فهرست مطالب

فنون ادبی - سال نهم شماره 2 (پیاپی 19، تابستان 1396)
  • سال نهم شماره 2 (پیاپی 19، تابستان 1396)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1396/06/01
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • لیلا کردبچه *، حسین آقاحسینی، سید مرتضی هاشمی صفحات 1-16
    هنجارگریزی از زبان معیار، انحراف از قوانین حاکم بر همنشینی واژه ها، افزودن قاعده هایی به برونه زبان معیار، به هم ریختن نحو جمله ها و دخل وتصرف در ساختمان دستوری زبان معمول و متعارف، مجموعه روش هایی است که اغلب شاعران برای برجسته سازی زبان از آن بهره می برند. این برجسته سازی ها به شکل هنجارگریزی هایی صورت می گیرد که خود انواع گوناگونی دارد؛ چون هنجارگریزی نحوی، که کاربردهای خاص صفت، زیرمجموعه آن قرار می گیرد. صفت که نقشی فرعی در ساختمان جمله دارد، به دلیل انعطاف پذیری بالا، همواره بستر مناسبی برای دخل وتصرف شاعران بوده و هنجارشکنی های شاعران در این حوزه، به ویژه در شعر معاصر، تنوعی چشمگیر در کاربرد صفات ایجاد کرده است.در این پژوهش، با بررسی گونه های انحراف از قوانین حاکم بر کاربرد انواع صفت در شعر معاصر، به اهمیت صفتدر هنجارگریزی پرداختیم. افزون بر آن، نقش صفت را نیز در غنای دستاوردهای زبانی شعر فارسی بررسی کردیم، و همچنین نشان دادیم که اغلب گونه های هنجارگریزی در ساختمان صفات، در ادبیات قدیم اعم از نظم و نثر سابقه دارد و این نوع دخل وتصرف ها، عملا رویکردی به سازه های زبانی کهن محسوب می شود.
    کلیدواژگان: زبان معیار، زبان شعر، هنجارگریزی، هنجارگریزی نحوی، صفت
  • صفیه توکلی مقدم *، فاطمه کوپا صفحات 17-32
    تحلیل ساختاری زمان، یکی از رویکردهای جدید در حوزه نقد ادبی به حساب می آید که دریافتی جامع از ابعاد زیبایی شناختی و نظام نحوی حاکم بر داستان ها ارائه می کند. ژنت از جمله نظریه پردازانی است که با تاکید بر عنصر زمان، به بررسی مناسبات و روابط زمانی در متون روایی بر اساس مفاهیم نظم، تداوم و بسامد می پردازد. این جستار در پی آن است که با بررسی آخرین رمان احمد محمود، «درخت انجیر معابد» بر اساس نظریه ژنت، چگونگی ساختار زمانی در این روایت را با شیوه ای تحلیلی- استنباطی واکاوی کند.برآیند این واکاوی نشان می دهد که نویسنده با بنانهادن طرح روایت بر ساختاری غیرخطی، داستانی مدرن خلق می کند که عنصر زمان در آن نقشی اساسی دارد. تداعی های آگاه یا نیمه آگاه، منطبق با مولفه های جریان سیال ذهن که از طریق همسانی مکانی یا کلامی روی می دهد، موجب بازگشت های مکرر زمانی به گذشته می شود. کارکرد اغلب این گذشته نگری ها، رفع پیچیدگی متن، اشاره به گذشته اشخاص و یا بازگشایی گره های داستانی است. بررسی تداوم داستان نشان می دهد نویسنده به خصوص در زمان گذشته، داستان را با شتاب به پیش می برد و به اقتضای طرح داستان، گاه با حذف و تلخیص بر سرعت روایت می افزاید، گاهی با صحنه نمایشی و توصیف، به تفصیل رویدادها را شرح می دهد. انواع بسامد مفرد، مکرر و بازگو در داستان کارکرد دارد و کانون روایت، سوم شخص و دانای کل است.
    کلیدواژگان: درخت انجیرمعابد، روایت، زمان، ژنت
  • امیدوار عالی محمودی*، سید مهدی نوریان، محمد فشارکی صفحات 33-52
    قرآن برای مسلمانان همواره سرچشمه الهام و بزرگ ترین مکتب برای پرورش مومنان و جویندگان حقیقت بوده است. ظاهر و باطن قرآن سرشار از زیبایی ها و رازهایی است که به فراخور استعداد و فهم متوسلان بدان، رخ می نماید. عارفان و شاعران، برای بیان یافته های خود، از کلام قرآن شاهدانی آورده اند که جلوه آن در آیینه سخن تماشایی است. امیرخسرو دهلوی شاعر عارف مسلک پارسی گوی سرزمین هند یکی از کسانی است که شعر او، با الهام از قرآن، ارزش والایی یافته است. بررسی پرتوها و اشارات قرآنی در مثنوی نه سپهر او کمک می کند تا روند شکل گیری زبان اشارات قرآنی در ادب فارسی را بهتر بشناسیم، به ویژه اینکه او از مسلمانان پارسی گوی در شبه قاره هند بوده است و به یکی از سلسله های بزرگ صوفیه، یعنی طریقه چشتیه، منسوب است. این مقاله با هدف معرفی ابعاد قرآنی این اثر و آشنایی علاقه مندان با آثار ادبی الهام گرفته از وحی الهی و احادیث نبوی فراهم آمده است.
