فهرست مطالب

  • سال پانزدهم شماره 2 (پیاپی 56، 1396)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1396/06/30
  • تعداد عناوین: 19
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  • هادی زرقانی، احمد نظامی، محمد خواجه حسینی، ابراهیم ایزدی دربندی صفحات 231-243
    به منظور تعیین مناسب ترین دوره کنترل علف های هرز کنجد، آزمایشی به صورت اسپلیت پلات در قالب طرح بلوک کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار در سال 1387 در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد انجام شد. تیمارهای آزمایش شامل ژنوتیپ های کنجد (توده بومی کلات و رقم اصلاح شده اولتان) به عنوان فاکتور اصلی و دوره های عاری از علف های هرز (40،30،20، 55 و70 روز پس از سبز شدن) و تداخل با علف های هرز (20،30،40، 55 و70 روز پس از سبز شدن) به همراه دو تیمار رقابت و کنترل تمام فصل علف های هرز به عنوان فاکتور فرعی بودند. جهت تعیین دوره بحرانی کنترل، از توابع گامپرتز و لجستیک استفاده شد. نتایج نشان دادند که در اوایل فصل رشد خرفه و پیچک صحرایی و در اواخر فصل رشد تاج خروس، سلمه و سوروف علف های هرز غالب بودند. در تیمارهای عاری از علف هرز تا 44 روز پس از سبز شدن وزن خشک علف های هرز، به طور متوسط تا 85 درصد نسبت به شاهد در رقابت تمام فصل کاهش یافت. با افزایش دوره تداخل علف های هرز در اول و آخر فصل، عملکرد اقتصادی کاهش یافت و با طولانی شدن دوره وجین بر عملکرد اقتصادی افزوده شد. با این وجود، با افزایش طول دوره وجین در اوایل فصل رشد و یا در طی دوره کامل رشد کنجد، از وزن علف های هرز کاسته شد در حالیکه با کاهش طول دوره وجین در اواخر فصل رشد و یا عدم وجین در طی دوره کامل رشد کنجد، وزن خشک علف های هرز زیاد شد. بر اساس نتایج این آزمایش دوره بحرانی کنترل علف های با احتساب 5 و 10 درصد کاهش عملکرد به ترتیب 27 تا 48 و 30 تا 40 روزپس از سبز شدن برای توده بومی کلات و 22 تا 72 و 34 تا 58 روزپس از سبز شدن برای رقم اصلاح شده اولتان برآورد شد.
    کلیدواژگان: تداخل، عملکرد اقتصادی، مهار علف هرز
  • علیرضا کوچکی، مهدی نصیری محلاتی، حامد منصوری، روح الله مرادی صفحات 244-256
    در اکثر موارد عملکرد واقعی به دلیل ضعف های مدیریتی و فناوری کمتر از عملکرد پتانسیل می باشد، که اختلاف بین این دو به عنوان خلاء عملکرد در نظر گرفته می شود. درک سهم نسبی هر یک از متغیرهای مدیریتی در خلاء عملکرد می تواند به عنوان یکی از مهمترین گام های کاهش آن و نزدیک شدن عملکرد واقعی به عملکرد پتانسیل باشد. به منظور ارزیابی میزان خلاء عملکرد گندم و همچنین سهم نسبی متغیرهای مدیریتی و فناوری در میزان این خلاء در ایران، از تابع حد مرزی که یک رگرسیون چند متغیره می باشد، استفاده شد. برای این منظور داده های اقلیمی استان های مختلف کشور از سازمان های هواشناسی کشور و عملکرد گندم در استان های مختلف از سازمان های جهاد کشاورزی کشور استخراج شد. عملکرد پتانسیل گندم در استان های مختلف نیز با استفاده از مدل WOFOST شبیه سازی شد. از اختلاف بین عملکرد پتانسیل و عملکرد واقعی، خلاء عملکرد گندم برای استان های مختلف برآورد شد. سپس با استفاده از تابع حد مرزی سهم نسبی متغیرهای اقلیمی موثر در عملکرد پتانسیل و همچنین سهم نسبی هر یک از متغیرهای مدیریتی موثر شامل آبیاری، کاربرد کود، مکانیزاسیون، کاربرد آفت‏کش و کود دامی بر خلاء عملکرد گندم محاسبه شد. نتایج نشان داد که به طور کلی در بین عوامل اقلیمی اثر بارندگی و تابش بر عملکرد پتانسیل گندم مثبت و اثر دما منفی بود. در بین این متغیرها نیز بارندگی بیشترین تاثیر را بر عملکرد پتانسیل گندم دارا بود. محدوده خلاء عملکرد گندم در ایران بین 1646 تا 4470 کیلوگرم در هکتار و 29 تا 58 درصد متغیر بود. به طور کلی تاثیر کلیه عوامل مدیریتی بر میزان خلاء عملکرد گندم کشور منفی بود که بدین ترتیب با بهبود یا افزایش هر کدام از این فاکتورها، میزان خلاء عملکرد گندم در کشور کاهش نشان داد. از بین عوامل مدیریتی مورد بررسی، عامل آبیاری بویژه در استان های واقع در اقلیم گرم و خشک کشور و بعد از آن نیز عامل کاربرد کود شیمیایی بیشترین تاثیر را بر کاهش خلاء عملکرد گندم نشان دادند. بنابراین، به نظر می رسد برای کاهش خلاء عملکرد گندم در ایران باید در وهله اول مدیریت آبیاری و کاربرد کود را مدنظر قرار داد.
    کلیدواژگان: آبیاری، تابع حد مرزی، شبیه سازی، عملکرد پتانسیل، مکانیزاسیون
  • عبدالمحمد محنت کش، شمس الله ایوبی، امیر احمد دهقانی صفحات 257-266
    مدل سازی یکی از روش های نوین در پیش بینی پاسخ اراضی به کاربری مورد نظر است. شبکه های عصبی مصنوعی یکی از مدل های کارآمد در شبیه-سازی عملکرد و تعیین فاکتورهای موثر در تولید محصولات کشاورزی محسوب می شود. در اراضی تپه ماهوری تحت کشت گندم دیم در زاگرس مرکزی ایران عوامل مختلفی بر تولید این محصول موثر است که این تحقیق به مدت دو سال با هدف تعیین مهم ترین این فاکتورها اجرا گردید. چهار گروه اقلیمی، خاک، توپوگرافی و مدیریت شامل 54 فاکتور به عنوان متغیرهای ورودی، و عملکرد دانه و زیست توده گندم دیم به عنوان خروجی های مدل های شبکه عصبی مصنوعی در نظر گرفته شد و پس از تعیین بهترین ساختار شبکه، پیش بینی عملکرد توسط مدل های به دست آمده انجام شد. به کمک آنالیز حساسیت به روش هیل، عکس العمل مدل به هر یک از متغیرهای ورودی بررسی و مهم ترین فاکتورهای تاثیرگذار بر عملکرد دانه و زیست توده تعیین گردید. نتایج نشان داد در حالی که متغیرهای بارش هفته های بیست و نهم و سی ام و دهم، علف های هرز، نیتروژن کل خاک، بارش هفته دوازدهم، بارش هفته بیست و پنجم، انحنای سطحی، بارش هفته سیزدهم و شاخص انتقال رسوب، به ترتیب 10 متغیر اول مهم در تولید دانه گندم دیم بودند، زیست توده هوایی گندم دیم بیشترین حساسیت را به ترتیب به 10 متغیر انحنای سطحی، بارش هفته های اول، چهارم و نهم، سطح ویژه حوضه، بارش هفته بیست و پنجم، پتاسیم قابل جذب خاک، انحنای عمودی، بارش هفته چهاردهم و بارش هفته بیست و یکم نشان داد.
    کلیدواژگان: آنالیز حساسیت، زاگرس مرکزی، شبکه عصبی مصنوعی، گندم دیم، مدل سازی
  • محمدحسن رنجبر، جاوید قرخلو، افشین سلطانی صفحات 267-285
    تولید ارقام جدید نمی‏تواند به تنهایی باعث افزایش محصولات کشاورزی شود بلکه در کنار پیشرفت‏ های به نژادی باید روش‏های زراعی مناسب جهت تولید به کار گرفته شده تا حداکثر عملکرد حاصل شود. هدف اصلی از اجرای روش‏ های خاک‏ورزی حفاظتی، نگهداری مقادیر مناسب بقایا در سطح خاک جهت کنترل فرسایش آبی و خاکی مزارع، کاهش انرژی و حفاظت از منابع آب و خاک می‏ باشد. مطالعه پیش رو به منظور بررسی تاثیر تیمارهای مختلف خاک ورزی بر روی عملکرد ذرت علوفه ای، در سال 1392 انجام شد. آزمایش در قالب طرح آشیانه ای در سه قطعه زمین مجزا انجام شد. صفات اندازه‏ گیری شده شامل سطح برگ، وزن خشک برگ، وزن خشک ساقه، وزن خشک بوته و ارتفاع بوته و آخرین مرحله فقط وزن تر بود. نتایج تجزیه واریانس آماری حاکی از آن بود که بین نظام‏ های خاک‏ورزی از نظر سطح برگ، وزن خشک برگ، وزن خشک ساقه و وزن خشک بوته ی ذرت اختلاف معنی‏ داری وجود نداشت. در بین نظام ‏های خاک‏ورزی با وجود اختلاف غیر معنی‏ دار در عملکرد وزن خشک ذرت، مقدار عملکرد علوفه ی تر ذرت در نظام خاک‏ورزی متداول از نظر آماری بیشتر از دو نظام دیگر بود. بیشترین عملکرد علوفه ی تر با مقدار 71 تن در هکتار در نظام خاک‏ورزی متداول و کمترین عملکرد با مقدار 64 تن در هکتار برای نظام بدون خاک‏ورزی به دست آمد که با دو نظام خاک‏ورزی دیگر اختلاف معنی ‏داری داشت. نتایج این مطالعه نشان داد که نظام‏ های خاک‏ورزی اثر معنی‏ داری بر وزن خشک بوته‏ ی ذرت نداشت اما عملکرد علوفه ی تر در سیستم خاک ورزی و کمترین عملکرد با مقدار 64 تن در هکتار برای نظام بدون خاک‏ورزی به دست آمد که با دو نظام خاک‏ورزی دیگر اختلاف معنی ‏داری داشت. نتایج این مطالعه نشان داد که نظام‏ های خاک‏ورزی اثر معنی‏ داری بر وزن خشک بوته‏ ی ذرت نداشت اما عملکرد علوفه ی تر در سیستم خاک ورزی متداول به مقدار هفت تن در هکتار از سیستم بدون خاک ورزی و چهار تن در هکتار از سیستم کم خاک ورزی بیشتر بوده است که دلیل این اختلاف عملکرد افزایش دسترسی به آب یا دسترسی به آب بیشتر و توسعه مناسب و بهتر ریشه در سیستم خاک ورزی مرسوم می باشد.
