فهرست مطالب

جغرافیا و توسعه ناحیه ای - سال چهاردهم شماره 2 (پیاپی 27، پاییز و زمستان 1395)
  • سال چهاردهم شماره 2 (پیاپی 27، پاییز و زمستان 1395)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1395/12/11
  • تعداد عناوین: 11
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  • علمی پژوهشی
  • علی اکبر عنابستانی، مجتبی روستا صفحات 1-23
    اهداف
    مقاله حاضر به تحلیل عوامل موثر بر گرایش روستاییان به اجرای طرح صدور سند اماکن روستایی (مطالعه موردی: شهرستان جهرم) پرداخته است.
    روش
    روش تحقیق توصیفی تحلیلی است و اطلاعات به وسیله پرسش نامه در بین 200 خانوار از 13 روستای نمونه به صورت نمونه گیری تصادفی ساده گردآوری شد. فرایند محاسبات این پژوهش براساس مدل تحلیل عاملی صورت پذیرفته است. بدین منظور 28 شاخص در ابعاد مختلف مالکیت سند روستایی انتخاب شد و این شاخص ها به پنج عامل تقلیل یافت که جمعا 178/81 درصد واریانس را دربرداشتند.
    یافته ها/
    نتایج
    در بین پنج عامل برتر به ترتیب نسبت تاثیرگذاری، اولین عامل (افزایش سرمایه گذاری) به تنهایی 629/37 درصد از واریانس را توضیح می دهد و عامل دوم (جلوگیری از بروز اختلافات محلی) 279/21 درصد، عامل سوم (ایجاد نظم در معاملات) 659/8 درصد، عامل چهارم (قرارگرفتن املاک در چرخه اقتصادی) 986/7 درصد و عامل پنجم (استفاده از تسهیلات بانکی) 625/5 درصد واریانس را محاسبه می کنند.
    نتیجه گیری
    مشخص گردید بیشترین دلیل برای تمایل به گرفتن سند، تثبیت مالکیت (70 درصد) است. ضمانت (25 درصد) و دریافت وام (5 درصد) از دیگر دلایل برای گرفتن سند مالکیت بوده است. می توان نتیجه گرفت که عوامل موثر بر گرایش روستاییان به اجرای طرح صدور سند مالکیت اماکن روستایی با حد متوسط تعیین شده دارای تفاوت معناداری است.
    کلیدواژگان: صدور سند اماکن روستایی، مالکیت، تحلیل عاملی، روستاییان، شهرستان جهرم
  • سید هادی زرقانی، محسن جان پرور، ریحانه صالح آبادی، افشین جهان بین صفحات 25-49
    اهداف
    هدف از این مقاله، بررسی ارائه راه حلی اساسی و جدید برای کنترل مرزهای جمهوری اسلامی ایران در قالب شبکه حسگر بی سیم است. درواقع هدف از پژوهش، بررسی و تبیین کارکردهای شبکه حسگر بی سیم در کنترل مرزهای کشور با استفاده از سه فاکتور ارتعاش، سرعت و میزان فلز در شئی متحرک اعم از انسان یا وسیله نقلیه است.
    روش
    پژوهش حاضر از حیث هدف، کاربردی و از نظر ماهیت و روش، توصیفی تحلیلی است. گردآوری اطلاعات به روش کتابخانه ای و با مراجعه به منابع معتبر صورت گرفته است. جهت شبیه سازی شبکه حسگر بی سیم از نرم افزار متلب استفاده شده است. درواقع تمام داده ها در متلب به شکل یک ماتریس ذخیره می شوند. این نرم افزار دارای طیف کاربردی گسترده ای شامل سیگنال و پردازش تصویر، طراحی کنترلر، تست و اندازه گیری، شبیه سازی و... است و به عنوان شیوه ای نوین در علم و فناوری، جهت کنترل مطلوب مرزها قابل طرح است.
    یافته ها/
    نتایج
    یافته های پژوهش نشان می دهد با توجه به ناامنی محیط پیرامونی ایران و لزوم کنترل و مدیریت دقیق مرزهای کشور، استفاده از روش ها، سیاست ها و ابزارهای کنترل کننده، چون احداث دیوار، خاک ریز و سیم خاردار، نصب دوربین ها و ابزارهای اپتیکی و الکترونیکی ضمن دربرداشتن هزینه های فراوان، تاثیر قاطعی نداشته است. درحالی که استفاده از شبکه حسگر بی سیم، ضمن اینکه هزینه های بسیار کمتری نسبت به روش های دیگر دارد، از دقت بالایی برخوردار است و در همه محیط های جغرافیایی، به-ویژه مناطق سخت و صعب العبور، کارایی مناسبی جهت مدیریت مرز و کنترل تردد دارد.
    نتیجه گیری
    مرزهای متعدد و متنوع ایران و همسایگان و ویژگی های خاص منطقه ازجمله فضای استراتژیک ناامن، ضعف حاکمیت در کشورهای منطقه و بی ثباتی سیاسی و اقتصادی، ناامنی و هجوم پناهندگان و آوارگان و تروریسم گسترش یافته درمجموع شرایطی را فراهم آورده است که چاره ای جز مدیریت و کنترل دقیق مرزهای کشور به-خصوص در مرزهای شرقی نیست. مدیریت بهینه مرز مشتمل بر مجموعه اقدامات و طرح های سخت افزاری و نرم افزاری است. استفاده از شبکه حسگر بی سیم در بخش سخت افزاری یکی از روش هایی است که در ضمن هزینه پایین تر نسبت به سایر اقدامات و طرح ها، از دقت بالاتری برخوردار است و می توان از آن برای کاهش هزینه ها و به-خصوص تلفات انسانی در بیشتر مرزهای کشور سود جست.
    کلیدواژگان: مرز، کنترل مرز، مدیریت مرز، شبکه حسگر بی سیم، نظم و امنیت
  • احمد رومیانی، حیدر صالحی میشانی، لیلا وثوقی راد، بهمن قادری، صمد امرایی صفحات 51-66
    اهداف
    هدف از این پژوهش، بررسی بهینه سازی گسترش شهر همدان در جهت حفظ محیط زیست است. بنابراین برنامه ریزی برای بهترین مکان ها جهت توسعه فیزیکی گسترش شهر که کمترین آسیب ها را به کاربری های کشاورزی و محیط زیست ایجاد کند، در زمره اهداف این تحقیق است.
    روش
    نوع تحقیق کاربردی و روش مورداستفاده توصیفی تحلیلی است. برای بررسی بهینه سازی گسترش اندازه گیری های فضایی شهر از تکنیک های نوین سنجش از دور استفاده شده و تغییرات کاربری اراضی شهر بین سال های 1986 تا 2011، درنظر گرفته شده است.
    یافته ها/
    نتایج
    بررسی ها نشان دهنده کاهش شدید اراضی کشاورزی و باغات درنتیجه تبدیل آنها به اراضی ساخته شده است. بنابراین با استفاده از مدل AHP، مشخصات اراضی براساس نیازهای توسعه شهری به پنج طبقه، از کاملا مناسب تا کاملا نامناسب تقسیم شدند تا گسترش آتی شهر، تنها در اراضی بایر و فاقد پوشش گیاهی که دارای شرایط مناسب جهت توسعه فیزیکی شهر هستند، صورت گرفته است.
    نتیجه گیری
    نتایج حاصل از ارزیابی تصاویر ماهواره ای نشان داد که بیشترین افزایش سطوح کاربری در منطقه شهری همدان طی سال های مذکور، صورت گرفته است. بنابراین زمین های کشاورزی به همراه باغات منطقه بیشترین کاهش ها را نشان داداند. حال اگر این روند گسترش کالبدی شهر ادامه پیدا کند تا سال 2025، مساحتی معادل 63/720 هکتار زمین کشاورزی و پوشش گیاهی تخریب خواهد شد. بنابراین بهترین مکان برای گسترش آتی شهر همدان بیشتر در مناطق شمال غربی و شرق شهر واقع شده اند.
    کلیدواژگان: بهینه سازی گسترش شهری، شهر همدان، سیستم اطلاعات جغرافیایی، سنجش از دور
  • رضا دوستان صفحات 67-90
    اهداف
    گردوغبار پدیده طبیعی اقلیم مناطق خشک و نیمه خشک جهان، خاورمیانه و ایران است. در این مقاله، رفتار زمانی و مکانی این مخاطره طبیعی در شمال شرق ایران با داده ساعتی دید افقی، جهت و سرعت باد 10 ایستگاه سینوپتیک از 1961 تا 2010 بررسی شد.
    روش
    با شاخص دید کمتر از 10 کیلومتر و ثبت کد هواشناسی0609 و3035 در یک نوبت دیده بانی، روز گردوغبار تعریف گردید. فراوانی ماهانه، فصلی، سالانه، تداوم، درصد وقوع، مسیر ورود و رژیم ساعتی گردوغبار در هر ایستگاه، تعیین شد.