    کلیدواژگان: امیرخسرو دهلوی، مثنوی نه سپهر، تلمیحات قرآنی، احادیث نبوی، اقتباس
  • تیمور مالمیر *، چنور زاهدی صفحات 53-66
    این مقاله به واکاوی ساختار روایی و شیوه خاص روایتگری در رمان بعد از پایان فریبا وفی پرداخته است. وی از داستان نویسان پرکار عصر ماست که از اولین رمان وی پرنده من تا کنون دغدغه او کاستن از گرفتاری های زنان در اجتماع بوده است. رمان بعد از پایان، آخرین رمان اوست که همچنان به مسائل زنان می پردازد، اما برای تاثیر بیشتر داستان در جامعه و متناسب با اوضاع زمان، علاوه بر انتخاب موضوع از روش، طرح، نشانه و نحوه روایتگری خاصی استفاده کرده است. در این مقاله، بر اساس روایت شناسی تودوروف به تحلیل پیوند درونمایه، طرح و نحوه روایتگری این رمان پرداخته ایم. کنش و واکنش شخصیت ها تلاش برای بازیابی و از نو ساختن هویت زنان است. طرح داستان مبتنی بر تناظر است که به مشکلات اجتماعی و خانوادگی زنان می پردازد. ژرف ساخت داستان نیز این است که تناظر، مبنا و لازمه تداوم زندگی است. مشخصه اصلی سبک نویسنده پیوند خاص زمان و روایت است. به همین سبب، گزاره های بسیاری از رمان به تکرار و مرور گذشته ها و خاطره های راوی تعلق دارد. نام و درونمایه رمان مبتنی بر این آرزو است که زندگی واقعی بر مداری از عشق استوار شود؛ عشقی که در دوره جدید و متناسب با وضعیت زندگی عصر حاضر باشد. وضعیت زنان در زمان حال بهتر از وضعیت آنها در عهد قدیم است. با وصف این وضعیت، فرهنگ زنانه لازمه بهبود روابط انسانی معرفی شده است.
    کلیدواژگان: تناظر، درونمایه، روایتگری، زمان، زن، مهاجرت
  • علی اکبر باقری خلیلی*، روجا آدینه پور باقری صفحات 67-82

    واژه مشتق در دستورهای مبتنی بر نظریه ساختاری آن است که از یک تکواژ آزاد و دست کم یک وند ساخته شده باشد. بر اساس این نظریه، پایه واژه کلمات مشتق الزاما فعلی نیست و می تواند اسمی و وصفی و... نیز باشد. همچنین، وند می تواند مقوله/نوع و معنای واژه را تغییر دهد و چندمعنایی پدید آورد. چندمعنایی یعنی یک واژه از چند معنی برخوردار باشد و می تواند در سطح تکواژ، واژه، گروه و جمله بررسی شود. انتقال معنا، هنرآفرینی و کاربرد ویژه از مهم ترین علل پیدایش چند معنایی اند. پسوند «ین» از پسوندهای زایا و فعال زبان فارسی است که با ساختن واژگان اشتقاقی، چندمعنایی پدید می آورد. نوع واژگان مشتق از پسوند «ین» غالبا صفت نسبی است و بنابراین، در جایگاه صفت می نشینند و معانی شان وابسته به همنشین، یعنی موصوف آنهاست. واژگان مذکور گاهی تحت تاثیر همنشینی معنایی، جانشین موصوف می شوند و تغییر مقوله، انتقال و افزایش معنایی را سبب می گردند. هنرآفرینی از دیگر کارکردهای واژگان اشتقاقی با پسوند «ین» برای انتقال معنا و عامل دیگر پیدایش چندمعنایی است که افزون بر کاربرد واژگان به شکل استعاری و مجازی، به صورت آرایه های استخدام، ای هام، تضاد و جناس نیز نمود پیدا می کند.