    کلیدواژگان: سرعت اسیمیلاسیون خالص، سرعت رشد گیاه، سرعت رشد نسبی، شخم حفاظتی
  • بهزاد ظفری قلعه رودخانی، افشین سلطانی، ابراهیم زینلی، بهنام کامکار، محمد فیروزفرد صفحات 286-297
    تراکم بوته از عوامل مدیریتی مهم و موثر بر عملکرد گیاهان زراعی می باشد. به منظور کمی سازی ارتفاع بوته و صفات رویشی در گندم، آزمایشی به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان طی سال زراعی 92-1391 با 4 تکرار اجرا شد. تیمارها شامل تراکم بوته (50، 100، 200، 350، 500، 650، 800 بذر در متر مربع) و ارقام (کوهدشت و مروارید) بودند. فاصله ردیف های کاشت 20 سانتی متر در نظر گرفته شد. نتایج نشان داد که بین ارتفاع بوته با تعداد برگ در ساقه اصلی، وزن خشک ساقه و وزن خشک کل اجزای رویشی به ترتیب با ضریب تبیین 93/0، 97/0 و 96/0 رابطه معنی داری وجود داشت. همچنین بررسی اثر تراکم بر روی روابط آلومتریک بین صفات نتایج نشان دادند که برای صفات ارتفاع در مقابل تعداد برگ در ساقه اصلی اثر معنی داری در سطح یک درصد وجود داشت و برای ارتفاع در مقابل وزن خشک ساقه و وزن خشک کل اجزای رویشی اثر معنی داری مشاهده نشد. از روابط به دست آمده در این آزمایش می توان در مدل های شبیه سازی رشد و نمو گندم استفاده کرد.
    کلیدواژگان: آلومتریک، ارتفاع بوته، تراکم بوته، رقم، صفات رویشی
  • مهدیه عسکری، علی اکبر مقصودی مود، وحیدرضا صفاری، افسون عسکری صفحات 298-310
    به منظور بررسی اثر تنش شوری بر پایداری غشا، کلروفیل aو b، کاروتنوئید، اجزای عملکرد و عملکرد دانه هفت هیبرید ذرت (Ksc700، Ksc500، KSc704، Ksc301 و Ksc647 (ارقام ایرانی) و ارقام خارجی شامل Ksc404 و Maxima) آزمایشی در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه شهید باهنر کرمان در سال زراعی 1390 به صورت کرت های خرد شده در قالب طرح بلوک کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار انجام گرفت. کرت های اصلی شامل چهار سطح شوری آب آبیاری با هدایت الکتریکی 4، 6، 8 و 10 دسی زیمنس بر متر و کرت های فرعی شامل هیبریدهای مذکور بودند. نتایج نشان داد که با افزایش سطوح شوری تمامی صفات بررسی شده به جز محتوی کاروتنوئید کاهش یافتند به طوری که بیشترین میزان این صفات از پایین ترین سطح شوری به دست آمد. محاسبه ضرایب همبستگی بین صفات نیز نشان داد که بین عملکرد دانه و پایداری غشا در زمان120 دقیقه (**r = 61/0) ، عملکرد دانه و وزن هزاردانه (**93/0 =r) همبستگی معنی دار و مثبتی وجود دارد. بیشترین و کمترین میزان عملکرد دانه با تفاوت معنی دار به ترتیب 10610 و 5750 کیلوگرم در هکتار از سطوح شوری 4 و 10 دسی زیمنس بر متر به دست آمد. همچنین مقایسه میانگین صفات، برتری هیبرید Ksc704 را از لحاظ دارا بودن بالا ترین میزان پایداری غشا و عملکرد دانه در شرایط مورد آزمایش در بین هیبریدهای مورد مطالعه نشان داد و به عنوان هیبرید متحمل و جهت کاشت در چنین شرایطی معرفی می گردد.
    کلیدواژگان: پایداری غشا، شوری، رنگیزه های فتوسنتزی، وزن هزاردانه، Ksc704
  • عبدالواحد هودیانی مهر، مهدی دهمرده، عیسی خمری، محمدرضا اصغری پور چمن صفحات 311-322
    به منظور بررسی تغییرات عناصر غذایی خاک در کشت مخلوط چای ترش و ماش آزمایشی در مزرعه آموزشی و تحقیقاتی پژوهشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه زابل در سال زراعی 93-1392، به صورت کرت های خردشده در قالب طرح بلوک کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار اجرا گردید. عامل اصلی 3 نوع خاک ورزی شامل بدون شخم، شخم کاهش یافته، شخم رایج (گاوآهن و دیسک) و عامل فرعی نسبت های کشت مخلوط شامل خالص چای ترش، خالص ماش،50 درصد چای ترش +50 درصد ماش، 75 درصد چای ترش+ 25 درصد ماش، 25 درصدچای ترش + 75 درصد ماش در نظر گرفته شد. صفات مورد بررسی در این تحقیق شامل (کربن آلی خاک، نیتروژن، منیزیم، کلسیم، پتاسیم، رطوبت حجمی، دمای خاک و نسبت برابری زمین) نشان داد که سیستم بدون خاک-ورزی و تیمارهای مخلوط رطوبت حجمی بیشتری نسبت به سیستم خاک ورزی مرسوم و کشت خالص چای ترش کسب نمودند. سیستم بدون خاک ورزی و افزایش نسبت ماش در کشت مخلوط سبب افزایش میزان رطوبت و کاهش دمای خاک گردید. در بین کشت های مخلوط تیمار 75 درصد ماش به علاوه 25 درصد چای ترش بالاترین میزان کربن (99/0 درصد) و نیتروژن (087/0 درصد) را نشان داد. بالاترین مقدار نیتروژن و کربن آلی خاک پس از برداشت از برهمکنش سیستم بدون خاک ورزی و کشت خالص ماش به ترتیب 15/0 و 75/1 درصد به دست آمد. نتایج نشان داد که نسبت برابری زمین در همه تیمارهای مخلوط بزرگتر از یک بود که نشان دهنده برتری کشت های مخلوط نسبت به کشت خالص آن ها بود. بیشترین عملکرد اقتصادی چای ترش و ماش در برهمکنش سیستم بدون خاک ورزی و کشت خالص هر کدام به مقدار 89/990 و 20/740 کیلوگرم در هکتار به دست آمد. بیشترین نسبت برابری زمین از کشت مخلوط 75 درصدماش به علاوه 25 درصد چای ترش (36/1) به دست آمد. در مجموع نتایج این تحقیق اهمیت کشت مخلوط لگوم و گیاه دارویی را در استفاده بهینه از منابع محیطی، افزایش حاصلخیزی خاک و سودمندی بیشتر کشت مخلوط نسبت به کشت خالص چای ترش و ماش تایید نمود.
    کلیدواژگان: دمای خاک، رطوبت حجمی خاک، کلسیم، نسبت برابری زمین
  • پگاه نقی پور دهکردی، علیرضا کوچکی، مهدی نصیری محلاتی، سرور خرم دل صفحات 323-340
    به منظور تعیین و مقایسه کارایی مصرف نور سه گونه گیاه دارویی سیاهدانه، همیشه بهار و گاوزبان اروپایی در کشت مخلوط جایگزینی، آزمایشی در قالب طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد در سال زراعی 93-1392 انجام شد. تیمارهای آزمایش شامل نسبت های 50:50 سیاهدانه با گاوزبان (N:B)، سیاهدانه با همیشه بهار (N:C)، گاوزبان اروپایی با همیشه بهار (B:C)، کشت سه گانه با نسبت یک سوم از هر گونه (N:C:B) و کشت خالص آن ها با تراکم کامل بود. نتایج آزمایش نشان دهنده افزایش کارایی مصرف نور هر سه گونه در تیمارهای کشت مخلوط نسبت به تک کشتی بود که می تواند بدلیل مزیت کشت مخلوط در کاهش رقابت درون گونه ای و بهره وری بیشتر منابع در دسترس به خصوص تابش باشد. بالاترین کارایی مصرف نور برای سیاهدانه (Nigella sativa L.)، همیشه بهار (Calendula officinalis L.) و گاوزبان اروپایی (Borago officinalis L.) به ترتیب با افزایش 2/7، 09/9 و 37/4 درصدی نسبت به تک کشتی آن ها، 34/1، 08/1 و 34/1 گرم بر مگاژول مربوط تیمار کشت مخلوط سه گانه بود. میزان کل جذب تابش فعال فتوسنتزی هرکدام از گونه ها و همچنین مجموع جذب در تیمار N:C:B کمتر از تابش جذب شده هر یک از گونه ها در تیمارهای N:B و C:B و نیز مجموع جذب این تیمارها بود ولی از میزان جذب N:C بیشتر بود که این امر احتمالا به دلیل تراکم نسبتا مناسب گاوزبان اروپایی در تیمار کشت خالص این گیاه و همچنین تراکم کم هر سه گونه در تیمار N:C:B (یک سوم نسبت به کشت خالص) جستجو کرد که با ایجاد مجموع شاخص برگ کمتر، تابش کمتری را دریافت و جذب نموده است. بنابراین، باتوجه به افزایش کارایی مصرف نور به نظر می رسد که بهره گیری از کشت مخلوط برای بهبود تولید گیاهان دارویی سیاهدانه، همیشه بهار و گاوزبان اروپایی می تواند از لحاظ اکولوژیکی مفید باشد.