    یافته ها/
    نتایج
    بیشینه گردوغبار در نواحی شرق، غرب و جنوب خراسان رضوی و ناحیه مرکز تا شمال، کمترین گردوغبار را تجربه می کنند. سرخس، غبارآلوده ترین و قوچان و کاشمر، پاک ترین هوا را دارد و بیشترین تداوم گردوغبار در سرخس و مشهد حادث می-گردد. بیشترین ثبت گردوغبار منطقه در ساعت 12 و 15 گرینویج، به جز سرخس که در ساعت 6 است و کمترین گرد وغبار منطقه در شب می باشد. مسیر عمده گردوغبار، بیابان ترکمنستان و شرق منطقه با جهت شرقی، شمال و شمال غربی است و در زمستان با ناپایداری هوا و موقعیت سیکلون ها، گردوغبار از غرب می وزند. بنابراین برنامه های موثر روی کانون های ریزگرد شمال شرقی و شرق منطقه، جهت مدیریت ریسک و بحران گردوغبار مفید است.
    کلیدواژگان: تحلیل فضایی، گردوغبار، خراسان رضوی
  • محمدعلی فرقانی، زین العابدین صادقی، سپیده پوررمضان صفحات 91-108
    اهداف
    هدف اصلی این مقاله شناسایی و پهنه بندی محدوده منطقه ثامن مشهد از نظر آسیب پذیری شبکه معابر در زمان بروز حوادثی همچون زلزله می باشد.
    روش
    این مطالعه براساس هدف، از نوع تحقیقات کاربردی و از نظر ماهیت و روش، از نوع تحقیقات توصیفی موردی است. بنابراین ابتدا پارامترهای موثر در تعیین کارایی شبکه معابر در زمان بروز بلایایی، همچون زلزله با استفاده از نظرات کارشناسان تعیین گردیدند. سپس برای انتخاب بهینه ترین مسیر جهت تخلیه اضطراری در زلزله های احتمالی، از مدل تحلیل سلسله مراتبی و قابلیت ها و تکنیک های هم پوشانی لایه های اطلاعاتی در نرم افزار Arc GIS استفاده شده است.
    یافته ها/
    نتایج
    استفاده از فرایند تحلیل سلسله مراتبی نشان داد که در بین شاخص های مطرح شده، شاخص ویژگی های سازه ای جداره درمجموع از دیگر شاخص ها تاثیرگذاری بیشتری را داشته است. همچنین نتایج حاصل از هم پوشانی شاخص ها نشان می دهد که معابر موجود در شمال منطقه نسبت به بقیه محدوده موردمطالعه، دارای آسیب پذیری بیشتری می باشند و با حرکت از شمال به جنوب منطقه، از میزان آسیب پذیری کاسته می شود.
    نتیجه گیری
    بیشتر معابر این منطقه به لحاظ دارابودن بافت قدیمی و تراکم بالای جمعیتی و ساختار ساختمانی نامناسب، دارای بیشترین آسیب پذیری می باشند. بنابراین نیاز است تا زمان اصلاح شبکه معابر از مسیرهای اصلی منطقه به عنوان بهینه ترین مسیرها که دارای بهترین شرایط برای دسترسی به سایر مناطق هستند، استفاده کرد.
    کلیدواژگان: شبکه معابر، آسیب پذیری، تخلیه اضطراری، منطقه ثامن مشهد
  • فریبا کرمی، مریم بیاتی خطیبی، علی طالب زاده شوشتری صفحات 109-128
    اهداف
    هدف اصلی این پژوهش، سنجش میزان اهمیت هریک از عوامل موثر بر انتخاب مقصد پزشکی از دیدگاه گردشگران داخلی و در پی آن، بررسی نقش عوامل مذکور در توسعه گردشگری پزشکی شهر مشهد است. تفکیک معیارها و عوامل موثر بر توسعه گردشگری پزشکی شهر مشهد و مقایسه دیدگاه های کارشناسان و گردشگران پزشکی داخلی در ارتباط با اولویت بندی این عوامل از دیگر اهداف این پژوهش است.
    روش
    پژوهش حاضر از لحاظ هدف، کاربردی و از نظر جمع آوری داده ها، توصیفی از نوع پیمایشی است. در این پژوهش، پرسش نامه ای مشتمل بر دو بخش تنظیم گردیده است که در آن، جهت اولویت بندی عوامل موثر بر توسعه گردشگری پزشکی شهر مشهد از دیدگاه گردشگران پزشکی، از آزمون فریدمن و جهت اولویت بندی عوامل مذکور از دید کارشناسان امر، از تکنیک فرایند تحلیل سلسله مراتبی استفاده شده است.
    یافته ها و
    نتایج
    بر اساس یافته ها، در اولویت بندی عوامل موثر بر توسعه گردشگری پزشکی شهر مشهد از دیدگاه گردشگران پزشکی و کارشناسان، تفاوت چشمگیری وجود ندارد. در مورد زیرعوامل نیز به غیر از زیرعوامل بخش «تسهیلات و تجهیزات درمانی» (که اولویت ها در بین گروه ها کاملا متفاوت هستند) و دو بخش «تسهیلات مسافرتی و گردشگری» و «مقرون به صرفه بودن هزینه ها» (که اولویت های دو گروه کمی با هم تفاوت دارند) در مابقی بخش ها اولویت بندی زیرعوامل از دیدگاه هر دو گروه، تقریبا شبیه هستند.
    نتیجه گیری
    نتایج این پژوهش نشان داد «تسهیلات و تجهیزات درمانی پیشرفته» و «تخصص و مهارت پزشکان و کارکنان درمانی» مهم ترین عوامل موثر در انتخاب مقصد پزشکی از دیدگاه گردشگران پزشکی و کارشناسان است.
    کلیدواژگان: گردشگری پزشکی، گردشگران داخلی، شهر مشهد، آزمون فریدمن، تکنیک AHP
  • جهانگیر حیدری صفحات 129-153
    اهداف
    یکی از اصول توسعه پایدار شهری، دستیابی عادلانه عموم شهروندان به خدمات شهری موردنیاز است و اصولا این مهم زمانی محقق می شود که اراضی و منابع مختلف شهری، به طور برابر میان واحدهای فضایی و اجتماعی شهر تخصیص یابد؛ موضوعی که تاکنون در اغلب شهرهای ما عینیت بیرونی نداشته و ازاین رو توزیع نامتناسب خدمات و تسهیلات عمومی در سطح محلات و نواحی شهرها یکی از نمادهای بارز ناپایداری شهری قلمداد می شود. هدف کلی این پژوهش، بررسی و تحلیل وضع موجود توزیع فضایی کاربری های اساسی خدمات شهری نواحی شش گانه شهر بوشهر براساس جمعیت، مساحت و سرانه کاربری های مذکور با استفاده از مدل ها و روش های مناسب می باشد.
    روش
    تحقیق حاضر از نوع توصیفی تحلیلی است که از خدمات عمومی 6 ناحیه شهر بوشهر صورت پذیرفته است. داده ها و اطلاعات موردنیاز از منابع کتابخانه ای به ویژه از طرح جامع و تفصیلی شهر بوشهر جمع آوری شده است. جهت بررسی، تحلیل و مقایسه توزیع کاربری های خدماتی موردنظر، سه مدل امتیاز استانداردشده، ضریب مکانی و ویکور به تفکیک و سپس به صورت ترکیبی برای رتبه بندی آنها در سطح نواحی به کار گرفته شده است.
    یافته ها/
    نتایج
    نتایج نهایی پژوهش نشان می دهد که براساس تمامی روش ها، خدمات عمومی به طور عادلانه در بین نواحی شهر بوشهر توزیع نشده است و در بین 6 ناحیه، ناحیه 2 با کمترین جمعیت ساکن نسبت به سایر نواحی، از بیشترین خدمات شهری برخوردار می باشد. ازجمله مهم ترین دلایل تمرکز خدمات در ناحیه 2 را می‏توان منطبق بودن بخشی از این ناحیه با بخش مرکزی تجاری شهر دانست.
    نتیجه گیری
    از نتایج ناموزونی در توزیع خدمات در 6 ناحیه بوشهر، انجام سفرهای درون شهری گاهی شدید به سوی نواحی برخوردار می باشد. ازاین رو لازم است در مدیریت و برنامه ریزی شهری به مقوله عدالت فضایی در توزیع خدمات اساسی شهری، به مولفه مهم جمعیت و نیازهای آن توجه ویژه به عمل آید.
    کلیدواژگان: توزیع فضایی خدمات، ضریب مکانی، مدل استانداردشده، مدل ویکور، شهر بوشهر
  • احمد انصاری لاری، مریم انصاری صفحات 155-173
    اهداف
    در این پژوهش به بررسی میزان فرسایش خاک و بار رسوب حوضه آبریز قلعه-چای با استفاده از مدل تجربی RUSLE در محیط (GIS) پرداخته شده است.
    روش
    برای دست یافتن به هدف تحقیق، از مدل تجربی RUSLE در محیط GIS که شامل عامل فرسایندگی باران، عامل فرسایش پذیری خاک، عامل توپوگرافی و پوشش گیاهی است، استفاده شد و اسناد و مدارک مختلفی، ازجمله نقشه های توپوگرافی، زمین-شناسی، خاک شناسی، کاربری اراضی، پوشش گیاهی، آمارهای مختلف مربوط به ایستگاه-های باران سنجی و مدل ارتفاعی رقومی به عنوان ابزار تحقیق مورداستفاده قرار گرفت.