    کلیدواژگان: پسوند ین، چندمعنایی، انتقال معنا، هنرآفرینی
  • اکبر صیادکوه، حسن دست موزه* صفحات 83-102
    افصح المتکلمین، سعدی شیرازی، از بزرگ ترین ارکان ادب پارسی است. بخشی از صیت و شهرت سعدی در گرو سعدی نامه یا همان بوستان است که از مثنوی های اخلاقی برجسته و باارزش حوزه زبان و ادب پارسی است. این کتاب بی مانند،زبان سخته و پیراسته ای دارد که نظر هر مخاطبی را به خود جلب می کند. این میزان از شایستگی در گرو شگردهای هنری و زبانی فراوانی است که شیخ اجل به کار بسته است. از ویژگی های دستوری آن، استفاده گسترده از جمله ها ی مرکب است. در جمله های مرکب، به جای نقش های دستوری مفرد، جمله پیرو به کار می رود. جمله های پیرو از لحاظ معنا از مفردات غنی ترند؛ زیرا وجود فعل در آنها موجب انتقال مفهوم، وجه، زمان و شخص به مخاطب می شود که افزونی توصیف گری و تحرک و پویایی کلام را در پی دارد. در این پژوهش که کاملا جنبه آماری دارد، 1100 بیت از بوستان را به عنوان جامعه آماری از متن برگزیده و از دیدگاه «کارکردهای جمله های مرکب» بررسی کرده ایم. مبانی نظری و تعاریف اصطلاحات را از دستور زبان فارسی، تالیف دکتر حسن انوری و دکتر حسن احمدی گیوی، برگرفته ایم. بر اساس مهم ترین نتایج به دست آمده، در بوستان کاربرد جمله های مرکب به مراتب بیش از جمله های ساده است؛از میان آنها، جمله هایی که از پایه و یک پیرو ساخته شده اند، بسامد بیشتری دارند که معمولا هر کدام در یک مصراع به کار می روند؛ در بیشتر جمله های مرکب، پایه بر پیرو مقدم شده است؛ جمله های پیرو بیشتر در نقش غیراصلی به کار رفته است.
    کلیدواژگان: زبان سعدی، بوستان، جمله مرکب، پایه، پیرو
  • فردین حسین پناهی*، سید اسعد شیخ احمدی صفحات 103-118
    پساساختارگرایان، به ویژه دریدا، با تکیه بر فرآیندها و سازوکارهایی چون تعویق، فاصله، رد (trace) و غیریت، به نقد تقابل های دوگانه و رویکردهای مبتنی بر متافیزیک پرداخته اند. با وجود تاکید پساساختارگرایی بر سازوکارها و رهیافت های خاص خود، با تبیین ژرف ساخت های نظری پساساختارگرایی (و به ویژه آرای دریدا) می توان به نقش بنیادین استعاره و کارکردهای استعاری در تکوین مبانی نظری آن پی برد. در این مقاله، به دنبال اثبات این مسئله هستیم که پساساختارگرایی در اصل بر مبنای سرشت استعاری زبان شکل گرفته است و مبانی نظری و روش شناختی آن نیز ملهم از سازوکارهای «استعاره» و «کارکرد استعاری» است. از سوی دیگر، این مسئله مبنایی برای نقد پساساختارگرایی است. نتایج این پژوهش، کارکردهای دیگری از «استعاره» در تکوین نظام فکری و شناختی بشر را نشان می دهد؛ چنان که استعاره (و کارکرد استعاری) نقش تعیین کننده ای در تکوین مبانی نظری پساساختارگرایی به ویژه آرای دریدا داشته است. دریدا با تکیه بر سرشت استعاری زبان، به دنبال گسستن ریشه های متافیزیکی نشانه بود، اما با توجه به هیمنه گسترده و عمیق معارف و مفاهیم متافیزیک، رویکرد دریدا، به رغم خواست او، در نهایت به عرصه متافیزیک بازگشته است؛ همچنان که نتایج این تحقیق تاثیرپذیری دریدا از آرای ابن میمون، متکلم معروف یهودی، را نشان می دهد.
    کلیدواژگان: زبان، استعاره، مرکز، پساساختارگرایی، دریدا
  • حمیدرضا فرضی، فرناز فخیمی فاریابی* صفحات 119-132
    ریخت شناسی قصه های عامیانه در سال 1928م. با فرمالیست روسی «ولادیمیر پراپ» آغاز شد . اساس کار وی بر پایه اعمال شخصیت های قصه نهاده شده است و در سال های اخیر ، یکی از شیوه های رایج در تحلیل ساختاری قصه ها بوده است . در این مقاله ، منظومه گل و نوروز بررسی شده که از جمله قصه های پرماجرا و مهیج زبان فارسی است و موضوع آن تلاش و جست وجوی نوروز برای به دست آوردن معشوقش گل است . برای این منظور، ابتدا مقدمه ای درباره تعریف و تبیین ریخت شناسی ، پیشینه تحقیق و معرفی گل و نوروز مطرح شده، سپس قصه براساس الگوی پراپ، مانند وضعیت آغازین ، غیبت ، کسب خبر و... تجزیه و تحلیل شده است . این پژوهش بیانگر این است که گل و نوروز تا حدود زیادی ویژگی قصه های عامیانه را داراست و الگوی ساختاری موافق با الگوی پراپ به دست آمده است .