    کلیدواژگان: بهره وری منابع، تابش فعال فتوسنتزی، جذب تابش، کشت مخلوط جایگزینی
  • نورعلی ساجدی، حمید مدنی، عبدالله ساجدی صفحات 341-354
    به منظور بررسی واکنش خصوصیات زراعی گندم و جو به محلول پاشی با منابع و مقادیر مختلف سلنیوم، آزمایشی در سه تکرار طی سال زراعی 1394-1393 در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد اراک اجرا شد. عوامل آزمایش شامل دو منبع سلنات و سلنیت سدیم، در مقادیر 0، 18 و 36 گرم در هکتار و دو گونه گندم و جو بودند. نتایج نشان داد که طول سنبله بدون ریشک در گندم 4/10 درصد بیشتر از جو بود ولی طول سنبله با ریشک در جو 2/11 درصد بیشتر از گندم بود. شاخص برداشت سنبله در جو 7/21 درصد بیشتر از گندم بود. با محلول پاشی 18 گرم در هکتار سلنیوم، وزن دانه در سنبله نسبت به شاهد 9/4 درصد افزایش یافت. بیشترین وزن دانه در سنبله از محلول پاشی 18 گرم در هکتار سلنیت سدیم حاصل شد. با مصرف 18 و 36 گرم در هکتار سلنیت سدیم، وزن دانه در سنبله به ترتیب به میزان 7/13 و1/5 درصد افزایش نشان داد. با محلول پاشی 18 گرم در هکتار سلنیوم عملکرد دانه و عملکرد بیولوژیک به ترتیب 6 و 4/8 درصد افزایش یافت. نتایج نشان داد که در گندم بیشترین عملکرد بیولوژیک (66/5784 کیلوگرم در هکتار) از مصرف 18 گرم در هکتار سلنیت سدیم حاصل شد. در جو بیشترین عملکرد بیولوژیک (83/5889 کیلوگرم در هکتار) از مصرف 18 گرم در هکتار سلنات سدیم حاصل شد. در گندم بیشترین عملکرد دانه (45/1757 کیلوگرم در هکتار) از محلول پاشی 18 گرم در هکتار سلنات سدیم حاصل شد که نسبت به شاهد به میزان 9 درصد افزایش نشان داد. در گیاه جو بیشترین عملکرد دانه از محلول پاشی 18 گرم در هکتار سلنات یا سلنیت سدیم حاصل شد.
    کلیدواژگان: آبیدر، آذر 2، زیست توده، ویژگی های سنبله
  • سروناز فرهنگ فر، محمد بنایان*، حمیدرضا خزاعی، محمد موسوی بایگی صفحات 355-367
    خشکی دائما تولیدات کشاورزی را تحت تاثیر قرار می دهد. آسیب پذیری کشاورزی به عنوان آستانه ای شناخته می شود که در آن بیشترین احتمال صدمه دیدن سیستم های کشاورزی در اثر خشکی وجود دارد. در این تحقیق آسیب پذیری کلزا در اثر خشکی در شهرستان های مشهد، سبزوار و تربت حیدریه و تاثیر تغییر اقلیم بر آن ها مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. در این مطالعه شاخص خشکیUNEP در راستای ارزیابی خشکی مورد استفاده قرار گرفت. اثرات تغییر اقلیم توسط مدل های HadCM3 و IPCM4 تحت سه سناریو (A1B، A2 و B1 برای سه دوره زمانی 2030-2011، 2065-2046 و 2099-2080) توسط مولد آب و هوایی LARS شبیه سازی شدند. عملکرد پتانسیل کلزا توسط مدل WOFOST شبیه سازی شد. برای کمی نمودن آسیب پذیری نسبت به شرایط خشکی، آسیب پذیری به عنوان تابعی از حساسیت (SEN)، وضعیت سلامت نسبت به آستانه تخریب و در معرض خطر قرار گرفتن در نظر گرفته شد. آسیب پذیری با در نظر گرفتن خشکی های شدید (VEXPL و VEXPS) در سال های منتخب و آسیب پذیری مورد انتظار (EVEXP) با در نظر گرفتن فراوانی مورد انتظار خشکی محاسبه شد. نتایج نشان داد که در تمامی مناطق مورد مطالعه تولید کلزا طی دوره پایه نسبت به خشکی بسیار حساس بوده و مقایر تخمین زده شده بیشتر از 200 بودند. همین روند در سال های شبیه سازی شده نیز مشاهده شد. همچنین پیش بینی شد که کلزا در دوره های آینده همانند دوره پایه نسبت به خشکی بسیار آسیب پذیر بوده و مقادیر آسیب پذیری بالاتر از 20 تخمین زده شدند (VEXPS،VEXPL و EVEXP>20)
    کلیدواژگان: آسیب پذیری، حساسیت پذیری، مدل WOFOST
  • پریسا جمشیدی، مهدی برادران فیروزآبادی، حکیمه علومی، هرمزد نقوی صفحات 368-379
    به منظور بررسی تاثیر محلول پاشی روی و کلسیم بر عملکرد و صفات فیزیولوژیکی گیاه گلرنگ در تنش سرب، آزمایشی به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مرکز تحقیقات و منابع طبیعی و آموزش کشاورزی کرمان در سال 94-1393 اجرا شد. فاکتور اول شامل سه سطح (شاهد، محلول پاشی 5/0 و 1 میلی مولار سرب)، فاکتور دوم محلول پاشی سولفات روی در سه غلظت (صفر، 10 و 20 میلی مولار) و فاکتور سوم محلول پاشی کلرید کلسیم در دو سطح (صفر و 10 میلی مولار) بود. نتایج نشان داد که در شرایط تنش سرب عملکرد دانه، وزن هزاردانه، وزن خشک برگ، تعداد دانه در طبق، وزن طبق و محتوای کلروفیل کاهش یافت و فعالیت آنزیم های کاتالاز، آسکوربات پراکسیداز و میزان مالون دی آلدهید در گیاه افزایش معنی داری نشان داد. محلول پاشی کود روی در تیمار سرب سبب افزایش معنی دار فعالیت آنزیم کاتالاز، کاهش پراکسیداسیون لیپید غشا، جلوگیری از تخریب کلروفیل و حفظ عملکرد دانه گردید و تاثیر محلول پاشی کود کلسیم در تیمار سرب تنها بر میزان کلروفیل معنی دار بود. براساس نتایج، به نظر می رسد که محلول پاشی کود روی می تواند تاثیر بیشتری در بهبود رشد گلرنگ در شرایط تنش سرب نسبت به محلول پاشی کود کلسیم داشته باشد. بنابراین در آلودگی هوا به فلز سنگین سرب کاربرد کود سولفات روی می تواند به عنوان راهکاری بر حفظ رشد و تولید گیاهان باشد.
    کلیدواژگان: فعالیت آنزیم، فلز سنگین، کلروفیل، مالون دی آلدهید
  • عباس عباسیان، قربانعلی اسدی، رضا قربانی صفحات 380-388
    به منظور ارزیابی تحمل گیاه مهاجم گل گندم خوسرمایی شده با شرایط بهاره به تنش سرمازدگی و یخ زدگی مطالعاتی به صورت فاکتوریل و در قالب طرح کاملا تصادفی در آزمایشگاه تحقیقاتی علف های هرز دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد در سال 1393 اجرا شدند. گیاه مهاجم گل گندم در معرض ده دمای سرمازدگی و یخ زدگی (4، 2، 0، 2-، 4-، 6-، 8-، 10-، 12- و 14- درجه سانتی گراد) در دو مرحله رشدی (2 تا 4 برگی و 4 تا 8 برگی) قرار گرفتند. گیاهان تا مرحله 2 تا 4 برگی و نیز 4 تا 8 برگی در محیط طبیعی نگهداری شده و پس از گذرانیدن دوره خوسرمایی در فروردین ماه، با استفاده از فریز ترموگرادیان، تحت تیمارهای یخ زدگی قرار گرفتند. میزان پایداری غشاء سیتوپلاسمی گل گندم مورد مطالعه با استفاده از آزمون نشت الکترولیت ها مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفت، سپس دمای کشنده 50 درصد نمونه ها بر اساس درصد نشت الکترولیت ها (LT50el) تعیین گردید. درصد بقاء نیز با شمارش تعداد بوته زنده در هر گلدان مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفت. سپس دمای کشنده برای 50 درصد بقاء (LT50su) و دمای کاهنده 50 درصد وزن خشک (RDMT50) در پایان دوره بازیافت (سه هفته بعد از اعمال تیمار یخ زدگی) تعیین شد. نتایج نشان داد کاهش دما از C° 6- به C° 8- سبب کاهش معنی دار (05/0 P≤) زیست توده و درصد بقاء و همچنین افزایش معنی دار (05/0 P≤) نشت الکترولیت ها در گل گندم شد. نتایج نشان داد تحمل به سرمای گل گندم در مرحله 2 تا 4 برگی کمتر از 4 تا 8 برگی بود. بر طبق نتایج آزمایش LT50el، LT50suو RDMT50 گل گندم خوسرمایی شده با شرایط بهاره به ترتیب C°05/7-، C° 6/7- و C° 15/7- تعیین شد.
    کلیدواژگان: بازیافت، دمای کاهنده 50 درصد زیست توده، دمای کشنده 50 درصد بقاء، دمای کشنده 50 درصد نشت الکترولیت ها
  • مریم درانی نژاد، قاسم محمدی نژاد، روح الله عبدالشاهی صفحات 389-398
    گندم مهم ترین محصول زراعی جهان می باشد که در مناطق کم آب عملکرد آن به شدت کاهش می یابد. در چنین شرایطی تولید ارقام متحمل به خشکی از اهمیت ویژه ای برخوردار است. به منظور به نژادی گندم آگاهی از ماهیت ژنتیکی عملکرد و صفات مرتبط با عملکرد کمک شایانی به اصلاح گر می نماید. جهت برآورد پارامترهای ژنتیکی برخی صفات زراعی در شرایط کم آبی در گندم نان، خانواده های F4 حاصل از تلاقی ارقام گندم روشن و کویر به همراه والدین، F2 و F3 در شرایط تنش رطوبتی مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفتند. آزمایش در قالب طرح آگمنت با پنج شاهد روشن، فلات، مهدوی، شاه پسند و خارچیا در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه شهید باهنر کرمان در سال زراعی 94-1393 اجرا شد. به منظور اعمال تنش، آبیاری در مرحله سنبله دهی قطع گردید و عملکرد دانه به همراه برخی صفات زراعی مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفت. از روش تجزیه میانگین نسل ها به منظور تعیین نحوه عمل ژن های کنترل کننده صفات استفاده شد. روابط ژنتیکی شامل اثرات افزایشی، غالبیت، افزایشی× افزایشی و غالبیت× غالبیت برآورد شدند. در کنترل صفات عملکرد دانه، عملکرد بیولوژیک، شاخص برداشت، وزن هزاردانه، طول سنبله، طول ریشک و طول دوره پرشدن دانه، واریانس ژنتیکی افزایشی نقش بیشتری داشت. بنابراین در این صفات، گزینش در نسل های اولیه موثرتر خواهد بود. در حالی که در کنترل صفات ارتفاع بوته، تعداد سنبله و تعداد دانه در بوته واریانس ژنتیکی غالبیت نقش بیشتری ایفا می کند. لذا در مورد این صفات توصیه می شود گزینش در نسل های پیشرفته انجام گیرد.
