine the status of these waters.
    Materials and Methods
    In this study, groundwater chemical properties of arid and semiarid areas were investigated in Mehran and Dehloran using geostatistical methods. Geographic information system is one of the best systems that simplify and prompt access to many, varied data and their analysis, and helpful for managers to make an optimum decision. The software Spss17, Gs 9 and Arc GIS 10 is used for research. The study area is located in Ilam province. Arid and semi-arid Mehran and Dehloran This area is limited in 46°, 15' to 47°, 39' north of latitude and 32°, 2' to 33°, 37' east longitude. Area 8999 square kilometers and climate of the region based on dry Domarten, Ambruzhe middle of the hot desert, steppe and coupons method is Papadakys Mediterranean desert.
    Sodium, chloride, sulfate, TDS and TH variables were evaluated. Semi variogram of parameters was computed by GS software and were fitted different models. After Survey normalizing data, variogram was depicted and interpolation was carried out by IDW method and kriging in GIS software. Criteria for the selection of appropriate models were lower RMSE and spatial structure stronger.
    Results and Discussion
    To investigate whether the parameters are normal, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was tested on them and it was found that data on all the parameters of the normal distribution. results showed the superiority kriging method in comparison to IDW so maps were obtained by this method. The results indicate a strong correlation among water quality and the spatial structure of the data is Gaussian model. Finally, the zoning plan of the area was produced for drinking using fuzzy logic and Schuler classification. According to the final map, 37%, 13% and 50% of the area are suitable for drinking, relatively well and inappropriate respectively. As a result, the water quality in this area is not desirable for drinking. With overlay zoning map and the map of Hot spot analysis, it observed that areas with high concentrations of the warning threshold are located next to each other and in inappropriate zoning map class.
    Conclusion
    Groundwater an important part of the reproducible water ecosystems are the most often in arid and semi arid areas where surface water are very low are available. Ground Water quality change is due to management in use of groundwater resources. Main objective of this research was to investigate spatial variability of chemical properties of ground water. Mehran and Dehloran in plain facies gypsum, salt and limiting Gachsaran, especially in the central areas of the South East have great exposure. That due to solubility of salt and gypsum deposits limiting erosion and salt water flow and water would be undesirable. For this reason, changes made plain in the center of the formation and development of the South East Gachsaran, in plain end points will degrade water quality.Studies show that high levels of hardness and other elements of the central parts of the South East and North West incremental and to replace alluvial deposits at Gachsaran increases the hardness and other elements and in the southeastern plains maximum reaches its The main cause of the decline in water quality can be attributed to Gachsaran. Finally recommended to use geostatistical methods to be used as a useful tool for detecting groundwater quality and gradually replace the old method is the method in addition to the cost-efficiency water projects due to increased use of statistics.
    Keywords: Groundwater, Hot spot analysis, Schuler Classification, Kriging, Inverse Distance Weighted