    کلیدواژگان: ریخت شناسی، ساختار، پراپ، گل و نوروز، خواجوی کرمانی
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  • Leila Kordbache *, Hossein Aghahosseini, Seyedmorteza Hashemi Pages 1-16
    Deviation from the norm, deviation from the rules that governing on the syntagmatic relations of the words, adding the rules on the standard language, displace in parts of sentence, and manipulating in accepted structure of grammar, are collection of methods that most poets use, for arriving to the language of poetry. Principally, use of methods in language that focuses on language instead of message creates foregrounding in language of poetry. Foregrounding in language of poetry, takes shape in two kinds of deviation and extra-regularity, and deviation, takes shape with displace and manipulating in parts of different areas of grammar. Adjective that has a secondary role in the structure of sentence, is so flexible, and has suitable context for deviation. Different deviations in this area, especially in contemporary poetry, create significant variety in application of adjective.
    In this article, examining deviation of adjective's structure rules in contemporary literature, we have discussed importance of adjective as unessential grammatical component in deviation. In addition, we have shown flexibility of adjective to acceptance of deviation, and reviewed its impact on richness of language in Persian poetry. On the other hand, we have shown that most of deviation types in adjective structure, had been available in past literature (poetry and prose), for this reason, past literature considered as a treasures of language structures.
    Adjectives are groups of words, which describe nouns and determine one or more of their characteristics such as their state, number or amount, etc. In fact, adjectives are so important that some scholars believe that they are more important than simile, metonymy and metaphor. Moreover, they state that the best way to express an image is via using adjectives. Furthermore, some have written about the structure of adjectives, which are being investigated grammatically using two different approaches: Firstly, adjectives are investigated as one of the seven parts of speech. Secondly, they are investigated within linguistic contexts, i.e. sentences. The present paper attempts to study some frequent adjective constructions, which deviate from standard linguistic rules, so that they cause defamiliarization in the poetic language.
    In this paper, investigating the deviations from rules in the use of adjectives in contemporary poetry, we have considered the role of adjectives as a dependent one, which indicates the importance of other dependent roles in the syntactic construction of the Persian language. Moreover, investigating deviations from the rules of the standard language in case of adjective constructions emphasizes the flexibility of adjectives in bringing about types of deviations. This indicates the fact that how much manipulating the construction of this dependent can add up to its functional variety, increase its capabilities in the syntactic construction of the sentences, and lead to great linguistic achievements in Persian poetic language.
    In this research, we analysed types of deviations in the use of adjectives such as ‘comparative adjectives’, ‘phrasal adjectives’, ‘negative adjectives’ and their subcategories in contemporary poetry. However, via introducing examples of these deviations in classical poetry, we emphasized the existence of such strategies in the history of Persian literature to indicate that using this strategy in contemporary poetry is not innovative, but it’s restructuring classical linguistic constructions.
    That poets have paid special attention to the manipulation of adjective constructions indicates the importance of adjectives in foregrounding the language. Studying deviations from the rules of language in adjective constructions, which had existed in classical poetry as well, shows that some contemporary poets have been aware of linguistic achievements of the classical literature. Moreover, this is an indication of the existence of rich inventories of linguistic achievements in the classical poetry. Knowing these achievements can enrich contemporary poetry as well, especially, when this can increase the domain of foregrounding in language to give the chance to the poet to foreground the language from various dimensions.
    Keywords: standard language, language of poetry, deviation, syntactic deviation, adjective
  • Safieh Tavakkoli Moghaddam *, Fatemeh Koupa Pages 17-32
    Time is one of the important elements of the story that Genette surveys, emphasizing on its importance, and narrative structure of the story in the frame of concepts order, duration and frequency. Current study is a survey with modeling of Genette theory, the lastest novel by Ahmad Mahmoud with analytical-descriptive method. This survey shows the narrative stating author associated with the movement of events in time and he has could show with overcoming of element of time new techniques of writing story in his works. In “Derakhte Anjir Maabed” novel such as modern novels, the plot begins from the middle story and author from beginning throuth mental associations of characters, disrupts the logical order of events and makes narrative indirect. The central association of narrative in style of the stream of consciousness stories, in addition to breaking time borders, leads to the early realist narrative toward the imajinary and surrealistic fiction. More associations have a semi-conscious state or unconscious and appear to form improvisational through expression one word or similarity of position and sometimes are near into the realm of interior monologue or surrealism. Reapeted Heteradiegetic Analepsis associated with function refers to last person, resolves text complexity and reopens story nodes. Because of the special structure of story that insists on Analepsis, see less Prolepsis and Prolepsis appears only in scope of expression in the wishes of persons story and their idealism.