    کلیدواژگان: افزایشی، غالبیت، قطع آبیاری، وراثت پذیری
  • هومن عباسی، مجید آقاعلیخانی، جواد حمزه ئی صفحات 399-412
    ارزش غذایی و سودمندی های دارویی روغن کدوی تخمه کاغذی (Cucurbita pepo var. Styriaca) در گرو عملکرد دانه، نوع و میزان اسیدهای چرب موجود در آن است. در این آزمایش پاسخ گیاه به دور آبیاری، مالچ پلاستیک سیاه و منبع کودی به صورت اسپلیت- فاکتوریل بر پایه-ی بلوک های کامل تصادفی، با سه تکرار در تابستان 1392 در مزرعه دانشگاه همدان بررسی شد. کرت های اصلی، دور آبیاری (هفت و 12روزه) و کرت های فرعی فاکتوریل مالچ (کاربرد و عدم کاربرد) و رژیم کودی (25% کودهای شیمیایی (اوره و سوپر فسفات تریپل)+ کودهای زیستی (نیتروکسین و بیوفسفات)، 50% شیمیایی+ کودهای زیستی، 75% شیمیایی+ کودهای زیستی و مصرف 100% کودهای شیمیایی) بود. نتایج نشان داد که بیوماس کل، عملکرد میوه، دانه، شاخص برداشت، درصد و عملکرد روغن دانه تحت تاثیر برهمکنش فاکتورهای مورد بررسی و درصد و عملکرد پروتئین نیز تحت تاثیر اثرات اصلی فاکتورهای آزمایش قرار گرفتند. لینولئیک و اولئیک اسید به ترتیب 35/43 و 5/34 درصد از اسیدهای چرب روغن دانه را تشکیل دادند. تیمار آبیاری 12 روزه، کاربرد مالچ پلاستیک سیاه و مصرف 75 درصد کودهای شیمیایی+ کودهای زیستی، علاوه بر کاهش 25% کودهای شیمیایی و مصرف آب کمتر، با تولید 59554، 1559 و 731 کیلوگرم در هکتار میوه، دانه و روغن به عنوان تیمار برتر معرفی می شود. روغن تولید شده تحت این تیمار با داشتن 89/33% اولئیک اسید و 9/44% لینولئیک اسید از کیفیت بالایی برخوردار بود. بر این اساس با مدیریت صحیح نهاده های مصرفی، ضمن دستیابی به عملکرد مطلوب، زمینه های پایداری منابع تولید و توسعه پایدار فراهم خواهد شد.
    کلیدواژگان: اسید چرب، بیوفسفات، خاکپوش، شاخص برداشت
  • خاتون دبیقی، اسفندیار فاتح، امیر آینه بند صفحات 413-424
    این پژوهش به منظورمطالعه ی تاثیر کود سبز و منابع مختلف نیتروژن بر عملکرد و شاخص های کارایی نیتروژن در کلزا رقم هایولا 401، در سال زراعی 93-1392 در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده ی کشاورزی دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز انجام گرفت. آزمایش به صورت کرت های یک بار خرد شده، در قالب طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی و در سه تکرار اجرا شد. فاکتور اصلی شامل انواع مختلف کود سبز در پنج سطح (آیش، ماش، ارزن، جو و مخلوط ماش+ ارزن) و فاکتور فرعی شامل منابع نیتروژن (صفر، 50% نیتروژن شیمیایی+ کود بیولوژیک نیتروکسین و 100% نیتروژن شیمیایی) بود. میزان مصرف کود نیتروژن 200 کیلوگرم در هکتار و از منبع اوره استفاده شد. نتایج نشان داد که مصرف کود بر شاخص های کارایی به جزء شاخص اتکا به نیتروژن تاثیر منفی داشت. بیشترین میزان اتکا به نیتروژن (46/0 کیلوگرم بر کیلوگرم) در شرایط عدم کاربرد کود سبز و 100% نیتروژن به فرم شیمیایی به دست آمد. براساس نتایج به دست آمده بالاترین میزان شاخص کارایی مصرف (4/21 کیلوگرم بر کیلوگرم) از تیمار ماش و عدم کاربرد نیتروژن، کارایی جذب (04/1 کیلوگرم بر کیلوگرم) کاربرد ماش و تیمار عدم کاربرد نیتروژن، کارایی زراعی (98/24 کیلوگرم بر کیلوگرم) در تیمار کشت مخلوط ماش و ارزن و تیمار تلفیقی نیتروژن حاصل شد. در مجموع نتایج حاکی از تاثیر مثبت و معنی دار گیاهان کود سبز و نیز تلفیق کودهای شیمیایی و بیولوژیک به جهت بهبود عملکرد و شاخص های کارایی و نیز کاهش وابستگی به نهاده های شیمیایی در راستای حرکت در مسیر کشاورزی پایدار می باشد.
    کلیدواژگان: شاخص اتکا به نیتروژن، کارایی مصرف، کلزا، کود بیولوژیک، کشاورزی پایدار
  • بیژن سعادتیان، محمد کافی صفحات 425-437
    به منظور بررسی نقش ذرات نانو و میکرو سیلیکات سدیم بر صفات فیزیولوژیک و رشدی ذرت در شرایط تنش کادمیوم، آزمایشی به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح پایه کاملا تصادفی با چهار تکرار به صورت هیدروپونیک در گلخانه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد در سال 1394 انجام شد. تیمارهای آزمایش شامل سطوح تنش کادمیوم از منبع سولفات کادمیوم (صفر، 50 (8/12 پی پی ام) و 100 (6/25 پی پی ام) میکرومول در لیتر) و تیمارهای سیلیکات سدیم (شاهد (صفر)، میکرو و نانو ذرات با غلظت دو میلی مولار) بود. نتایج نشان دهنده تاثیر سطوح سیلیکات سدیم، کادمیوم و اثرات متقابل آنها بر صفات شاخص پایداری غشای سلولی، سطح ویژه برگ، هدایت روزنه ای، نسبت Fv/Fm (بیشترین کارایی کوانتومی فتوشیمیایی فتوسیستم Π)، ارتفاع، قطر ساقه، سطح برگ، وزن خشک اندام هوایی، وزن خشک ریشه و نسبت وزن اندام هوایی به ریشه بود. اما اثرات متقابل تیمارها بر صفات درصد رطوبت نسبی و شاخص کلروفیل برگ معنی دار نشد. با افزایش غلظت کادمیوم شاخص پایداری غشای سلولی، شاخص کلروفیل، نسبت Fv/Fm، رطوبت نسبی برگ، سطح ویژه برگ، هدایت روزنه ای، ارتفاع بوته، قطر ساقه، سطح برگ، وزن خشک اندام هوایی و ریشه در مقایسه با شاهد به طور معنی داری کاهش یافت. در شرایط عدم تنش، مصرف نانو ذرات سیلیکات سدیم صفات ارتفاع، قطر ساقه، سطح برگ و وزن خشک اندام هوایی ذرت را به ترتیب 8/12، 9، 2/34 و 2/23 درصد نسبت به شاهد کاهش داد. درمقابل، مصرف ذرات میکرو در شرایط عدم تنش تاثیر مثبت بر صفات ذکر شده داشت. اما در غلظت 50 میکرومول در لیتر کادمیوم، مصرف نانو ذرات صفات شاخص پایداری غشای سلولی، سطح ویژه برگ، هدایت روزنه ای، قطر ساقه و وزن خشک اندام هوایی را به طور معنی داری افزایش داد. در بالاترین سطح تنش کادمیوم، اثر ذرات میکرو بر صفات پایداری غشای سلولی، هدایت روزنه ای و نسبت اندام هوایی به ریشه بیشتر از نانو ذرات بود، اما مصرف نانو ذرات نیز در کاهش تنش کادمیوم در صفات یاد شده تاثیر مثبت و معنی داری داشت. به طور کلی کاربرد نانو ذرات در شرایط عدم تنش اثرات فیتوتوکسینی بر رشد و نمو ذرت داشت و تنها در شرایط تنش، تاثیر مثبت آن مشاهد شد.
    کلیدواژگان: فلورسانس کلروفیل، کشت هیدروپونیک، نانو ذرات، همبستگی
  • فرزانه گلستانی فر، سهراب محمودی، غلامرضا زمانی، محمدحسن سیاری زهان صفحات 438-450
    یکی از مهمترین عواملی که باعث کاهش تولید گیاهان زراعی در سراسر جهان می شود، کمبود آب در طی فصل رشد است، در این راستا به منظور بررسی اثر تنش خشکی و رقابت درون و برون گونه ای بر وزن خشک ریشه و کارایی مصرف آب گندم و چاودار، مطالعه ای در بهار سال 1391 در گلخانه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه بیرجند به صورت فاکتوریل سه عاملی در قالب طرح کاملا تصادفی با سه تکرار اجرا شد. عامل های آزمایش شامل چهار تراکم گندم (صفر، 8، 16، 24 بوته در گلدان)، چهار تراکم چاودار (صفر، 2، 4، 6 بوته در گلدان) و دو سطح تنش خشکی شامل آبیاری در 20% و 60% تخلیه رطوبت ظرفیت زراعی خاک بود. براساس نتایج تجزیه واریانس، تمامی اثرات متقابل، تاثیر معنی داری (01/0>P) بر کارایی مصرف آب گندم داشتند اما تنها اثر متقابل رقابت برون گونه ای و تنش خشکی بر کارایی مصرف آب چاودار معنی دار (01/0>P) بود. همچنین اثر متقابل سه گانه نیز تاثیر معنی داری (01/0>P) بر وزن خشک ریشه گندم داشت. نتایج نشان داد که با افزایش تنش خشکی کارایی مصرف آب در گندم به میزان 98/16 درصد کاهش و در چاودار 95/33 درصد افزایش یافت. کارایی مصرف آب در گندم و چاودار تحت تاثیر رقابت درون گونه ای به ترتیب 43/10 و 16/28 درصد افزایش و تحت تاثیر رقابت برون گونه ای به ترتیب 39/57 و 03/81 درصد کاهش یافت. وزن خشک ریشه گندم تحت تاثیر تنش خشکی قرار نگرفت ولی با افزایش تراکم چاودار و تراکم گندم به ترتیب 29/64 و 95/48 درصد کاهش یافت همچنین وزن خشک ریشه چاودار تحت تاثیر تنش خشکی و رقابت برون گونه ای و درون گونه ای به ترتیب 14/37، 43/47 و 60/33 درصد کاهش یافت.