    یافته ها/
    نتایج
    نتایج و رسوب کل برآورد شده در روش USDA، قابلیت تلفیق مدل RUSLE و GIS را در برآورد میزان فرسایش و بار رسوب نشان می دهد.
    نتیجه گیری
    بررسی نقشه خطر فرسایش خاک نشان می دهد که میزان خطر فرسایش خاک در سطح دشت، از صفر تا 225/2 برحسب تن در هکتار در سال متغیر است و منطقه موردمطالعه، جزو طبقه فرسایشی خیلی کم تا کم قرار داشت و حداکثر بار رسوب 64/0 تن در هکتار در سال برآورد شد.
    کلیدواژگان: فرسایش خاک، مدل RUSLE، حوضه آب ریز قلعه چای، سیستم اطلاعات جغرافیایی
  • امامعلی عاشری صفحات 175-199
    اهداف
    هدف از این پژوهش بررسی میزان برخورداری از امکانات در بین روستاهای بالای 100 نفر در دشت اشنویه است که ارزیابی از سطح برخورداری امکانات در بین روستاهای محدوده موردمطالعه صورت گیرد. بنابراین ارزیابی روستاها که تا چه اندازه از سطح توسعه برخوردار هستند، از زمره اهداف این تحقیق است.
    روش
    نوع تحقیق کاربردی، روش مورداستفاده توصیفی تحلیلی و گردآوری داده ها کتابخانه ای و میدانی است. بدین منظور، در ابتدا شاخص های مختلف برخورداری، شامل شاخص های اقتصادی، زیربنایی، اجتماعی، فرهنگی، و بهداشتی درمانی از سالنامه آماری فرهنگ آبادی ها استخراج شد. سپس ماتریسی از داده ها با 35 ردیف(روستاها) و 22 ستون(متغیرها) تنظیم شد. در ادامه، با استفاده از سه تکنیک آماری تحلیل عاملی، آنالیز تاکسونومی عددی و تحلیل سلسله مراتبی سطح برخورداری روستاهای مذکور از نظر برخورداری امکانات مختلف ارزیابی شدند و سپس پردازش داده ها در نرم افزارهایSPSS ، Idrisi وExpert Choices انجام شد.
    یافته ها/
    نتایج
    بررسی های حاصل از تحلیل عاملی نشان داد که روستاهای واقع در طبقه اول، شامل امیرآباد، تاچین آباد و نلیوان بیشترین برخورداری و هماهنگی را باهم دارند و روستاهای واقع در طبقه چهارم شامل 18 روستا (51 درصد از کل روستاها) کمترین میزان برخورداری را دارند. براساس روش آنالیز تاکسونومی، روستاهای امیرآباد، تاچین آباد و نلیوان به ترتیب با ضرایب(382/0، 379/0 و 291/0)، بیشترین نزدیکی و هماهنگی را با هم دارند و روستاهای پلیه، دوآب و سردره، کمترین میزان برخورداری را داشتند. همچنین با استفاده از روش AHP نیز مشخص شد که روستاهای پلیه، دوآب و سردره کمترین میزان برخورداری را دارند.
    نتیجه گیری
    نتایج حاصل از مقایسه تطبیقی نشان داد که هر سه روش آماری مذکور، با تفاوت اندکی سه روستای نسبتا برخوردار را در یک گروه جداگانه طبقه بندی کردند، اما در تعداد اعضای سایر طبقات تفاوت هایی وجود داشت. روش تحلیل عاملی واقعیت موجود در روستاهای مشابه را بهتر مشخص کرد و نسبت به دو روش دیگر، نتایج دقیق-تری را نشان داد. بنابراین برای برنامه ریزی و مدیریت توسعه مناطق روستایی پیشنهاد شد. درنتیجه فرض اول محقق پذیرفته نشد، اما از طرف دیگر با توجه به اینکه 8 روستای نزدیک شهر(23درصد از کل روستاها) جزو اعضای طبقه کم برخوردارترین روستاها قرار گرفتند، فرض دوم هم نیز پذیرفته نشد.
    کلیدواژگان: توسعه روستایی، تحلیل عاملی، تاکسونومی عددی، دشت اشنویه
  • مهدی حسام، اسماعیل آقایی زاده صفحات 201-224
    اهداف
    پیاده روی شهروندان در همه شهرها به طور اعم و در جوامع درحال توسعه به طور اخص با مشکلات و تنگناهای متعددی روبه رو بوده و از ابعاد مختلف اجتماعی، اقتصادی، فرهنگی، مدیریتی و... قابل مطالعه است. دراین میان برخی از این ابعاد از سهم بیشتری در کاهش اشتیاق شهروندان به پیاده روی در فضاهای شهری برخوردارند. پژوهش حاضر قصد دارد تنگناهای پیاده روی شهروندان شهر رشت را با استفاده از تئوری بنیانی مورد مطالعه قرار دهد.
    روش
    در این پژوهش با استفاده از روش کیفی، تنگناهای پیاده روی شهروندان شهر رشت با به کارگیری تئوری بنیانی موردمطالعه قرار گرفته است. براساس روش نمونه گیری هدفمند و نظری، 43 نفر از شهروندان به عنوان نمونه انتخاب شدند. تکنیک های به-کارگرفته شده برای گردآوری داده ها و اطلاعات لازم، بر مصاحبه نیمه‏ساختاریافته و مشاهدات میدانی تمرکز یافتند.
    یافته ها/
    نتایج
    مصاحبه ها تا جایی پیش رفتند که مرحله اشباع تئوریک حاصل شد. برمبنای نظریه بنیانی، داده ها در سه مرحله کدگذاری تحلیل شدند و نتایج حاصل از آن، استخراج 7 مقوله هسته ای شامل عوامل تاثیرگذار اجتماعی و فرهنگی، کالبدی، فردی، طبیعی، مدیریتی، امکانات و قوانین می باشد.
    نتیجه گیری
    تنگناهای اساسی پیاده روی شهروندان در شهر رشت، تحت تاثیر عوامل مختلف اجتماعی، فرهنگی، کالبدی، فردی، طبیعی، مدیریتی، امکانات و قوانین به‏وجود آمده است. تمامی این عوامل در دو گروه زمینه های موثر بر پیاده روی و شرایط مداخله گر قابل مطالعه هستند که در گروه نخست، ویژگی های شهر و شهروندان و در گروه دوم، شرایطی که در عدم تمایل شهروندان به پیاده روی نقش داشته اند، قرار می گیرد.
    کلیدواژگان: پیاده روی، پیاده مداری، تئوری بنیانی، شهر رشت
  • داود جمینی، عباس امینی، حامد قادرمرزی، جعفر توکلی صفحات 225-246
    اهداف
    هدف اصلی از پژوهش حاضر سنجش وضعیت امنیت غذایی و تبیین عوامل موثر بر آن در بین کشاورزان کشور است که به صورت موردی در بخش مرکزی شهرستان روانسر انجام شده است.
    روش
    پژوهش کاربردی حاضر با روش توصیفی تحلیلی تدوین گردیده است که در آن ابزار اصلی جهت گردآوری داده ها، ترکیبی از پرسش نامه های استاندارد امنیت غذایی وزارت کشاورزی آمریکا و پرسش نامه محقق ساخته بوده است.
    یافته ها/
    نتایج
    یافته های پژوهش نشان داد 1/21 درصد افراد موردمطالعه دارای امنیت غذایی و 9/78 درصد، در حال تجربه درجات مختلف ناامنی غذایی(بدون گرسنگی، با گرسنگی متوسط و با گرسنگی شدید) هستند. نتایج رگرسیون چندمتغیره نشان داد 4/75 درصد از واریانس متغیر وابسته پژوهش، به واسطه اثرات متغیرهای مستقل پژوهش تبیین شده است که این متغیرها به ترتیب اهمیت عبارت اند از: کیفیت زمین، دسترسی به اعتبارات، مالکیت منابع سرمایه ای، پایگاه اقتصادی اجتماعی، بعد خانوار و پیشامدهای اقتضایی. دراین میان دو متغیر بعد خانوار و پیشامدهای اقتضائی، به ترتیب با ضرایب 143/0- و 135/0- دارای اثر منفی بر امنیت غذایی کشاورزان بوده اند.
    نتیجه گیری
    امنیت غذایی در میان تولیدکنندگان اصلی مواد غذایی کشور (کشاورزان) در وضعیت بحرانی قرار دارد و درراستای رفع این محدودیت، توجه به تعیین کننده های شناسایی شده در پژوهش حاضر، از ضروریات می باشد.
    کلیدواژگان: امنیت غذایی، مناطق روستایی، کشاورزان، شهرستان روانسر
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  • Ali Abakr Anabestani, Mojtaba Rusta Pages 1-23
    IntroductionDetermination of ownership and issuance of title deed has a 75-year history in Iran. However, like many other aspects, the rural community lags behind the urban community in this regard. In recent years, due to the issuance of joint proofs of ownership for villages, most rural lands/buildings lack official ownership documents. Not only has this condition reduced the mental and emotional attachment of villagers to their birth place (due to the gap between urban and rural life), but it has also limited the facilities provided for villagers. Since this is a newly-appearing issue and it is going to be implemented for the first time in a large scale in the country, its consequences on the rural community should be carefully investigated.