    Function of prolepsis is creating a kind of suspense in story and speeding up the narrative text. Analysis of the Duration in "Derakhte Anjir Maabed" expresses this point that author with narrative ten-year time span in thousands of pages, speedily continues the tale especially in past time. The general duration of the story is 3/6. The author anywhere sees necessary speeding up in narrative with summary, some times in detail to events and turned to scene and description. He goes into detailed writing in description of persons, objects and places that all these create decelerating in the story. Sometimes he describes only a narrow perspective of characters and space of story, sometimes shows to reader internal dimensions of mind characters and intellectual concerns in the form of interior monologue. Frequent reapetions in different narrative levels and references to unnecessary events that lead structure story from reality to imagination damage the analepsis. In this story, among the kinds of frequency, singulative frequency is too much. “Derakhte Anjir Maabed” novel is narrated from third-person point of view and narrative focus is kind of zero focalization. The author selects third-person and omniscient view to overlook the story and say whatever he wants or is necessary through the narrative's characters and events.
    Keywords: Derakhte Anjir Maabed, narrative, time, Genette, order, duration, frequency
  • Omidvar Alimahmoudi *, Sayyed Mahdi Nourian, Mohammad Fesharaki Pages 33-52
    The Quran has always been the fountain of inspiration for Muslims and the greatest school of education for the believers and truth-seekers. Quran is outwardly and inwardly full of beauties and mysteries which manifest themselves according to the disposition and understanding of those who appeal to it. To express their understanding, mystics and poets have often cited Quran and it is mirrored in their words impressively as it is. One such poet is Amir Khusro Dehlawi, the Indian-born Persian mystic-poet, whose poetry is valued as inspired by the Quran. The evaluation of the Quranic light and allusions in his "Noh Sepehr Mathnavi” helps better understand the formation of Quranic allusions in the Persian literature.
    Keywords: Amir Khusro Dehlawi, Noh Sepehr Mathnavi, Quranic allusions, Hadith Nabawi, adaptation
  • Teymoor Malmir *, Chonor Zahedi Pages 53-66
    Feriba Vafi is a hard working novelist of our time. Her first novel was ‘My bird’ has been worried to alleviate the plight of women in the society. In her last novel by the name of ‘bad az payan’ she deals with women issue continuously. But to intensify the effective ness of the story in the community and proper to time condition besides the choice of subject, she has used plot, signs and particular way of telling narrative. In this paper based on the account of Todorov analyzes we study the thematic link, plot and the way of telling narrative. The actions and reactions of characters in the novel ‘bad az payan’ represent an attempt, consciously or unconsciously, more or less, to recover and to reconstruct women’s identity. The plot reflectively addresses the social and partly the familial problems of the community of women. In this novel, the journey leitmotif serves to portray a departure to independence, knowledge and a better life; yet the problems persist and the journey continues, a journey which is associated with solitude and disorderliness. Notwithstanding, the journey is an ‘evasion, as the journey of the characters of the novel is represented as an evasion, in one way or another. Men and women set out the journey hoping to find a better situation, leaving a self-made bitter situation. The narration of Shahrzad in ‘hezar-o yek shab’ has dramatically influenced this novel in terms of such elements of narration as the use of subplots, multiple narrators, which serve to highlight narration as opposed to verbose ‘story-telling’ with which men identify women. That is to say, the type of narration invoked by women is distinct from that of men; this distinction, on the one hand, represents an old style which has bolstered the retention and survival of women, on the other, it represents a mockery towards the masculine world. It, therefore, implies that the reason why women have adopted a narrative discourse is because of their predisposition to bring about a change in their lives.
    The narration is structured as follows: 1. the present incidents, 2. the narrator’s thoughts and reveries, 3. the memory of past events by the narrator, 4. narration of past events to the narratee, 5. narration of the narratee’s past events, 6. narrator’s conjecture about the other’s mind. The narration of these six components is based on a combination of three tenses: Past events that are being reviewed
    The present recurrence of past events
    The narration of the two former narratives
    The characteristic feature of the author’s style is the particular combination of time and narration. That is why an abundant number of propositions in this novel belongs in the narrator’s memory of past events and the recurrence thereof.
    The plot of the narrative revolves around correspondence; correspondence, which is the essence of life, ultimately turns into identity following a sequence of conflicts. Identity signifies ‘an end’; as long as there is correspondence, there is life, however, in the course of suffering or sickness, identity looms in. The deep structure of the narrative is that, for its continuity, life is contingent on correspondence. When there is a death or an end, there is no correspondence, and this serves to signify the fact that correspondence underlies life. This is reminiscent of love which ends with union, though it begins with an enthusiasm and affection which get intensified in the face of stumbling blocks and problems. The title and the theme of the novel is based on the desire to found a real life on love, a type of love which is congruent with the current age and lifestyle. The breaks and unions in the narrative are based on old-fashioned love traditions which doomed to failure; while the new age entails a new perspective on the love relations. The title serves to highlight the same theme. Love in past ages was a pioneering affair on the part of men, and this has been portrayed in the novel as an ephemeral emotion which recalls a master-slave or boss-employer system. At its face value, this status quo has only given rise to masculine heroes, a heroism which has resulted but in vagrancy and disorderliness. Heroic ethics have downgraded in this novel; there is no hero, but a character. Past heroes are alluded to but their heroism is displayed as detriment to the lives of the heroes that is why heroes regret their actions. As for women, their current status is represented as much better than the past. Notwithstanding, feminine culture is considered to be crucial to the amelioration of human relations.