    کلیدواژگان: رقابت، سری های افزایشی، کم آبی، علف هرز
  • بهاره پارسامطلق، پرویز رضوانی مقدم، رضا قربانی، ذبیح الله اعظمی ساردویی صفحات 451-462
    این تحقیق با هدف مطالعه تاثیر منابع تغذیه ای و سطوح آب آبیاری بر عملکرد، اجزای عملکرد، فعالیت آنتی اکسیدانی و میزان آنتوسیانین کاسبرگ گیاه دارویی چای ترش در دو سال زراعی92-1391 و 93-1392 در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه جیرفت، به صورت کرت های خرد شده نواری در قالب طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار انجام شد. سطوح آب آبیاری در سه سطح 60 ، 80 و 100 درصد نیاز آبی گیاه به عنوان عامل کرت های افقی و منبع تغذیه ا ی گیاه در چهار سطح (کود زیستی مایکوریزا، ورمی کمپوست، کود گاوی، کود شیمیایی (نیتروژن، فسفر و پتاسیم) و تیمار شاهد به عنوان عامل کرت های عمودی در نظر گرفته شدند. نتایج تجزیه واریانس مرکب نشان داد که اثر منابع تغذیه ای و سطوح آب آبیاری بر ارتفاع بوته، طول سرشاخه گلدار، تعداد غوزه در بوته، وزن کاسبرگ خشک در بوته، عملکرد کاسبرگ، عملکرد زیست توده، فعالیت آنتی آکسیدانی و میزان آنتوسیانین کاسبرگ معنی دار بود. همچنین اثر متقابل منابع تغذیه ای و سطوح آب آبیاری بر عملکرد کاسبرگ و فعالیت آنتی اکسیدانی کاسبرگ معنی دار بود. بیشترین وزن کاسبرگ خشک در سطح 100 درصد نیاز آبی گیاه و منبع تغذیه ای کود گاوی و کمترین عملکرد وزن کاسبرگ در تیمار شاهد در سطح 60 درصد نیاز آبی گیاه به دست آمد. با توجه به اینکه سطوح 100 و 80 درصد نیاز آبی گیاه در اکثر ویژگی های مورد بررسی تفاوت معنی داری وجود نداشتند، به نظر می رسد که سطح 80 درصد نیاز آبی گیاه به ترتیب توام با مصرف کودهای دامی، ورمی کمپوست و شیمیایی در زراعت چای ترش مناسب می باشند.
    کلیدواژگان: زیست توده، کود گاوی، مایکوریزا، ورمی کمپوست
  • محمد مددی زاده، جعفر کامبوزیا، سعید صوفی زاده، بهمن پناهی صفحات 463-476
    نیتروژن به عنوان مهمترین و محدودکننده ترین عنصر تغذیه ای در تولید محصولات کشاورزی محسوب می شود که به طور فشرده ای در سیستم های کشاورزی برای دستیابی به عملکرد بیشینه محصولات مورد استفاده قرار می گیرد. به منظور ارزیابی پاسخ فیزیولوژیک سه هیبرید ذرت دانه ای (سینگل کراس 704، ماکسیما و تری وی کراس 604) نسبت به مقادیر مختلف نیتروژن (صفر، 92، 220 و 368 کیلوگرم در هکتار)، آزمایشی طی دو سال 1393و 1394در قالب طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی به صورت فاکتوریل در سه تکرار در مزرعه تحقیقاتی مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان کرمان انجام شد. نتایج حاکی از تاثیر معنی دار عوامل نیتروژن و رقم بر شاخص های رشدی و عملکرد دانه ذرت بود. در سال 1394، عملکرد تولیدی تمامی هیبریدها به دلیل تخلیه نتیروژن اولیه در اثر کشت ذرت و همین طور آبشویی زیاد خاک به واسطه بافت سبک آن به طور قابل ملاحظه ای کمتر از سال 1393 بود. در مجموع دو سال، بیشترین و کمترین میزان عملکرد دانه به ترتیب مربوط به مصرف 368 کیلوگرم نیتروژن در هکتار در سال 1393 و عدم مصرف کود نیتروژنه در سال 1394 (به ترتیب 3/12359 و 640 کیلوگرم دانه در هکتار) بود. شاخص سطح برگ (LAI) (**825/0=r) و دوام این شاخص (LAID) (**825/0=r) به عنوان موثرترین شاخص ها در تعیین عملکرد دانه ذرت شناخته شدند. تنش نیتروژن از طریق کاهش مقدار شاخص سطح برگ و همچنین دوام این شاخص باعث کاهش عملکرد دانه هیبریدها گردید. دو هیبرید سینگل کراس 704 و ماکسیما دارای برتری نسبی و معنی دار از نظر عملکرد دانه در مقایسه با هیبرید تری وی کراس 604 تحت شرایط وجود یا عدم وجود تنش نیتروژن بودند.
    کلیدواژگان: شاخص های رشدی، عملکرد دانه، نیتروژن
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  • H. Zarghani, A. Nezami, M. Khajeh Hosseini, E. Izadi-Darbandi Pages 231-243
    Introduction
    In order to improve the efficiency of weed management and reducing herbicide application, determining the most sensitive weed-crop competition period is very important. There is a special period in plant life cycle, that if the crop is kept free of weeds, yield reduction has not significant economically and also weed control after that will not affect crop yield improvement. This period is known as the critical period competition affected by climate, weed species dominance, field management methods and crop type and their cultivars. Sesame is one of the important crops due to its high oil quality. This low input crop is very considerable in terms of economic in arid and semi-arid subsistence farming area. Despite the importance and antiquity of sesame cultivation in Iran, there is low information about the effects of weed on its growth and yield and also critical period of weed competition. So, the present study was carried out to determine the critical period of weed in two Common genotypes of sesame (Oltan cultivar and kalat Landrace) in Khorasan Razavi province.
    Material and
    Methods
    This study was conducted at Research Farm of College of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad with 36º 15' N latitude and 59º 28' E longitude and 985 m above the sea level, during 2009 growing season, Mashhad, Iran. The experiment was carried out as split plot based on the randomized complete block design with three replications. Treatments were sesame genotypes (Olten cultivar and Kalat landrace) as main plot and weed-free periods (20, 30, 40, 55 and 70 days after emergence (DAE)) and weed interference -periods (20, 30, 40, 55 and 70 DAE) with two full season weed control and full season weed competition, were considered as sub plots. Sampling from weeds was conducted before weeding and before the end of sesame growing season in interference and weed free treatments, respectively. Sesame plants harvested at physiological maturity stage, after eliminating the border effect area, from six m-2 and after drying in natural condition, sesame seed yield was reordered. To determine the critical period of weed, non-linear regression was used by fitting the data to Logistic and Compertz models. MSTAT-C software also was applied for analysis of variance and means comparison.
    Results And Discussion
    Results showed that, the highest weed density was
    recorded in weed interference conditions 30 days after sesame emergence and reduced after that. The dominant weeds were Portulaca oleraceae, Convolvolus arvensis, Amaranthus retroflexus, Chenopodium album and Echinochloa crus-galli. Weed dry weight was decreased on average by 85 percent in weed free treatments up to 44 days after emergence compared to full season weed interference control treatment. Sesame yield was decreased with increasing the weed interference periods, but it was increased with increasing weed free period treatments. Weed dry weight decreased significantly by increasing weeding duration. It was estimated that the critical period of weed control in Kalat landrace were 27-48 and 30-40 days after emergence with considering 5 % and 10 % acceptable yield losses, respectively, while in Oltan cultivar were 22-72 and 34-58 days after emergence, respectively. So the critical period of weed control in Kalat landrace was shorter than Oltan cultivar. It seems that in kalat genotype once weeding during its critical period of weed control is enough, while it is necessary at least twice in oltane cultivar. Short critical period of weed control in kalat landrace sesame may be due to its shorter growing season and its faster canopy closure than Oltan cultivar.
    Keywords: Critical period, Economic yield, Interference
  • A. Koocheki, M. Nassiri Mahallati, H. Mansoori, R. Moradi Pages 244-256
    Introduction
    Human diets strongly rely on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Its production has increased dramatically during the past 50 years, partly due to area extension and new varieties but mainly as a consequence of intensified land management and introduction of new technologies. For the future, a continuous strong increase in the demand for agricultural products is expected. It is highly unlikely that this increasing demand will be satisfied by area expansion because productive land is scarce and also increasingly demanded by non-agricultural uses. The role of agricultural intensification as key to increasing actual crop yields and food supply has been discussed in several studies. However, in many regions, increases in grain yields have been declining Inefficient management of agricultural land may cause deviations of actual from potential crop yields: the yield gap. At the global scale little information is available on the spatial distribution of agricultural yield gaps and the potential for agricultural intensification.
    Actual yield is mostly lower than potential yield due to inefficient management and technological that difference between these yields is considered as yield gap. Understanding of relative share of every management factors in yield gap could be as one of the important keys to reduce gap and close actual yield to potential yield.
    Materials And Methods
    In order to evaluate the amount of wheat yield gap and also relative share of management and technological variables in yield gap, frontier production function was used which is a multi-variable regression. The frontier production function to be estimated is a Cobb-Douglas function as proposed by Coelli et al. (2005). Cobb-Douglas functions are extensively used in agricultural production studies to explain returns to scale. We propose a methodology to explain the spatial variation of the potential for intensification and identifying the nature of the constraints for further intensification. We estimated a stochastic frontier production function to calculate global datasets of maximum attainable grain yields, yield gaps, and efficiencies of grain production at. Applying a stochastic frontier production function facilitates estimating the yield gap based on the actual grain yield data only, instead of using actual and potential grain yield data from different sources. Therefore, the method allows for a robust and consistent analysis of the yield gap. The factors determining the yield gap are quantified at both global and regional scales.
    For this purpose, climatic information and wheat yield of different provinces were obtained from Iran meteorological organization and Agriculture Jahade organization, respectively. Wheat potential yield in different provinces was simulated by WOFOST model. Wheat gap was gained by difference between actual and potential yield in different provinces. Relative share of climatic variables in potential yield and also relative share of management variables included irrigation, fertilizer application, mechanization, pesticide application and manure in wheat yield gap was calculated by frontier production function.
    Results And Discussion
    The results showed that the effect of precipitation and radiation on wheat potential yield was positive and the impact of temperature was negative. Precipitation had the highest impact on wheat potential yield among other climatic variables. The range of wheat yield gap was from 1646 to 4470 kg ha-1 and 29 to 58% in Iran. Generally, the effect of all management variables on wheat yield gap was negative so that wheat yield gap was reduced by improving of these variables. Among studied management variables, irrigation had the highest effect on yield gap reduction, especially in dry-warm climate and fertilizer application was the second factor which had high effect on yield gap reduction. Therefore, to reduce wheat yield gap in Iran, irrigation management and fertilizer application should be considered.
    Conclusions
    Between studied climate variables, the relative contribution of temperature and rainfall was higher on wheat yield potential compared with radiation in all provinces except the province of Zanjan, Golestan, Gilan and Mazandaran. The highest gap yield (4470 kg ha-1) was assigned to Ilam and Mazandaran provinces. Irrigation and fertilizer application were the more affective variables in yield gap induction.