    Jahrom (a small city in Fars Province, Iran) is one of the regions in which the planned issuance of ownership documents has started from the early years of the 21st century. Therefore, in this study, the researchers attempt to investigate the factors which influence the tendency of villagers for obtaining rural ownership documents in this city. Accordingly, the main question of this research is:Q: What are the main factors influencing the tendency of villagers to participate in the initiative regarding the issuance of official ownership documents for rural lands/buildings?
    H. It is hypothesized that consolidating ownership and using its advantages has a large effect on the tendency of villagers to implement this initiative.
    The findings of this study will be analyzed using Factor Analysis.
    Theoretical FrameworkAccording to classical economists, land as a whole is a valuable natural capability which is also considered as a way of gaining income. These economists maintain that land and capital are inseparable. It could be said that throughout the history of Iran, the issue of land and building ownership has greatly affected the rural community. However, with the issuance of official ownership documents for rural lands and buildings, it is expected that these disorders would reduce, at least with regard to the physical context of the village. Due to specific socioeconomic features of the rural community of Iran, newness of the policy and the multi-sectorial nature of its implementation, this policy has faced major challenges, the most important of which are as follow:• In the villages included in the land reformation plan, the documents of land reformation are common to all the villages and in most regions, the border between agricultural and residential lands has not been determined and there is not a given number for each piece of land. Therefore, the borders of the land and the possession share of each person from all the lands of the village are not specified. Also, the area which is possessed by an owner does not match with the share that has been determined in the land reform documents.
    • In villages having subsidiary numbers which have been documented from the 1930’s onwards, most of the owners who are neither living in the village nor their heirs have constructed a building without any entails. Moreover, some owners have sold their properties through a hand-written document, without informing the registration authorities of the contract. Therefore, some lands are officially owned by the first owner, but the possessors are other individuals.
    MethodologyThe current study is a functional research which is conducted through the descriptive-analytical research methodologies. The data for this research have been collected through field studies, questionnaire and library studies. Based on the population and housing census of 2012, Jahrom has four sections. Based on the data provided by the Housing Foundation of the Islamic Revolution of Iran, the initiative for documenting the ownership of houses has been implemented in 48 villages of this city. However, in this study, 13 villages whose issued documents have been more than 300 volumes have been included in the sample. In order to estimate the size of the sample, the Kukran sampling method with the confidence level of 95% and the error rate of 6% was used. This formula determined 159 cases to be enough; however, in order to increase the certitude, more than 200 participants took part in the research through random sampling. After collecting the necessary data and analyzing the data in SPSS and ARCGIS software programs, the issue was further discussed and explained. In addition, in order to analyze the factors that influence the issuance of the ownership document of rural lands, exploratory factor analysis was used.
    DiscussionIn this study, the effective factors on rural ownership documentation were studied using 28 primary items. Then, through the Varimax rotational technique, these items were reduced to five general factors. These five items account for 81.178% of the total variance. The share of each factor in determining the issuance of ownership documents has been estimated.
    The results show that the first factor alone explains 37.629% of the total variance, followed by the second factor (21.279%), third factor (8.659%), fourth factor (7.986) and the fifth factor (5.625). The findings indicated that the main reason for tending towards attaining ownership documents for rural lands/buildings is to stabilize one’s ownership (70%). Warranty (25%) and applying for loans (5%) are other reasons for applying for ownership documents. It can be concluded that factors affecting villager's attitude towards the implementation of rural property ownership document issuance set is significantly different from the average.
    ConclusionThis study attempted to investigate the effective factors on the tendency of villagers to participate in the initiative for issuance of rural ownership documents, with a focus on Jahrom, a small city in Iran.
    Using an advanced statistical method (i.e., Factor Analysis), all the variables used in this study were categorized into more general factors. The factors influencing the tendency of villagers to participate in the rural ownership documentation program were investigated using 28 primary items. Then, through the Varimax rotational technique, these items were reduced to 5 factors which explain 81.178% of the total variance. The share of each factor in determining the issuance of ownership documents has also been estimated. Also, the results indicated that the first factor (increased investment) accounts for 37.629% of the total variance, followed by the second factor (21.279%), third factor (8.659%), fourth factor (7.986) and fifth factor (5.625).
    Keywords: Rural issuance of a certificates places_Property_Factor Analysis_Villagers_Jahrom County
  • Seyed Hadi Zarghani, Mohsen Janparvar, Reyhaneh Salehabadi, Afshin Jahanbin Pages 25-49
    IntroductionInternational boundaries are considered as the first point of impact and the front-line of combat with threat; hence, boundary security greatly induces the national security of the country. As a result, throughout the history, governments have always tried to apply various plans and policies, proportional to the time, place, and technology in each historical period to secure the boundaries. The construction of the Wall of China, Hardin, Golestan, etc. by the governments is the evidence of this point. Iran, due to being located in the Middle East, is faced with major challenges and developments. The threats such as illegal migrations, human and drug trafficking, the importation of prohibited goods, and ethnic movements on the one hand, and the specific features of the border areas _geographical isolation, being away from the center, the lack of development of the border areas, etc._ on the other hand, spread insecurity in the border areas. Therefore, it is essential to study the optimal approaches and strategies of boundary management.
    Theoretical FrameworkThe concept of boundary security refers to the prevention of any act incompatible with the national boundaries law of one country and the legalization of people and good's transport as well as the domestic animals allowed through the boundary gates in compliance with the legal norms (Zarghani, 2007). Obviously, boundary security with its diverse aspects strongly supports the security inside the country (Khatabi, 1995). In the case of security, boundary management, and boundary control, there are several policies and strategies. Countries, according to geographical, political, economic, geopolitical, social, and cultural features, use these designs and practices. In general, three types of management models exist in the field of boundary management and control: Military-disciplinary management model, functional developmental management model, and integrated and combined management model. In Military-disciplinary management model, boundary control and management is done by the military and police forces because of the threats in the surrounding countries and across boundaries. . In this model, control and boundary management is done by using traditional and modern methods and tools including physical obstruction (digging channels, blocking the opening of the boundary, installing barbed wire, creating fine soil, concrete wall, etc.), hardware obstruction (the strengthening of boundary forces, formed military units, the boundary security of border area, etc.), and software control (the use of geographic information systems, space sensors, radar surveillance and eavesdropping, electronics and optics equipment).
    MethodologyThis study is descriptive-analytical and for collecting the data, documents from library and the Internet were used. Moreover, MATLAB software was used for simulation. This software has a wide range of applications, such as signal and image processing, communications, design, test and measurement, modeling, analysis, simulation and so on. This study examines the various methods of control and boundary management in various ways; and finally confirms the use of wireless sensor network as a modern way in science and technology to provide good control of boundaries and its effectiveness in security and boundary control in the border areas.
    ResultsThe threats surrounding Iran during the past three decades has led the country to use different policies, plans, methods and tools to manage territorial boundaries. A review and estimate of the efforts in recent years in the field of management and boundary control including constructing earthworks , building materials, establishing boundary checkpoints, using barbed wire, etc. showed that despite spending a lot of money, they cannot effectively manage and control the boundaries. The findings of this study demonstrated that the use of wireless sensor network model in terms of simulations model utilizing three factors, i.e., vibration, speed, and amount of metal, well represented the detection of the moving objects in any type of physical environment. Therefore, based on simulations performed, this type of sensor can be used in any geographical environment, including water, marine, land, swamp, forest, and so onto control and manage the country's boundaries.
    Conclusion and SuggestionsThe unsecured strategic environment dominant in Southwest Asia, the governments and the poor governance in some neighboring countries of Iran, a continued political instability, economic crises and multiple tensions, forced migration, refugees, etc. in one hand, and Iran's long dry and water borders with its neighbors on the other hand, confirms that Islamic Republic of Iran has no choice except the strengthening and the management and control of the boundaries for national security. To manage and optimize boundary control, various methods and tools have been used that some of them, such as building walls, digging ditches, etc., have not only had a high cost, but also did not work. Accordingly, the use and application of new tools and technologies for monitoring and controlling the boundaries of the country is essential. Wireless sensor networks are one of the newest technologies that we are able to use constantly, especially in certain situations (for example, in very rugged mountainous areas) and to monitor and supervise a specified location. In fact, by the design of electronic control boundaries and using wireless sensor networks, boundary management can be done at a relatively lower cost. Wireless sensor networks can be used as an important part of communications, surveillance, navigation and systematic process of military and can be used in any geographical environment, including water, marine, land, swamp, woodland in order for the control and management of boundaries.
    Keywords: Boundary, Boundary control, Boundary management, Wireless sensor networks
  • Ahmad Roumyani, Heidar Salehi Mishani, Leila Vosoughi Rod, Bahman Ghaderi, Samad Amraie Pages 51-66
    IntroductionIn recent decades, the growth of cities, especially in developing and underdeveloped countries, has led to the marginalization of villages, the increase of population growth and the migration of a large part of the rural population to urban centers, and thus causing many problems for such countries. This, in addition to changing land use patterns, has had widespread effects on society, regional and local economy, and the environment.