    Keywords: Correspondence, Emigration, leitmotif, Narration, time, women
  • Aliakbar Bagheri Khalili *, Roja Adinepour Bagheri Pages 67-82

    Derivational word, based on the structural theory, is made up of a free morpheme and at least an affix. Based on this theory, the root of the derived word is not necessarily verbal; it can be a nominal or adjectival, etc. Furthermore, an affix can change the category and the meaning of the word and create polysemy. A polysemy is a linguistic unit having multiple meanings (Safavid, 1390: 111). Polysemy is studied in different levels such as morpheme, word, phrase and sentence; and conveying meaning, special usage and aesthetic aspect are some of the reasons of polysemy (Ibid: 111, 113). Polysemy in syntactic level means that “morphemes induce different functions or meanings with different units while they are placed in syntagmatic axis” (Ibid). Polysemy in this study is mainly of the tense type and the unit to be studied is the morpheme (-ین) in Farsi which will be considered in syntagmatic axis. 1. Lexical Meaning The morpheme (ین-) in Persian language is one of the suffixes which is annexed to parts of speech such noun, adverb, adjective, pronoun and even verb. In some of these cases, the category of word changes and in some it remains unchanged. One of the discussions about the derivational suffix (ین-) is word-formation and semanticization to lexemes. Suffix (ین-) is substituted in the adjective position functions as semanticization not conveying meaning. Some of the most important sorts of semanticization can be cited as follows: 1) Material: Suffix (ین-) is mostly used to indicate the material of the substantive or the noun substituted by it, such as ‘ahanin’ and ‘charmin’. 2) Tense: Suffix (ین-) sometimes is used to indicate time proportion such as ‘emroozin’, ‘dooshin’, and ‘emsalin’. 3. Ordinal: Suffix (ین-) in some case is the sign of ordinal adjective such as ‘avvalin’, ‘dovvomin’, ‘nakhostin’, and ‘akharin’. 4. Similarity: One of the semantic functions of suffix (ین-) is similarity. It can be considered in different aspects: 1) Similarity in Color: the words derived from suffix (ین-) indicate different colors considering contextual conditions such as ‘bossadin’, ‘aghighin’, ‘meshkin’, and ‘anbarin’ 1) Similarity in Nature: sometimes the purpose of using derivational adjectives from suffix (ین-) is to create natural similarity between adjective and substantive such as ‘ahanin’ and ‘rooin’ sometimes indicate hardness and impenetrability rather than material 3) Similarity in Smell and Scent like ‘anbarin’ or similarity in taste and flavor like ‘shakarin’ and ‘shirin’. 5. Weakness and Debility: one of the points which must be considered in studying the semantics of derived words from suffix (ین-) is the significativeness based on the sentence context. For example, the adjective ‘barfin’ in the compound ‘shire barfin’ , although it means ‘made of’ snow, it here does not refer to the material but it functions as an adjective. It is attributed to the weakness and debility of ‘snow’ which gives the concept of weakness and debility to its substantive ‘shir’. It is the same as in the compounds of ‘tanesofalin’ and ‘kaghazindivar’ 6. Implication and Mixture / participle: the derived suffix of (ین-) sometimes signifies the concept of implication and mixture and grammatically it is considered as participle such as ‘khoonin’ in ‘tire khoonin’ or ‘meshkin’ in ‘meshkinghobar’. 7. Possession: Some of the relative adjectives with the suffix (ین-) indicate the concept of ‘subject’ and in such cases the possessor of the adjective is a state or phenomenon such as ‘ghamin’, ‘khashmginand, and ‘rashkin’. 8. Noun Thing: Suffix (ین-) hardly makes a noun thing added to an imperative verb. For example, ‘koobin’ means made of wood by which in the past the launderers beat the dirty clothes to be washed. 2. Transmission of Meaning Transmission of meaning as one of reasons of existence of polysemy “actually is a kind of semantic extension and Olman believes that they are usually manifested in adjectives. For a linguistic form, they find different meanings because of syntagmatic structures with other forms which at first they are fully dependent on syntagmatic forms and then they find different meanings for speakers” (Safavi, 1390: 114, 247). Therefore, meaning transmission and semantic extension in derived words with suffix (ین-) occur when the derived word loses its position and participial function in the syntagmatic axis, replaced the noun and accepts its functions and roles. For example, in Persian language the word ‘negarin’ is a relative adjective in paradigmatic axis and in some cases it rests in the position of adjective in syntagmatic axis and its meaning is dependent on noun such as ‘negaringolshan’. But it sometimes substitutes the noun under the influence of semantic association, and transfers the meaning of substantive to it. In this way, one of the meanings of ‘negarin’ in pure Persian is ‘sweetheart’ and it has been so established in semantic extension that ‘mashoogh’ has turned into one of the real meanings of it and its usage with substantive is not common. 3. Rhetorical Figures Applying rhetorical figures is one of the functions of derived words with suffix (ین-) to convey meaning and another reason for existing of polysemy and in addition to using words, it is appeared in metaphoric and figurative forms, syllepsis, equivoque, oxymoron and zeugma.