    Keywords: Frontier production function, Mechanization, Irrigation, Potential yield, Simulation
  • A. Mehnatkesh, Sh Ayoubi, A. A. Dehghani Pages 257-266
    Introduction
    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) as the most strategic crop for human nutrition is cultivated in many countries under rainfed conditions in semiarid regions. To be vital importance to predict rainfed wheat yield and determine the important factors which affect this crop. Modeling is one of the approaches to predict the response of land to land use. Artificial neural networks (ANN) are considered as one of the modeling approaches to yield prediction and determination of the most important parameters in crop productions. In rainfed wheat hilly land of central Zagros of Iran, there are various parameters that influence this crop production. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify these important factors.
    Materials And Methods
    This study was conducted for two years and at two sites under rainfed conditions in Koohrang and Ardal districts in Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari provinces, central Zagros of Iran. At both sites, the study was made on farmer–operated winter wheat fields. At the Koohrang and Ardal sites, 102 and 100 sampling points were selected, respectively. 202 sampling points were chosen on the landscape covering summit, shoulder, backslope, footslope, and toeslope at two sites with varying climatic conditions. Four parameter groups including terrain attributes, soil physical and chemical properties, precipitation, and weed biomass, including 54 factors were used as the inputs, and wheat grain and biomass yield as the targets for ANN models. A feed-forward back-propagating ANN structure was used to develop yield prediction models. The data set was randomly shuffled; 60%, 20% and 20% of them were used for the learning network, testing and verification, respectively. After determination of the best structure of ANN model, crop yields were predicted by the ANN models. By the Hill sensitivity analysis method (Hill, 1998), response of each factor was studied and determined the most effective parameters on grain and biomass yield. This method calculates relative sensitivity coefficient by dividing the sensitivity coefficient of every variable when the variable is reduced 10% by the maximum sensitivity coefficient, therefore the maximum relative sensitivity coefficient is 1.
    Results And Discussion
    The descriptive statistics for various soil characteristics showed that, soil chemical and physical parameters can be classified into three orders. Sand, TN, Kava., Pava., SOM, CCE, and gravel showed high variability (CV>35); clay, silt, and CEC had moderate variability (3515); and SP and pH indicated low variability (CV
    Keywords: Artificial neural network, Central Zagros, Modeling, Rainfed wheat, Sensitivity analysis
  • M. H. Ranjbar, J. Gherekhloo, A. Soltani Pages 267-285
    Introduction
    The maize as the oldest cultivated plant, is ranked second and first in terms of cultivated area and amount of production, in the world respectively. Although, researchers have improved the yield of corn by introducing new lines and hybrids, new genotypes alone cannot increase agricultural production, and it is necessary that appropriate and advanced agricultural techniques also be used to maximize corn yield. Maize is one of the most important crops in Golestan province, which is planted in more than 5000 hectares of agricultural land. In Golestan Province, different tillage systems are used for planting maize. Conservation tillage is a new and widespread method in this province, which many farmers use this method every year for cultivating their crops. The main objective of this study was to investigate the effects of different tillage systems on growth indices and yield of maize.
    Materials And Methods
    To study the effects of different tillage systems on qrowth indices and forage yield of corn, an experiment was conducted using a Nested design at Azadshahr city. Treatments included no-tillage, minimum-tillage and conventional tillage. Each treatment was carried out in a separate 30 × 50 m plot. Cultivar 770 was planted in all plots with row spacing of 75 cmand the distance between plants on the ridges was 14 cm. Sampling was done by a 1*1 m2 quadrate in six phenological stages of maize including two leaf-stage (9 days after planting), six-leaf stage (26 days after planting), flowering (55 days after planting), (71 days after planting), (85 days after planting) and 86 days after planting. At each stage, 15 quadrates were randomly sampled in each plot. Leaf area and dry weight, height of each plant and total fresh and dry weight of maize was measured at laboratory.
    Results And Discussion
    Net assimilation rate decreased following a quadratic equation in all treatments. Although the amount of NAR was estimated 13.5, 13.16 and 13.11 g.m-2.day-1 for conventional, minimum and no tillage, respectively but there was not significance different between the tillage systems in this regard. The maximum amount of NAR occurred at 17.3, 17.4 and 17.5 days after planting for conventional, minimum and no tillage, respectively. The value of this index at the end of the growing season (86 days after planting) was estimated as 0.41, 0.45 and 0.47 g.m-2.day-1 for conventional, minimum and no tillage, respectively.
    Relative growth rate decreased following a quadratic trend for all tillage systems. In conventional tillage, RGR declined from 0.24 g.g-1.day-1 at the beginning of the growing season to 0.01 g.g-1.day-1 at the end of the growing season. There was no difference between estimated RGR of the tillage systems both at beginning and at the end of growing season.
    Maximum crop growth rate occurred at 54 days after planting in all three tillage systems. The maximum value of CGR was estimated 41, 41 and 40 g.m-2.day-1 for maize in conventional, minimum and no tillage systems, respectively. CGR was estimated as 3 g.m-2.day-1 at the beginning of the growing season for all treatments; this index was estimated 15, 15 and 14 g.m-2.day-1 at the end of the growing season, for conventional, minimum and no tillage systems, respectively.
    Result showed that although tillage systems did not effect on dry weight of maize, forage yield of maize in conventional system (71 ton.ha-1) was significantly more than minimum (67 ton.ha-1) and no tillage (64 ton.ha-1) systems.
    Keywords: Conservation tillage, Crop growth rate, Net assimilation rate, Relative growth rate
  • B. Zafarighalehrodkhani, A. Soltani, E. Zeinali, B. Kamkar, M. Firozfard Pages 286-297
    Introduction
    Crop models are the most important parts of ecological models. These models could provide the possibility of crop systems prediction in addition to increase the understanding of their performance. Allometric relationships of plants show the changes of growth of one part in comparison to the other parts of the plant. Determining the appropriate plant density in crops, especially wheat has the high importance which affects some characteristics such as yield and yield components. This effect varies between different stages of plant growth.
    Materials And Methods
    This research has been done in research station of Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources (37 45N, 54 30E and 120m asl) in the growing season of 2012-13. The experiment was conducted in a factorial experiment with randomized complete block design with four replications as base. Treatments consisted of two wheat cultivars (Koohdasht and Morvarid) and 7 plant densities (50, 100, 200, 350, 500, 650, 800 seed.m2). Each replication consisted of 14 plots and each plot had 10 rows with length of 5 m, width of 2 m and a row spacing of 20 cm. Plot distances from each other was 40 cm and block distances was 1 m to each other. Measurements were done from tillering to the end of the growing every 7 to 10 days (depending on weather conditions). Cumulative thermal units were calculated using GDD_Calc program. Power model and non-liner segmented regression model were used to describe allometric relationships.
    Results And Discussion
    In fitting allometric equations related to plant height, results showed that plant height in wheat starts from emergence and reaches the maximum in the anthesis stage and then remains constant. Hence, fitting equations were done to find allometric relations of wheat plant height and coefficient of 0.94 and root mean square error between 6.80 and 5.16 showed that the equation could well describe the height of plant during the growing season. Checking coefficients showed that there was no significant differences between a coefficient but significant differences was investigated in b coefficient and X0 coefficient. The analysis of the relationship between plant height and the number of leaves in main stem showed a significant effect according to b coefficient with coefficient of determination of 0.92, in different densities. Coefficient of determination values greater than 0.97 indicated a strong relationship between plant height and shoot dry weight, but the analysis showed no significant effect in terms of a (plant height when shoot dry weight is 1 gr) and b coefficients. In addition, regarding the relationship between the height and total dry weight of vegetative parts in different plant density, coefficient of determination values greater than 0.97 and ranges of root mean square error between 4.86 and 9.119, belong to the plant densities of 50 and 800, respectively, which showed a very good correlation between the height and the total dry weight of vegetative parts. The a coefficient (plant height when total dry weight is 1 gr) had significant difference and decrees about 0.0036 unit according to each plant more dense but for b coefficient, there was no significant difference.
    Conclusions
    In general, the results revealed that plant height has significant correlation with the number of leaves in main stem, shoot dry weight and total dry weight of vegetative parts by coefficient of determination 0.93, 0.97 and 0.96, respectively. In addition, the correlation coefficient for producing leaves in main stem was 0.93.
    Keywords: Allometric, Plant height, Plant density, Variety, Vegetative traits
  • M. Askary, A. Maghsoudi Moud, V. Saffari, A. Askary Pages 298-310
    Introduction
    In order to evaluate the effects of salt stress on membrane stability, chlorophyll a and b, carotenoids, yield components and grain yield of seven maize hybrids (Ksc700, Ksc500, KSc704, Ksc301, Ksc647) (Iranian hybrids) and Ksc404 and maxima (foreign hybrids), a test was conducted in research field of faculty of agriculture in Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Iran in 2011 using plot splits in the form of complete random block with three replications. The main plots included four salinity water of irrigation water with electrical conductivity of four, six, eight and 10 dS/m, respectively, and subplots, including the mentioned hybrids. According to the results, increase of salinity level led to decrease of all evaluated traits, with exception of carotenoids, in a way that the highest level of measured traits were obtained from the lowest salinity level. Calculation of correlation coefficients between the traits demonstrated a positive and significant correlation between grain yield and membrane stability in 120 minutes (r=0.61**) and grain yield and the 1000-grain weight (r=0.93**). In this research, the minimum and maximum amount of grain yield were estimated as 10610 and 5750 kg/ha, respectively, in salinity level of 4 and 10 Ds/m. Moreover, among the hybrids, the Ksc704 hybrid had the highest level of membrane stability and grain yield in the evaluation condition, and was introduced as the salt tolerant hybrid for culture in such conditions.
    Materials And Methods
    This experiment was done in experimental field of the Faculty of Agronomy of the University of Shahid Bahounar Kerman, Iran, located in latitude 30ºN, longitude 57ºE and altitude 1754 m above sea level in 2012. The experiment was carried in split plot in the Complete Block design with three replications. The main plots were four salinity levels (4, 6, 8 and dS10) where in the subplots seven maize hybrids included Ksc700, Ksc500, Ksc404, Ksc704, Ksc647, Ksc301 and Maxima that were prepared from Kerman Research Center. Excel software was used for mean comparisons using a multiple range test (LSD) test that was performed at the 5% level.