    Theoretical FrameworkGiven the population growth and the expansion of cities in the world, it is expected that around 60% of the world's population will live in urban areas by 2030, of which 90% will be in developing countries. Therefore, monitoring urban changes requires consideration of two key points: 1. changes based on description and analysis of spatial distribution and structural characteristics of urban land use, 2. modeling and predicting the change of space time and turning it into important issues. Recent advances in remote sensing, GIS, space earth techniques and advances in fields such as the ecologic perspective on quantity, monitoring, modeling and prediction of urban development have a significant impact on the management of the city's physical expansion on the one hand and the preservation of environmental resources on the other hand. Therefore, using remote sensing data, one can understand the changes in urban patterns, model the development and changes of urban processes, and prepare physical development maps of the city and analyze the map of the land cover in relation to it.
    The physical development and growth of Iranian cities was coordinated to meet the needs of urban communities and environmental resources several decades ago, but with the advent of new developments, cities (especially the big cities) quickly embraced changes and upheavals. These transformations have become uneven and disproportionate to the environment in the form of rapid population growth and accelerated physical expansion of cities. According to UN statistics in 2011, the percentage of population living in urban areas in Iran in 2020 will be 70.6% and in 2050 it will reach 78.2%. This causes the greatest damage to the natural and environmental resources of the city. This has led many scholars to study this matter. Therefore, although there are relatively many studies on the use of satellite imagery in land use mapping, integrating this process with the optimal location of future expansion with taking into account the environmental issues will be a novel idea.
    MethodThe main objective of this study was to evaluate the expansion of Hamadan during 1986-2011 and predict how it will expand by 2025 in order to provide an appropriate model for finding the best directions for the expansion of the city. To achieve this, remote sensing data (RS), geographic information system, and hierarchical model are used. The main source of remote sensing data is Landsat satellite imagery, which was used after applying radiometric and geometric corrections. According to the objectives of this research, firstly, the land use map was developed using the FUZZY ARTMAP model. To evaluate the accuracy of this classification, images of Google Aras which has a quality of half a meter were used. Then, land use changes were calculated using the LCM model during the study period, and based on land use variations in this interval, the trend of these changes by 2025 was determined using the CA-MARCOV model. In the next step, in order to optimize the location of the city's development process, appropriate indicators were selected and each of the indicators was evaluated according to the purpose and according to the expert's opinion in the hierarchical analysis model. Finally, each of the layers was combined with respect to their relative weights using the Weighted Overlay function, and the final map was obtained.
    Discussion and FindingsThis research was conducted to evaluate and optimize the physical development of Hamedan city with emphasis on environmental protection. For this purpose satellite images were first examined in 1986 and 2011. Then, considering the current trend of the city, the CA-MARKOV model was used to predict its expansion by 2025. Finally, in order to optimize the city's development, the criteria were selected and the best areas were identified with the AHP model. Therefore, in Hamedan, surveys show a sharp decline in agricultural lands and gardens as a result of their conversion into lands. Thus, using the AHP model, land characteristics were divided into five categories according to the needs of urban development, from the very appropriate to completely inappropriate, so that the future development of the city has taken place only in lands without vegetation that has the proper conditions for the physical development of the city.
    Conclusion and SuggestionsThe results of evaluation of satellite images showed that the highest increase in user levels in the urban area of Hamedan during the mentioned years was the use made for the lands. Meanwhile, agricultural lands with the gardens of the region show the highest decline. If the city continues to expand, by 2025, an area equivalent to 720.6 ha of agricultural land and vegetation will be destroyed. Therefore, finding the location for optimal city development is essential. Therefore, the findings showed that the area of 18012.52 hectares in the region was 77.71% with perfectly suitable conditions for the mentioned purpose. According to the findings, the best places to expand the future of Hamedan are mostly in the northwest and east of the city. Also, southern parts due to dense plant cover, high quality agricultural land, limitation of elevation and gradient lack proper value for urban development. According to the results of the research, it is better to make this expansion in perfectly suitable places to minimize damage to the environment.
    Keywords: Optimization of Urban Development, Hamedan, GIS, Remote Sensing
  • Reza Doostan Pages 67-90
    IntroductionEvery year natural hazards damage various parts of the planet. One of the hazards of the desert margin with a dry and semi-arid climate, including the Middle East, is dust. Dust reduces horizontal visibility and cancellation of flights, causes crashes, pulmonary and ocular diseases, work closures, air pollution, reduced water quality and damage to the agricultural sector, etc. Today, air pollution with dust is reported in different cities of Iran, including the storm in the July 18, 2009 in 18 provinces, with particles suspended from the desert of Syria and Iraq to Tehran and the amount of suspended particles with 460 ppm showed the highest record of polluting (Ranjbar Saadat Abadi & Azizi, 2012). Estimated economic losses in the western Iran (Ilam, Khuzestan and Kermanshah) from 2006-2011 were 2227 million dollars in the first scenario to $ 13361 million in the fourth scenario (Khalidi, 2013). Every year, 108 tons of dust particles are imported into the atmosphere, with the largest share of Africa (Kutiel & Furman, 2003). The Arabian Rub' al Khali Desert, the Tigris and Euphrates suburbs of the Euphrates and the coasts of Oman are the main focus of Middle East dust production (Prospero, Ginoux, Torres, Nicholson & Gill,., 2002). In Iran, a significant dust storm trend was reported in the west (Rasouli, Sari Sarraf, & Mohammadi, 2011). Zabul with an average of 183 storms had the highest number, and Zahedan, Bushehr, Tabas, Bandar Abbas, Jask, Iranshahr, Hamadan and Ahvaz were the next, with the maximum number in July and minimum in December (Farajzadeh & Alizadeh, 2011). The two critical centers of dust in the southwest of Iran from 1979-2008, Dezful and Bushehr, have highest amount of dust in spring and lowest in December (Azizi, Miri, & Nabavi, 2012). The purpose of this study is to determine the pattern of spatial distribution, continuity, major sources and dust hour pattern in northeastern Iran.
    MethodThe extensive spatial pattern of dust (roundness, continuity, major resources and hourly pattern) was performed with the following steps: Hourly data of horizontal view, wind speed and wind direction of the synoptic stations of Quchan, Golmakan, Sarakhs, Mashhad, Neyshabur, Sabzevar, Kashmar, Torbat Heydarieh, Torbat-e-Jam and Gonabad have been received from the Iranian Meteorological Organization since its inception by 2010. Day of dust was defined as the day when the horizontal view was less than 10 km and with the present weather of 06-07-08-09 and 30-31-32-33-34-35, in one of 8 watches per day. Subsequently, the annual, seasonal and monthly frequencies were calculated. The data of wind speed in the dust dates of windrose during the year, the season and the month were illustrated. The speed and direction of the windrose were determined for estimation of dust hour with a 12-hour GMT basis with a maximum recorded dust concentration. The dust accumulation was determined in 2, 3, 4 and more days. In the next step, in order to determine the dust hour pattern, the frequency of occurrence of dust in the eight hours of data recording for each station was calculated and maps were drawn.
    FindingsSarakhs with the average 24 -40 days a year experience the largest dust, and the least dust was in Quchan and Kashmar with 9 days a year. Most of the winds run from Turkmenistan in the north, northwest, north east, and east directions. Dust days fluctuate around an average of 18 days a year. The highest winter dust is in Sarakhs, Sabzevar and Gonabad, and the lowest in Quchan, Golmakan, Neyshabur and Kashmar. The dust from the west and southwest is related to western winds, cyclones and the position of cold fronts in the Dasht Kavir and the Bajestan Desert. The region's largest dusting occurs in spring. In spring, Sarakhs and Sabzevar have the highest level of dust, and Ghouchan, Golmakan, Kashmar and Torbat Heidariyah have the least amount of dust. In this season, winds in the north, northwest, east, and southeast blow from Turkmenistan deserts. The peak of the April dust volumes is in Sabzevar, Mashhad and Sarakhs; in June, it is in Sarakhs and Sabzevar, and the lowest is in Quchan, Torbat Heydarieh and Kashmar. After spring, summer is the most dusty, with winds from north, northeast, east, and southeast. The source of spring and summer dust is Turkmenistan's desert and east of the region. The peak of the July dust is in Sarakhs, Sabzevar, Mashhad and Gonabad, with winds blowing from north, northeast, and east. In summer, Kashmar and Quchan are not dusty. The greatest continuous duration of dust is two days and more in Sarakhs, Mashhad, Gonabad, Golmakan and Sabzevar and the least continuous dust is in Kashmar, Quchan. From 1983 onwards, the continuity of dust has a positive trend. In 2008, the highest dust accumulation was recorded. The highest level of dust was recorded at 12 and 15 GMT, except for Sarakhs that recorded the highest dust at 6 GMT. Maximum recorded winter dust was at 12 and 9 oclock, in autumn at 12 GMT, except for Sarakhs which was at 9 GMT. The maximum in spring was at 12 and 15 except for Sarakhs which was at 6 GMT, and the pattern of this season is similar to the annual pattern, the highest summer dust was at 15 and 12. In all seasons, the lowest dust incidence occurred at 0 and 21 GMT.