    Keywords: Suffix “-ین”, Polysemy, meaning transfer, figurative use
  • Akbar Sayadkooh, Hasan Dastmouzeh * Pages 83-102
    Saadi not only changed the structure of the words but also he changed the structure of the sentences and he made the poems understandable for the public. (He linked the poem to the language of the public. From the point of the structure of the sentences Boustan is unique among Saadi’s Poems. The most important reason of Saadi’s fluency and his attractive speech is in the order of the words. There is no way to understand the beauty of Saadi’s speech except scientific studying of his poems. The writers tried to study Boustan from the point of compound sentences and decided to know the way of the usage of the compound sentences in Boustan. You can answer this question by scientific study and using the numbers and statics. One fourth of boustan poems – 1000 verses were chosen and we studied them to know how the compound sentences are used and we presented the results in the form of numbers and statistic.
    Persian Grammar written by Dr. Anvari was selected to see the different samples of compound sentences and matching Boustan poems with them. Then according to comparative and percentage graphs, we studied the data obtained from the tables and graphs. Saadi has used the compound sentences more than the simple sentences. These kinds of sentences have been used a lot and variously that we can say it’s a feature of Saudis’ style. The verses made of just a compound sentence were used more than other kinds. And it can be considered as Boustan feature. There are 655 verses that were composed just of a compound sentence. In other words 60 percent of Boustan verses include a compound sentence. Compound sentences include two parts, a base and a follower or more. In this study, the compound sentences were divided in to three groups: a compound sentence with a follower, two or three. A compound sentences made of a base and a follower are more than ones with two followers or three. The verses including a base sentence followed by a follower sentence are more than ones including a follower sentence followed by a base one. Among the 550 verses made of a base and a follower, in 342 verses, a follower sentence was followed by a base one.
    The above mentioned number is 62/2 percent. In 208 verses (37/8 percent) a base sentence was followed by a follower. In order to answer this question that why Saadi has used this sample (base follower) a lot, we studied its rate in each chapter and it was concluded that introduction which involves general issues , prays and admiration ,this sample(follower 涫) has been used more. But in all of the chapters the number of verses including this sample (base follower) is more and this difference is meaningful. Totally the number of verses including this sample (base follower) is more than ones including this sample (follower 涫). Perhaps its most important reason is because of the different mental effects of these two kinds of sentences. The interesting point of compound sentences including a follower, indicates that each of the base or follower sentence is in a hemistich. This sentence (base or follower) starts and ends in the same hemistich. It seems that Saadi tends to use a hemistich rather than a verse to convey his meaning.
    Verses including base and follower sentences, the rate of base or follower sentences which starts and ends in different hemistiches is extremely low. Some of the compound sentences have more than one follower. There are 95 verses in the studied ones that have two followers. In these sentences Saadi tends to use base followed by a follower. There were 9 (1 percent) compound sentences with three followers in the studied verses. Some of Boustan verses include 2 compound sentences using two compound sentences in a verse using at least four sentences (2 base sentences and 2 follower sentences). One of the most significant feature of Saadi’s speech is using four sentences in a verse made of eleven syllables.
    Because of the variety of phrases and verbs, changing the parts may lead to the poem ambiguity. That’s way Saadi separates the verses so and not to be any links between two of them. He divides ever verse into two parts and puts a phrase in each part. No interference can be seen between the parts of the base and follower sentences in the verses made of two compound sentences. In this way, the base and follower sentences combine independently. The verb isnt usually omitted in these kinds of verses. Follower sentence is considered as a role of base sentence. Follower sentences have been used as adjectives or adverbs and they havent been used as subjects or objects. And the number of follower sentences which has been used as the main role of base sentences is less. In other words Saadi firstly concentrates on the main part of the sentence and finishes it. And then mentions the non important parts in a form of follower sentence.
    Keywords: Boostan, Saadi's Language, compound sentence, base sentence, follower sentence
  • Fardin Hosseinpanahi *, Sayyed Asaad Sheikhahmadi Pages 103-118
    Poststructuralists, especially Derrida rely on processes and mechanisms such as deferment, trace and otherness to deal with the criticism of binary oppositions and metaphysics-based approaches. Despite the emphasis post-structuralism puts on its own mechanisms and approaches, explaining the theoretical deep structures of post-structuralism (and especially the ideas of Derrida) helps to realize the fundamental role of metaphor and metaphorical functions in the development of its theoretical foundations. This paper seeks to demonstrate that post-structuralism is essentially formed based on the metaphorical nature of language, and its theoretical and methodological bases are also inspired by the mechanisms of "metaphor" and "metaphorical function". On the other hand, it is the basis for a critique of post-structuralism. The results of this study show the other functions of "metaphor" in the evolution of human cognitive and thought system.