    Measuring the stability of the membrane: From each experimental unit a plant is randomly selected, a leaf in the same position is separated and washed thoroughly with distilled water and dried by drying paper, so the circular pieces of paper is cut by punch and immediately were recorded and kept on lidded tube containing 5 ml of distilled water. Conductivity meter machine was adjusted for two hours to record and store every 3 minutes the electrical conductivity of the solution. The gained measurements were analyzed and regressed in the relevant time period. Given that in most cases a second degree between the data is fitted , the slope of the acquired line in the first 15 minutes is estimated while a linear function on the data and in each case were considered as an indicator of the stability of the membrane and hence the predicted values of electrical conductivity by graphs were counted according to equation 1 for the three times of 60, 15 and 120 minutes; consequently the obtained numbers for these three times were used according to the factorial model in a completely randomized design on the analysis of variance. It is assumed that an increase in the electrical conductivity of the solution was in contact with the leaf samples from leaking continuously ions in the solution and the rate of leakage reflects the stability of the membrane at the exit of ions.
    Measurements of Leaf pigments (Chlorophyll and carotenoid concentrations): Chlorophyll (Chl a, b) and carotenoid content of the youngest fully expanded leaves was estimated at midday. Samples of 0.5g were taken from the collected leaves. Subsequently, 0.25g of each sample was extracted by 80% acetone and put in the freezer at −5◦C for 24h. For each replicate (plant), chlorophyll content was the result of the average of 5 measurements on the same leaf.
    Results And Discussion
    Mean comparison showed salt stress has significant effects on ion leakage at three times and includes 15, 60 and 120 minutes after samples were in water. Results showed that ion leakage content increased in salt stress and with the passage of time, therefore, membrane stability decreased. The highest and lowest membrane stability were minimum of 15 minutes and maximum of 120 minutes. At the highest time, membrane stability decreased in salt stress compared to the control. At 120th minute, the highest and the lowest membrane stability monitored from Ksc704 and Maxima hybrids respectively. The highest Chl a, b obtained from of Ksc647 hybrid. Carotenoid content increased under salt stress. The highest and lowest carotenoid content obtained under salt stress and normal condition respectively. Among hybrids, Ksc700 hybrid showed the highest and Maxima showed lowest (unless were no significant differences with Ksc404, Ksc500, Ksc704, Ksc301) carotenoid content respectively. Analysis of variance showed a significant difference between hybrids about total dry weight. The highest and lowest dry weight obtained under normal condition and salt stress respectively. Among hybrids, Ksc647 hybrid and Ksc700 hybrid showed the highest and the lowest total dry weight respectively. So hybrids have higher levels of this trait can be introduced as hybrids with higher yield in saline conditions. The highest and lowest grain weight obtained from normal condition and salt stress respectively. Among hybrids, Ksc301 hybrid and Ksc700 hybrid showed the highest and the lowest grain weight respectively. The highest and lowest grain yield obtained from normal condition and salt stress respectively. Among hybrids, Ksc704 hybrid and Maxima hybrid showed the highest and the lowest grain yield respectively.
    Conclusions
    The main goal of this study was selection of resistant hybrid that contain higher grain yield. Where in this study the Ksc704 hybrid demonstrate the highest membrane stability, photosynthetic pigment and the highest yield among the displayed hybrids to be introduced as resistant hybrid with respect to other tested hybrids.
    Keywords: 1000-grain weight, Ksc704, Membrane stability, Photosynthetic pigments, Salinity
  • A. Hodiani Mehr, M. Dahmardeh, I. Khammari, M. R. Asgharipoor Pages 311-322
    Introduction
    Intercropping is one of the components of sustainable agriculture and as part of crop rotation in the design of sustainable system. One of the benefits of intercropping is greater use of available resources. The aims of this study were to evaluate different tillage systems and cropping patterns of Roselle and Green Gram on some soil nutrients and the use efficiency of environmental resources. Usually, intercropping used at Low fertility soil with low input conditions in the tropics region. Bahrani et al. (2007) reported that no tillage systems compared with conventional tillage with crop residue, were increased soil organic carbon content in maize production. Ramroudi et al. (2011) expressed conventional tillage reduced amount of nitrogen compared to no tillage system.
    Material and
    Methods
    The research was conducted at Zabol city. Split plot experiment performed based on a randomized complete block design with three replications. Main plot was three levels of tillage system (zero (without plowing), reduced (disk) and conventional tillage (disc plow)) and sub plot was planting ratio with five levels (pure culture of Roselle, pure culture of Green gram, 50% roselle% green gram, 25% roselle% green gram, 75% roselle% green gram) were considered. Preparing the ground in mid-June 2012, according to the type of plowing was performed. For comparison of means were used by Duncan's test at 5% probability.
    Results And Discussion
    The effects of tillage systems, planting ratios and interaction of tillage systems × planting ratio on soil organic carbon and nitrogen were very significant. The highest and lowest levels of organic carbon were obtained in zero tillage (1.14%) and conventional tillage systems (0.63 %), respectively. The highest and lowest nitrogen of soil after harvest, of pure culture of Green gram (0.11 %) and 75 % of Roselle 25% Green gram intercropping (0.06 %) were obtained respectively, Tillage system could not affected the amount of magnesium of soil after harvest. The comparison of means showed that the highest and the lowest magnesium content were observed in conventional tillage (17.9 ppm) and zero tillage (16.7 ppm) respectively, (Table 2). The calcium amount in a pure culture of green gram (17.9 ppm) was higher than the net cultivation of Roselle (15.5 ppm). The Most of potassium soil of intercropping 25 % Roselle % green gram (480.1 ppm) and the lowest amount of pure cultures of Roselle (401.8 ppm), were obtained (Table 2). Bohrani et al., (2) were reported that no tillage systems compared with conventional tillage with crop residue have increases soil organic carbon content. With the increase of Roselle in intercropping reduced soil potassium and with increase the proportion of green gram in intercropping, potassium was increased. Tillage systems, planting ratio and interactions (tillage system × planting ratio) had a significant effect on soil water content and soil temperature. Comparison of means showed that maximum and minimum soil water content of the soil related to the zero tillage (18.6 %) and conventional tillage (12.6 %). soil water content pure culture of green gram was the greater than intercropping and pure culture of Roselle. Soil temperature in pure culture of Roselle was greater than of pure culture of green gram. Effect of planting ratio was significant on LER in 1% probability level. The highest and lowest of LER was obtained in 75 %green gram 25% (1.36) and 25 % green gram % Roselle (1.15). Beheshti and Soltaniyan (2012) reported that LER in various combinations of sorghum and beans intercropping was higher than of unit.
    Conclusions
    Investigation showed that the zero tillage treatments and intercropping increased the efficiency of environmental resources and improved the soil nutrient, significantly. The highest LER was achieved 75% green gram 25% Roselle, which is indicative of the excellence of intercropping compared to monoculture. The amount of organic carbon has shown an increase in soil fertility using zero tillage and increase percent of green gram in intercropping. The results showed that zero tillage systems, monoculture green gram and intercropping had soil water content more than conventional tillage systems and monoculture Roselle.
    Keywords: Land equivalent ratio, Nitrogen, Soil temperature
  • P. Naghipoor Dehkordi, A. Koocheki, M. Nassiri Mahallati, S. Khorramdel Pages 323-340
    Introduction
    One of the components of sustainable agriculture is multiple cropping (such as intercropping). Intercropping means the use of a farm to produce two or more crops through a year. Diversity in agricultural systems is a reason for sustainability and widespread and better production, and better use of natural resources and environment, such as water, light and nutrients has priority to monoculture. Intercropping is one of agronomical strategies to increasing the absorption and efficiency of radiation absorption and use.
    In proper agronomical conditions that there is no limitation for crop growth, there is a linear relationship between dry matter and absorbed radiation and the slope of regression trend line between these two indices during growing season is radiation use efficiency (RUE).
    Radiation use efficiency (RUE) relates biomass production to the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) intercepted by a plant or crop. Radiation use efficiency is dependent on light, temperature, vapor pressure deficit and factors inherent to plant species. Linear relationship between biomass and accumulated intercepted radiation has been demonstrated for several herbaceous plants (e.g., beans, soybean and lettuce) and for a few tree species (e.g., willow, mesquite and juniper). The production of dry matter in conditions without any environmental stresses is a function of light absorption and efficiency of plant to production of dry matter from absorbed radiation.
    Materials And Methods
    In order to study RUE in intercropping pattern of three medicinal plants including marigold (Calendula officinalis), borage (Borago officinalis) and black cumin (Nigella sativa) in two and three species compared with their monoculture, an experiment was conducted based on a randomized complete block design with three replications at the Agricultural Research Station, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad in the growing season of 2013-2014. Treatments included 1:1 ratio of black cumin-marigold, black cumin-borage and marigold-borage and 1:1:1 ratio of black cumin-marigold-borage and monoculture of each of three species. LAI of plants during the growth season, K and RUE of every plant in related treatments were determined and calculated. To fit functions and drawing the figures Slide Write program and MS Excel was used.
    Results And Discussions
    The results showed that RUE was enhanced in intercropping of all three medicinal plants. Dry matter production by three medicinal plant species was linearly related to the amount of PAR intercepted. Since Intercropping is useful when mixed species have phonological and morphological differences for intercepting of light and up taking of elements and water, so improvement in yield of intercropping can be due to increasing in light interception, increasing of RUE or both of them. The value of RUE changed over time, partially as a consequence of changes in canopy photosynthetic rates. The highest RUE was observed in triple intercropping among the experiment treatments. RUE of triple intercropping for black cumin, marigold and borage were 1.34, 1.08 and 1.34 g MJ-1, respectively and also lowest RUE was recorded in theirs monoculture and RUE values of treatments of double intercropping were between the other treatments. There are vacancies in monoculture leads to a large amount of light loss and thus reduced productivity of agricultural ecosystems.
    It seems that RUE in all three studied plants from the beginning of the flowering stage to flowering stage was higher than that RUE after this stage. This result may be due to effects of reducing in photosynthesis and plant growth due to factors such as remobilization of the elements from leaves and partitioning of more photosynthetic substances to reproductive parts of plant like flowers or seeds. However, the response of canopy photosynthesis to radiation is complex and depends on incident radiation flux density and individual leaf photosynthetic response. Radiation use efficiency may be affected by change these variables as PAR increases.
    Conclusions
    Light is one of the most important sources of growth and development of plants. The results of this study clearly showed the effect of intercropping on improving the light use efficiency of black cumin, marigold and borage. RUE changed partially as a consequence of changes in canopy photosynthetic rates. According to the results, intercropping of three medicinal plants of black cumin, marigold and borage can be beneficial in term of ecological management.