    ConclusionThe dust spatial trend of the region is northeastern-southeast, indicating the arrival of dust from the desert of Turkmenistan and the eastern dry plains. The mountain direction, position of the station and the station's height affect channeling wind and dust from dry lands. Sarakhs has the lowest station that experienced the highest level of dust. The peak is in spring, summer, and the lowest levels occurred in December and January. This trend is also evident in other parts of Iran. In the cold period, with the arrival of the wet system, the soil is stabilized. Summer dust is more homogeneous with stable atmospheres and surface heating, and it is heterogeneous in the semi-cold with unstable system. Most of the persistence of dust is in Sarakhs, Gonabad, Mashhad and Sabzevar, which is associated with a 120-day wind in the summer. Maximum dust is at 12 and 15 GMT, except for Sarakhs, which is similar to Zabul that experiences the highest level at 6 oclock in the afternoon. Decrease in the dust of Kashmar confirms that the northeastern dusts of Iran are mainly from the Karakum desert and the northeastern postal areas of the region, and deserts of the Dashte Kavir in the east and the desert of the southwest of Bajestan play a less role. Therefore, recognition of atmospheric patterns and control of dust cores in the northeast of the region are useful for risk and crisis management in the northeast of Iran.
    Keywords: Spatial analysis, Dust, Continuity, Hourly pattern, Northeast of Iran
  • Mohammad Ali Forghani, Zeynolabedin Sadeghi, Sepideh Poorramezan Pages 91-108
    IntroductionFactors such as global warming, environmental degradation and increasing urbanization expose a greater number of people to the threat of natural disasters. These natural disasters require the immediate mobilization and action of multiple stakeholders due to the unexpected nature and amplitude of the event, and the diversity and the quantity of supplies and services needed by the victims. In countries like Iran, natural hazards experience shows that management and decision-making before the earthquake and after that is important. The occurrence of natural and non-natural disasters creates conditions that make some regions be rapidly evacuated.
    Theoretical FrameworkUsually after the occurrence of great events, destruction of bridges and roads, collapse of nearby buildings, faults, landslides, liquefaction, land subsidence, and abandoned or influx of cars cause transportation networks to become disrupted and this makes difficulties in the access of the rescue forces to the affected areas. Evacuation is a complex process that consists of several consecutive phases. After the detection of an incident, decision makers evaluate the potential threats for specific areas and then issue an evacuation order for these areas if the risk is significant and there are no shelters to provide adequate in-place protection. The type of disaster will dictate total or partial evacuation to distant or near-by relief location and if it is long term or temporary process.
    MethodologyBased on objective, this study is an applied research and from the viewpoint of nature and methodology, it is a descriptive case study carried out based on the descriptive information of Samen Municipality of Mashhad in -2011-. In general, in this study we explored the modeling and analysis of the relationship between various parameters in emergency evacuation routing for Samen area in Mashhad. In the first step, based on library studies, important factors to be considered were identified. According to the results of the previous studies and the use of expert opinions, the criteria and sub-criteria for evaluating the performance of the road networks in emergency evacuation were selected. By using survey research, vulnerable routes were modeled by using Arc GIS software capabilities and by combining the information layer, optimized routes in relief and emergency evacuation at the times of disaster, such as an , were identified.
    Results and DiscussionPlanning for evacuation is a major and important part of emergency plans in vulnerable areas at the time of disasters. In fact, the best route in relief and sheltering is one that faces with minimum damage. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the network at the time of earthquake disaster in regional levels that have been done with the case study of Samen area in Mashhad. With considering the importance of emergency evacuation issues during a disaster, the selected plan should be better than the other options and be able to save the greatest number of people in the event of a disaster. Thus, the present study aimed at examining the most vulnerable parts of the transportation network according to the mentioned criteria in Samen area and designing suitable models for evacuation and relief based on the results.
    Conclusion and SuggestionsThe purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the network at the time of earthquake disaster in regional levels done based on the case study of Samen area in Mashhad. In this context, according to the opinions and views of the experts in this field, a general form of analyzing for the vulnerability of various routes in this region were presented and four major criteria (access factors, geometric characteristics of the network, construction of land, features of edge buildings) were specified. Furthermore, the effective sub-criteria were divided into 5 zoning as the very low vulnerability, low vulnerability, moderate vulnerability, high and very high vulnerability. In addition, the use of AHP indicated that among the proposed indicators, features of edge buildings criteria in comparison to the other three factors have the highest impact; and distance from fault, distance from the center of the risk, the ratio of width to height, and the type of materials, respectively, would have the most impact on the performance of the network during the earthquake crisis. Finally, combining the criteria with GIS capabilities showed that routes in the north of the area (sector 2) have the most vulnerability compared to the other sectors. South of this area have routes with enough width, more resistant buildings with less age and better access for relief.
    Therefore, we must first develop plans to improve the roads, especially in lane width indicators, and take into consideration the vulnerability of buildings. In this way routes with a width of less than 8 meters in this region are widening and other routes should also be close to their proper width according to the urban regulations design. Also, the modernization and reconstruction of streets, especially around the main and crowded routes, should be placed in priority. In addition, as far as possible, the creation of large construction blocks which reduces the permeability of the tissue should be prevented.
    Keywords: Road network, Vulnerability, Emergency evacuation, Samen area in Mashhad
  • Fariba Karami, Maryam Bayati Khatibi, Ali Talebzadeh Shoushtari Pages 109-128
    IntroductionMedical tourism as one of the aspects of tourism contributing to the sustainable development and economic mobility of the country has been regarded as an important branch of health tourism in several countries, either developed or developing, over the past few years. In this form of tourism, many patients would travel to well-known and credible medical centers in developed countries or capitals which hold healthcare facilities, in order to receive treatments. Iran, as one of the developing countries, has also been engaged in a number of such actions in this field, over the past few years. The city of Mashhad has been selected as the region of the study due to a set of specific features this area contains; the presence of Imam Reza’s (AS) holy shrine in Mashhad is the main reason which attracts millions of fascinated pilgrims each year. On the other hand, the existence of well-equipped hospitals and medical centers in Mashhad has led to a considerable number of medical tourists seeking entry to the city. Moreover, train stations, intercity bus transportation system and the international airport are the additional means to which the accessibility of such tourists from all over Iran to medical centers located in Mashhad has been made easier.
    The main purpose of the study is to evaluate the extent of importance regarding the effective factors in choosing a destination for medical tourism from the perspective of domestic tourists followed by investigating the role of aforementioned factors in development of medical tourism in Mashhad. Separating the effective criteria and factors on development of medical tourism in Mashhad, as well as comparing the views of experts and domestic medical tourists related to the prioritization of such factors, are among the additional goals of this study.
    Theoretical FrameworkMedical tourism, as one of the branches in health tourism, has been developed through the past decade. In the beginning of the industry’s development, only a handful of hospitals in four or five particular countries have been prominent as a medical tourism destination; yet nowadays, hundreds of hospitals and clinics in more than 30 countries welcome this group of tourists as a destination of medical tourism. Basically, medical tourism can be defined as travelling for the purpose of receiving treatments regarding physical illness or different surgical operations under supervision of doctors in hospitals and medical centers. These individuals seek affordable treatments with high quality as well as access to treatment methods which are more suitable and diverse than what already exists in their cities or countries. Considering the high-income nature of this industry along with the reinforcement of healthcare and treatment structures, many countries have shown interest towards the development of this branch in tourism. In a study conducted by the United Nations in 2008, a set of features such as providing advanced facilities, high-quality and the low cost of treatment have been found as the most significant factors which attract patients in the field of medical tourism.
    MethodologyData collection in this study has been carried out using the library-internet approach. Also, in terms of the objective and data collection, the present research is an applied and descriptive survey study, respectively. In order to prioritize the effective factors on development of medical tourism in Mashhad from the perspective of medical tourists, a Friedman test has been carried out; on the other hand, a process technique has been used to prioritize said factors from the experts’ point of view. Furthermore, using Expert Choice (through AHP hierarchical analysis software) and calculating the passive statistical society formula, the extent of sample have been found to be 384, with 95% confidence level.
    In this study, a simple randomized approach has been used to distribute questionnaires. To ensure the validity of questionnaire in the present study, a logical validity analysis have been carried out which has been investigated and accepted according to the experts’ views. The reliability of questionnaire has also been evaluated using Cronbach’s Alpha formula. The result of Cronbach’s Alpha shows 0.821 which indicates the proper reliability of questionnaire.
    Research FindingsFrom the domestic medical tourists’ point of view, “advanced medical facilities and equipment”, “the skill and expertise of medical staff”, and “religious beliefs and opinions” are the first three priorities respectively, stated by tourists as reasons for selecting Mashhad as the place for receiving their treatments. “The skill and expertise of medical staff” has been selected by the experts as the most important factor for choosing Mashhad as the medical tourism destination. Other factors such as “medical facilities and equipment” and “distance” have occupied the next categories, respectively.
    Conclusions and SuggestionsGiven the importance of medical tourism in a national and international level, arranging a medical tourism strategic plan appears to be fairly useful in segregation of urban areas parallel to the country’s 20-year vision; moreover, considering this branch of tourism as the second priority after religious tourism can highly contribute to the development of medical tourism in Mashhad followed by a sustainable tourism development in the area.
    Keywords: AHP techniques, City of Mashhad, Domestic tourists, Friedman test, Medical tourism
  • Jahangir Heidari Pages 129-153
    IntroductionIn many cities of Iran, the injustice in the distribution of per capita municipal services is obvious. In the meantime, the city of Boushehr has been rapidly growing in terms of population and space, but the municipal services have not developed correspondingly in terms of development and distribution. This creates social inequalities among different areas of the city, and therefore, it has led to discontent in areas with fewer facilities, promotion of urban journeys and spatial displacement. Therefore, the identification of the population access to urban utilities and their distribution is among the most pressing issues examined in this study.