    Derrida takes différance as the prior aspect in (to) language. He believes there is no truth beyond the system that is based on différance and otherness in language since such conceptions as center, truth, reality, origin, existence, absolute signification, and signified never come to be. This approach is the ground for Derrida's view of such categories like the rejection of signs, plurality of signification, plurality of identity and absolute subjectivity, priority of text, floating of signifier and deferral of signified. Among the fundamental oppositions that Derrida addresses to deconstruct, the opposition of signifier / signified is of great importance, as it affects his approach to oppositions such as: speech / writing and form / meaning. Derrida's purpose of deconstructing such oppositions is to criticize their metaphysical deep structures, and to cut the metaphysical roots of sign. Relying excessively on the "signifier" and its functions in the referral system of language, Derrida neglects the important role of the "signified" in identification of the signifier in this approach. There stands a permanent gap between the signifier and the signified, however, the identification of the subject relies on its reference to the signified, and it represents the proportionality and ontological conjugates extant between them.
    Interpreting all ideas "in language" and "through language", ignores many deep and deciding bases. The recognition of reality in human perception system is based on a metaphorical process that is formed by distancing from the reality, and through the transfer from one signification to another signification. On the other hand, the mechanism of human mind is based on separating the things and putting them (or their components) "in relation to one another". In such a case, the integral concepts like truth, center, origin, and existence, would never find linguistic and mental manifestations. Accordingly, Derrida does not believe in the existence of truth, center or origin that are beyond différance as the prior aspect to language. Although metaphysics is itself a system of signification, its deep structure, as well as its relation to intuitive perceptions (not concepts) makes metaphorical and referral mechanisms underlying language to ultimately operate on a metaphysical ground. As his methodological approach shows, Derrida finally, and in spite of his claim, has operated on a metaphysical ground. The deep structures of Derrida’s ideas are more specifically in common with the ideas of Maimonides, and this shows that Derrida was influenced by his ideas.
    Keywords: Language, Metaphor, Center, Post-structuralism, Derrida
  • Hamidreza Farzi, Farnaz Fakhimi Faryabi Pages 119-132
     Vladimir Propp (1895-1970), the Russian scholar, analyzed a lot of the Russian folk tales and recognized common themes within. He broke down the stories into “morphemes” and documented 31 elements or narrative units that contained the structure of so many of the stories. Propp gave each element a symbol, thus allowing a story to be described by a series of those symbols. He broke up fairy tales into parts. Through these parts he could organize the tale into a series of sequences that took place within the Russian fairytale. Typically there is an initial situation, after which the tale usually takes the following thirty one functions. Propp concluded that all the characters could be set on into seven extensive character functions in the 100 tales he analyzed. This paper, explores “Gol and Nowruz” which is an adventurous and exciting tale of Persian literature; the tale is Nowruz’s quest to find his beloved “Gol”. For this purpose the paper, an introduction of morphology and “Gol and Nowruz” have been outlined then the tale has been analyzed in the light of Propp's patterns in order to determine to what extent this tale is in parallel with Vladimir Propp’s Morphology of the Folktale. Considering the motion sequences in each of Propp’s the expansions, and comparing it with the interpretation of the tale, it is recognized that the sequence of functions are not in complete parallel. In the analysis of the tale, we come across with seven movements; a search begins, hero moves first to find his beloved (a), but before reaching to her, the second movement, type (H and M), the third movement (H), the fourth movement (H), the fifth movement (M), the sixth movement (H), and the seventh movement (M), occur. The hero solves the problems and moves from one stage to the next and finally achieves his purpose. It is revealed that the lines of the tale do not meet the Propp’s paterns and it is not in parallel with it completely, because, encountering the problems, the desires and motivations of the characters are different; and it is the most significant factor why there is a difference between the tale and Propp's pattern of movements. However it is significant that all extensions of Prop’s classifications can be traced in the tale.  Comparing the narrative line of the tale with Propp’s patterns we can find that the tale has the 28 functions, out of the 31 Propp's functions, in common with Propp's functions, and we can conclude that this tale is consistent with the patterns of Prop. Prop concludes that all the characters could be resolved into 7 broad character functions in the tales he analyzed and have done the the same here: The villain and The false hero (the Dragon of Roman Empire, Shebel Zangi, Farrukh Rooz with his army and the storm of magic). The dispatcher (Shervin), the helper and the donor (Mehran, Yagoot, Bakht Afrooz, the Old Priest), the princess or prize (Gol), the hero (Norooz). The paper explores the characters’ tendencies which can be interesting too.
    Keywords: Morphology, Structure, Propp, Gol, Nowruz, Khwaju Kermani