    Theoretical FrameworkAllocation and distribution of resources that people need have always been facing with an imbalance. Such imbalances have been partially observed in the urban areas. In the meantime, one of the most important resources that is not well distributed in the local dimensions in our country has been the public services in urban areas according to population distribution. Thus, one of the most important factors in reducing inequalities in urban areas is the proper distribution of utilities in different parts of the city which in turn reduces the relative problems and social and physical crises. On the other hand, there would be no need to move to other parts of the city, and thus, it has positive impact on various economic, social, and environmental aspects of the city and promotes the quality of the urban life.
    MethodThis analytical-descriptive study was done in Boushehr. The population was 6 districts of the city of Boushehr. In this study, the raw data were collected from library resources especially the comprehensive and detailed plan of Boushehr. The data included educational, cultural, social, health, tourism and catering, sports and recreation, parks and green spaces, urban equipment, commercial and municipal applications. Then, to study, analyze and compare the distribution of the use of service parameters, three models including standardized rating, location quotient (L, Q) and VIKOR (VIKOR) were separately and jointly used to rank them in the different areas. Excel software was used to prepare the tables. It is worth noting that Shannon entropy model was used in order for the weighting of indicators in VIKOR model..
    Research FindingsTo study the distribution of the service applications, three models including standardized rating, location quotient (L, Q) and VIKOR (VIKOR) were used. The standardized rating is a method for determining regional disparities and district ranking across regions, and shows the differences between regions. Location Quotient is used to identify the base in different areas and has special emphasis on the separation of basic and non-basic activities. VIKOR analytical model is based on collective performance and shows the closest option to the optimum and ideal point.
    Therefore, based on the findings of the standardized rating model, districts 2, 6, 4, 3 and 1, have been ranked as the first to the sixth respectively in terms of distribution of services. Based on the spatial coefficient, districts 2 and 5 have the first and the last place respectively. According to VIKOR, districts 2 and 4 have the most and the fewest utilities respectively. By combining the three models, district 2 has the highest level of services, and district 6 has the second rank in this regard. District 1 is in the third, and districts 3 and 4 are jointly the fourth, and district 5 has the last place.
    ConclusionThe investigation of the extent of inequality and the rating of the six districts of Boushehr in terms of all three per capita criteria, services tailored to the population and areas of services, and the average results of all three models showed that public services have not been distributed fairly among the districts of Boushehr. That is, district 2 and district 6 have the highest civil services. The main reason for the concentration of services in district 2 is the district's compliance with the city's commercial center. District 6 is separated from other 5 districts, and that is why it is considered as a semi-autonomous region in the Extensive Plan. However, one result of this uneven distribution of services is traveling towards the mentioned area within the city which is sometimes severe. Therefore, in urban planning and management, it is necessary to address spatial equity in the distribution of basic services in urban districts as an important component of the population and its needs.
    Keywords: Utilities, Spatial distribution, Spatial index, Standardized model, VIKOR, Boushehr
  • Ahmad Ansari Lari, Maryam Ansari Pages 155-173
    IntroductionNowadays you can rarely find areas on the earth surface which are not exposed to degradation and erosion and this is mainly due to population growth and excessive use of the land. The severity and extensity of erosion was not the same in different times and places, and it is related to the natural conditions, topography, soil characteristics, and status of land use. The phenomenon of soil erosion and sediment yield has created many problems in human society; accordingly, soil erosion is one of the most serious problems in developing countries and many developed countries now. Although it is not possible to stop the erosion geology, however, prevention and control of soil erosion is a basic need in the basins within the framework of utilization projects of water, soil, and watershed. One of the problems of erosion and sediment studies is the shortage of necessary data and information. This problem was more acute in developing countries and our country, Iran, is one of those countries that faces with this problem.
    Theoretical FrameworkGhale chay basin is located at the altitude of 37 ° 27' 44 to 37° 42' 25 N and longitude of 45° 54' 36 to 46° 20' 40 E. Ghale chay basin have caused replacement of various human centers due to its coverage with Ghale chay river alluvium, suitable soil, relatively enough water and appropriate environmental conditions that makes it inevitable to investigate the status of erosion and to prepare erosion intensity map in this region. Due to the complexity of the processes, lack of appropriate statistics and measurement stations, and also to facilitate the work, most of the time erosion and sedimentation studies are done using experimental methods in Iran. Therefore the purpose of this study is soil erosion and sediment yield modeling using RUSLE model and Geographic Information System (GIS) and also identification of erosion susceptible areas to perform soil and water conservation operations in Ghale chay basin.
    MethodologyIn this study, the amount of soil erosion has been studied in Ghale chay basin. To this purpose, the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) model has been adopted in Geographic Information System (GIS) technique framework that includes the R, K, LS, C, and P factors. To achieve the target, various documents, such as topographic maps with the scale of 1:50,000 including Hargalan sheet number 5265 III, Shiramin sheet number 5165II, Maragheh sheet number 5264IV, and Ajab Shir sheet number 5164I to perform analysis of topography, check slope and hydrographic network, elevation and quantitative analysis; geological maps of Azar Shahr, Osku, Ajab Shir and Maragheh with a scale of 1:100,000 for the stratigraphy, lithology, the nature of materials, geological structure, development stages etc., and also the rainfall data from weather stations around the basin and Digital Elevation Model (DEM) have been used. Average annual soil loss was calculated by multiplying the rainfall-runoff erosivity factor (R), soil erodibility factor (K), slope length and steepness factor (LS), cover management factor (C) and support practice factor (P) using intended model equation in Raster calculator extension in Arc GIS10.2.
    Results and DiscussionGhale chay basin has highly variable topography. This is determined with the range of zero to 10.32 of LS factor. Examining Rain Erosion (R) factor map in the basin indicated that this factor is variable from 3 to 3.71 MJ mm ha. The results also indicated that erosion in the northeast and southwest region under study has a decreasing and increasing trend, respectively. To prepare the C factor map land use and vegetation maps were used. This factor is variable from 0.04 to 0.45 that represents fairly well vegetation in the basin. To calculate the K factor the necessary information of geological map with the scale of 1: 100000 and soil layer were used. The average value of K factor is variable in the basin from 0.1 to 0.5.
    Conclusion and suggestionsEvaluation of soil erosion risk map shows that amount of risk soil erosion is variable in the plain from 0 to 2.225 tons per hectare per year. According to this map, the studied area was considered as a very low to low sedimentation class. The calculation results of sediment delivery ratio methods show that in the studied area the ratio of sediment delivery is variable from 0.08 to 0.29 and maximum sediment yield is variable from 0.19 to 0.64 tons per hectare per year. Finally, comparing the estimated total deposition in USDA method with the amount of the obtained in EPM model from the research study of Roostaei, Rasooli, and Ahmad Zadeh, shows the ability to integrate RUSLE and GIS models in estimating soil erosion and sediment load.
    Keywords: Soil erosion, RUSLE, GIS, Ghale chay basin
  • Emam Ali Asheri Pages 175-199
    IntroductionRural development has a multi-disciplinary nature with the intersection of Agriculture, social, behavioral and management sciences. In other words, rural development is a process with the ultimate goal of improving the standards of life for people of rural regions. The selection of appropriate statistical methods for rural development in each region needs to compare the different methods and select methods and models appropriate for the reality of the present situation.
    Theoretical FrameworkSo far there is no universally accepted definition of rural development. This term is used differently in different ways in many fields. As a concept, if development involves improving the quality of life of rural people, as a phenomenon, it can be under the influence of physical factors, technological, economic, and socio-cultural and institutional factors. Thus, rural development has been investigated from different points of view, and each of the experts has used a different method and approaches to rural development. These methods so far have been used inside and outside Iran in many studies. They include factor analysis, numerical taxonomy and AHP analysis. The scientific experts in different fields have investigated many different issues using these models. The result and outcome of all these models are to achieve unity through diversity and to maximize unity and homogeneity within the group's heterogeneity and different geographical groups.
    MethodThis is an applied research using descriptive-analytical method. The method for data collection is library and field methods have been used. For this purpose, various indicators including economic, infrastructure, social, health and cultural development indicators were extracted from the Statistical Yearbook of culture settlements. Then, a matrix of data with 35 rows of data (villages) and 22 columns (variables) was developed. In this study, 22 variables related to the index level of the infrastructure (water networks, electricity, gas, mail communications, paved road, distance to the main roads, implementation of the plans, home health), level of income (structure of employment in rural areas, the average annual income, number of households covered by the Relief and Welfare Organization, access to public and private transport, the level of household expenditure per year), level of social, cultural and political factors (population, number of households, population literate, mosque and Imam Jamaat, public library, elementary school, middle school, high school) were extracted from Yearbook 2011 under the title "culture of villages". This information was limited to 35 villages with a population of more than 100 people located in Oshnavieh plains. To ensure the reliability of the data, the collected date were controlled in terms of quantity and quality, and the statistical errors were corrected using data from the nearest rural health center.
    Findings and discussionOther studies and our inquiries showed that rural development is a complex process aimed at improving the standard of living of people in rural areas. For this purpose, you must first identify economic, social, cultural, and infrastructural sectors. In this study, the rate facilities in lowland villages with more than 100 people in Oshnavieh was investigated based on the economic, infrastructural, social, cultural and health indicators using the descriptive and comparative method. Thus, studies of factor analysis showed that the villages located in the first category including Amirabad, Tachin Abad and Nalivan had the most facilities and harmony, and villages located on the fourth category including 18 villages (51 percent of total villages) had the least facilities. Based on the taxonomy analysis, Amirabad, Tachin Abad and Nalivan respectively had coefficients (0.382, 0.379, and 0.291) had the most facilities and harmony, and the villages of Palieh, Doab, and Sardarreh had the least facilities. Furthermore, using AHP, it was also found that villages Montpellier, Doab, and Sardarreh had the least facilities.
    Conclusion and SuggestionsThe results of the comparative analysis showed that all three methods put the three mentioned villages in the first category. However, regarding the villages of the other categories, there were a few differences. Factor analysis had a better presentation of the truth in similar villages, and it was more precise compared to other villages. Accordingly, for planning and managing, the development of rural areas was proposed. Thus, according to the findings, the first research hypothesis was rejected. To prioritize the development of rural areas for the first hypothesis, the author suggests that to reduce rural deprivation, the results of the factor analysis method can be used as a standard for planners and policy makers. On the other hand, given that 8 villages near the city (23% of total villages) were among those with least amenities, the second hypothesis was not confirmed. So, the researcher suggests the second hypothesis to remove barriers. It should be taken into account for the formulation of programs and documents in the development of the city, especially the development of rural plains of Oshnavieh and distribution of resources and allocation of employment. It should be used as an instrument of government in providing infrastructure and investment for managers in rural, water resources and soil development.
    Keywords: Rural development, Factor analysis, Numerical taxonomy, Oshnavieh plain
  • Mehdi Hesam, Esmaeil Aghaeizadeh Pages 201-224
    IntroductionThe structure formed in cities throughout time and creation supporting elements of the cars in cities do not fit new urban approaches, and this issue has manifested more often in the cities of developing countries where overlapping pattern of tradition and modernity have been more pronounced. Somehow, these cities were not strong enough both in terms of walking or using vehicles. This inability is the result of social, economic, cultural, physical, and management features in these cities, which ultimately lead to a decrease in citizen's desire to walk in the urban space. It is therefore important to be aware of factors that decrease citizen's interest in walking in urban spaces. In the present study, we investigated this matter in Rasht, and various layers associated with it have been analyzed. As one of Iranian northern cities, Rasht is located in Guilan province. The city has a temperate climate and is considered as a tourist attraction point in the country. Its green environment as well as the climatic characteristics and attractive places and spaces are all among the potentials of the city in encouraging citizens to walk. In this study, we tried to investigate walking problems of citizens from various aspects and to determine the factor which has the greatest impact on decreasing the citizen's interest in walking in the city.
    Theoretical FrameworkGiven the purposes of urban planning, this study examines the issue of walking in cities. For this purpose, in the physical section, the major point of discussion is the compact city approach that pays particular attention to pedestrians. Since the purpose of this study is to identify bottlenecks of hiking for Rasht citizens, given the non-physical purposes of urban planning in social, economic, cultural dimensions, grounded theory is used to determine physical and non-physical bottlenecks.
    MethodTo identify barriers to walking in Rasht in the present study, grounded theory method is used. Grounded Theory is a qualitative research method to study social processes in human interaction. This method was developed by Glaser and Strauss (1967) and is rooted in symbolic interaction interpretation school. This research method is a field method that investigates and describes phenomena in their natural contexts. It involves a five-step process: first stage is the research design (i.e., technical literature review and selecting items); second stage is data collection; the third stage is setting data and writing items and concepts; the fourth stage is analyzing the data (the major section), and the fifth stage is designing and validating the model. By research design, we mean questions and scope of research. Based on purposeful and theoretical sampling, 430 residents were selected as sample. Techniques used for data collection focused on semi-structured interviews and field observations. The interviews went so far as theoretical saturation was reached.
    Findings and discussionThe results of open coding, as the first stage of analysis of collected data, included 117 codes extracted from interviews with immigrants. Sixteen concepts were announced from denoting codes, and other codes were directly taken from the interviewee's verbal report. At this stage of the scientific coding, several broad categories were identified by analysis of data and concepts, and accordingly, 19 broad categories were formed. In selective coding phase, via a cohesive process, the main categories were elected. In this study, according to the results of broad categories, seven major categories including influential factors related to social, cultural, physical, personal and natural issues together with management, facilities and rules have been detected.
    Conclusion and suggestionsVarious factors account for challenges faced by pedestrians in urban spaces. After the formation of these factors they interact internally and enforce one another, and as a result, they jeopardize walking planning in cities. As the study showed, Rasht, despite having high potential for urban walkability, has failed to make citizens tend to walk in the city due to problems in various dimensions. These problems are derived from a variety of plausible and abstract sources, sometimes manifested in real forms and sometimes in the mind of the citizens. All in all, there are two sets of objective and subjective factors that cause barriers for the people to walk or at least reduce their walking route. In general, basic challenges Rasht citizens face for walking in the city are majorly influenced by various social, cultural, physical, personal and natural management, facilities and constitutional factors. All of these factors can be categorized to influential factors and confounding conditions. Features of the city and citizens, and conditions affecting the citizen's lack of desire to walk play a role respectively in the former and latter.
    Keywords: Walking, Walkability, Grounded Theory, Rasht
  • Davood Jamini, Abbas Amini, Hamed Ghadermarzi, Jafar Tavakkoli Pages 225-246
    IntroductionBased on estimations by FAO, about 98% of the people around the world who face food insecurity and undernourishment live in developing countries, and a majority of them are from Asia and Oceania. Furthermore, the maximum ratio of undernourishment is seen in Sub-Saharan African countries. Since the majority of the citizens in developing countries live in rural areas, improving the level of food security of rural families is an important aim in developing countries. Studies reveal that the severity of food insecurity in rural communities is more than urban spots even though rural households are expected to have full access to foodstuff, regarding the type and amount, as food producers and providers.
    Current conditions of the world suggest that in spite of the diversity of climatic conditions and increased productivity, the production and processing of various products, and significant economic and social advances, especially in the previous half-century, many parts of the world encounter food insecurity and malnutrition due to various reasons including extreme environmental degradation, climatic changes in addition to drought and lack of water, the rapid growth of population, low agricultural productivity, the lack of sustainable policies regarding food security, restricted access to infrastructures and basic services, civil wars, the instability of the macro-economic environment as well as the unsuitable policies of governments and, recently, the severe fluctuation of foodstuff and products.
    Theoretical FrameworkFood insecurity is among the most important obstacles against community development whose physical, psychological, and social destructive effects in addition to its threat to prosperity is proven. Therefore, the problems caused by the weakness in food security and food crisis are always a notable issue for governments and a subject of study for academic circles.
    The consequences of food insecurity mostly threaten developing countries, especially their rural communities. Food availability and food security provision has been really insisted in the policies and programs of the economic development of Iran, as a developing country, between 1989 and 2005. Based on the registered reports in Iran, more than 80 percent of foodstuff is produced by the rural communities. The results of different studies show that food security of villagers in Iran, as the main suppliers of foodstuff in the country, is in a bad condition, and in the best case scenario, more than half of the rural population is in an unsafe food condition.
    MethodologyIn terms of the essence and aim, the current study is quantitative and descriptive-analytical, respectively; in terms of the ability to control variables and data collection, the study is non-empirical and a field study, respectively. Generally, the study aims at assessing the situation of food security and detecting the factors affecting it among the farmers in the central part of the city of Ravansar. The time period of the study is single sectional and the required data was collected in the autumn. The statistical population of the study consisted of all the agricultural households’ heads (n=3238) in the central part of the city of Ravansar. Owing to the financial and time limits as well as inaccessibility to all the members of the population under investigation, 180 household heads were selected as the sample through Cochran formula.
    Results and DiscussionThe findings of the study revealed that 21.1 percent of people studied have food security while 78.9 percent are experiencing different levels of food insecurity (no starvation, moderate starvation or severe starvation). Moreover, the results of multivariate regression revealed that 75.4 percent of the variable variance is as follows in the order of importance:Land quality, access to credits, ownership of capital resources, an economic-social base, family size and contingency events; additionally, two variables of family size and contingency events with ratios of – 0.143 and – 0.135, respectively, have negative effects on food security of farmers.
    Conclusion and SuggestionsDeprivation of rural areas in proportion to urban areas in developing countries, especially in Iran, is not limited to poor access to health, therapeutic, welfare, educational, and service facilities, job opportunities, and so on; regarding food security, which is one of the international development indices, rural areas are in poor conditions compared to urban ones. This is the result of the challenges and obstacles in the development of food security in the rural areas of the countries.
    In order to improve food security within the area investigated in this study, improving the components of land quality, accessibility to credits, ownership of capital resources, and economic-social bases must be the priorities in future planning. Furthermore, due to the negative impact of two indices of family size and contingency events in food security, population reduction policies and villagers’ abilities to encounter costly factors as well as contingency events, such as disease and divorce, must be reduced to minimum.
    Keywords: Food security, Rural areas, Farmers, Ravansar county