    Keywords: PAR, Radiation absorption, Replacement intercropping series, Resource use efficiency
  • N. A. Sajedi, H. Madani, A. Sajedi Pages 341-354
    Introduction
    Environmental stresses affect growth, metabolism and crops yield. Drought is an important stress and it decreases crop productivity. Drought stress symptoms vary, depending on intensity and duration of drought and growth stage of the plant. The first response of plant to drought stress is producing the active oxygen species (ROS) in cell that these cause injury to membranes and proteins. Selenium (Se) application could have beneficial effect on growth and stress tolerance of plants by increasing their activity of antioxidants and reduce the reactive oxygen species over production. Selenium is essential for growth and activities of human and animals. Absorption and accumulation of selenium in plant depend on chemical compound and concentration of selenium in soil. Recent studies have demonstrated that Se increases resistance and antioxidant capacity of plants to various stress. It is reported that selenium application in barley plant no changes the amounts of malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide under water deficit stress. The current paper studies the response of agronomic traits of wheat and barley to sources and different rates of selenium in rain fed condition.
    Materials And Methods
    In order to investigate response of agronomic traits of wheat and barley to sources and different rates of selenium in rainfed condition, an experiment was carried out as factorial based on randomized complete block design with three replications at the Research Station of Islamic Azad University, Arak Branch, during 2014-2015. Experimental factors were included selenium sources at two levels, Sodium selenate and Selenite, Selenium rates at three levels of zero, 18 and 36 g ha-1 and two crop plants of wheat and barley. The wheat rain fed seed Azar 2 cultivar and Barley cultivar Abidar were hand planted at 15 cm spacing in 6 m rows, with one meter borders between the plots. Foliar application of Se was performed at rate of 18 and 36 g ha-1 at appearance of 5th node of stem or Zadoks growth stage (ZGS) 43 and at appearance of 75% florescence spikelets or Zadoks growth stage (ZGS) 57. At harvesting time, one m2 was harvested from the middle of each plot and the grain and biological yield was evaluated. The data were analyzed SAS software. Means were compared using Duncan's Multiple Range test at P≤0.05
    Results And Discussion
    The results showed that, the spike length without awn of wheat was 10.4% more than barley, but in barley the spike length without awn was 11.2% more than wheat. The spike harvest index in barley was 21.7% more than wheat. Foliar application of 18 g ha-1 selenium increased the grain weight per spike by 4.9% compared with control. The maximum grain weight per spike was obtained from foliar application 18 g ha-1 sodium selenite. Foliar application of 18 and 36 g ha-1 selenium as sodium selenite increased the grain weight per spike by 13.7 and 5.1% compared with control, respectively. Foliar application of 18 g ha-1 Se increased grain and biological yield by 6 and 8.4% compared with control, respectively. The results showed that, the highest biological yield (5784kg ha-1) in wheat was obtained in application of 18 g ha-1 selenium as sodium selenite treatment. The highest biological yield (5889 kg ha-1) in barley was record from application of 18 g ha-1 selenium as sodium selenate. The grain yield of barely was 10% more than wheat in rain fed condition. The highest grain yield (1757 kg ha-1) in wheat was record from foliar application of 18 g ha-1 sodium selenite that, grain yield increased by 9% compared with control. In barley, the highest grain yield was obtained in foliar application of 18 g ha-1 sodium selenite or selenite treatments. It is reported that, the foliar application of selenium under stress conditions was found that increase the antioxidant enzyme activity, consequently reducing oxidative stress and the free radicals which have a decisive effect on plant cells. Some reports showed that selenium could increase the tolerance of plants to stressful environments.
    Conclusions
    In general, it could be concluded that foliar application of 18 g ha-1 selenium as sodium selenate or selenite in stem elongation stage in wheat and barley in rain fed condition was led to obtain optimum grain and biological yield.
    Keywords: Azar 2, Abidar, Biological yield, Spike traits
  • S. Farhangfar, M. Bannayan*, H. R. Khazaei, M. Mousavi Baygi Pages 355-367
    Introduction
    Climate change has a profound influence on crop production sustainability in arid and semiarid environments. A more arid climate is usually accompanied by a higher frequency and severity of droughts. Drought prevention and mitigation has become important content of promoting economic and social sustainable development. Assessing vulnerability of agricultural crops is an effective approach in understanding the impacts of climate change and extreme climatic events on agricultural systems. In recent years vulnerability was generally considered as a function of exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity. Sensitivity reflects the degree to which a given system responds to the fluctuations in stress. Adaptive capacity has been defined as the capacity of a system to adjust to the change and take advantage from it. Exposure is the possibility of the system being exposed to the concerned change in the stress. This study aims to achieve an understanding of the vulnerability of wheat and maize production, to various severities of drought conditions in the past and coming future years.
    Materials And Methods
    This study was performed in Mashhad, Sabzevar and Torbat Heydarieh. Daily historical weather data including maximum and minimum air temperature (°C), precipitation (mm) and solar radiation (MJ m-2 d-1) for the period of 1961-2008 were collected for each study location from their established climatologic stations. Two general circulation models including IPCM4 and HadCM3 were used under A1B, A2 and B1 emission scenarios using LARS-WG. Historical crop yields of canola were collected for study locations from the established Ministry of Agricultural. The potential canola yield was simulated by the crop growth model WOFOST version 7.1.7. For quantifying drought, Aridity Index (UNEP 1992) was calculated for canola growing season March-October. In this study vulnerability was considered as a function of sensitivity, wellbeing state relative to its damage threshold and exposure. Sensitivity was calculated as the slope value of the simulated trend line of yield and aridity index during the growing season of canola. The crop production wellbeing to its damage threshold was calculated as the proportion of the yield of a specific year to the average yield over the selected years. Exposure was calculated as the proportion of years having an AIU value under the specified level within the concerned period.
    Results And Discussion
    The estimated agricultural sensitivity showed that in all the study locations canola was extremely sensitive to drought in the baseline; the same trend was obtained in the projected years by both HadCM3 and IPCM4 models (SEN > 200). For all the study locations the estimated values of VEXPL, VEXPS and EVEXP in the baseline were extremely high (> 20), while EEXP was low. It seems that canola production in the baseline have suffered from severe drought. The results of both GCM models showed the same trend under all scenarios as the estimated values of SEN, VEXPL, VEXPS and EVEXP during the coming future years were extremely high, while EEXP was low. It seems that in all study locations drought is going to affect canola production in the coming future years. These negative effects can be related to photosynthesis reduction and decline in the speed and amount of transportation assimilation under drought conditions that causes crop yield and dry matter reduction. Drought also affects plants pollination and causes pollen sterility, which affects crop production. It was reported by Daneshmand et al., 2006 that drought usually affects the grains of canola by reducing the number of seeds in siliqua. It was stated by Ma et al., 2006 that the number of seeds in the siliqua declines under drought conditions. According to the results of Mishra and Cherkauer, 2010 during 1980-2007 the yield of crops showed a strong correlation with drought during the seed filling and reproductive periods in western part of the center United States. It was also reported that drought reduces the morphological traits of canola (bush height, number of sub-branches and the length of siliqua), grain yield and its components (the number of siliqua in a bush, number of seeds in a siliqua and the weight of 1000 seeds) and the oil yield significantly.
    Conclusions
    Overall, this study results showed that canola production has affected from severe droughts during the baseline years. The results of both GCM models showed the same trend as the baseline. Canola production was extremely sensitive and vulnerable to drought during the baseline and projected years.
    Keywords: Sensitivity, Vulnerability, WOFOST model
  • P. Jamshidi, M. Baradaran Firoozabadi, H. Oloumi, H. Naghavi Pages 368-379
    Introduction
    In order to evaluate the effect of foliar spraying of zinc and calcium on yield and physiological traits of safflower under lead stress, a factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design was performed in Kerman agricultural and natural resource research and education center in 2014-2015 with three replications. The first factorial included three levels (control, and 0.5 and 1 μM lead spraying), whereas the second and third factorials were spraying zinc sulfate at three concentrations (zero, and 10 and 20 μM) and spraying calcium chloride at two levels (zero and 20 μM), respectively. According to the results, grain yield, the 1000-grain weight, leaf dry weight, number of seeds per head, head weight and chlorophyll content decreased. On the other hand, a significant increase was observed in the activities of catalase and ascorbate peroxidase enzymes and amount of malondialdehyde in plants. Moreover, spraying zinc fertilizer in lead treatment resulted in a significant increase in activity of catalase enzyme, reduction of membrane lipid peroxidation, prevention of chlorophyll destruction and maintenance of grain yield. However, the effect of spraying calcium fertilize in lead treatment was only significant on chlorophyll content. According to the results of the research, it seems that spraying zinc fertilizer had more effects on improved growth of safflower under lead stress, compared to spraying calcium fertilizer. Therefore, in air pollution with heavy metals (lead), application of zinc sulfate fertilizer can be an effective approach to maintain the growth and production of plants.
    Among the various heavy metals, lead (Pb) is a major anthropogenic pollutant that has been released to the environment since the industrial revolution and accumulated in different terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems These elements will transfer to leaves in polluted areas and will rapidly uptake and cause irreparable damages to the most important part of the plant, i.e. photosynthetic system and changes immune system activity (Enzyme activity) and finally reduces the plant yield. Ca2 improves plant resistance is related to maintaining a higher photosynthetic rate under stresses. Zn has a role in modulation of free radicals and their related processes through antioxidant properties and Zn applied by foliar spraying can increase the yield of crops. Therefore, this study aims to investigate how zinc and calcium fertilizers as foliar application increase safflower plant resistance to lead stress and their role on the damages caused by the stress on the activity of antioxidant defense system and photosynthetic pigments and its role in improving the plant yield in lead leaf absorption.
    Materials And Methods
    The field experiment was carried out in a factorial based on randomized complete block design with three replications in the farm of Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education center of Kerman. The first factor consisted of three levels of lead (Control, 0.5 and l mM lead foliar) and the second factor, the foliar application of zinc sulfate in three concentrations (zero, 10 and 20 mM) and the third factor was the foliar application of calcium chloride in two concentrations (zero and 10 mM). Cultivars used in this experiment were Goldasht cultivars (safflower). In this study, the activity of ascorbate peroxidase, catalases enzymes and malondialdehyde contents were measured. At harvest time, stem and leaf dry weight, seed number per head, Head weight, 1000 seed weight and seed yield was calculated. All data were analyzed with SAS software. Analysis of variance and statistical analysis was performed using SAS and Excel softwares, Mean comparison was done by least significant difference (LSD) test at 5 percent.
    Results And Discussion
    The results indicated that lead stress had a significant effect on most of the studied traits. Due to lead stress seed yield, 1000 seeds weight, leaf dry weight, seed number per head, head weight and chlorophyll contents decreased and the activity of catalases, ascorbate peroxidase and malondialdehyde contents showed significant increase in the plant. Based on the results we concluded that, decrease in seed yield and plant growth by lead exposure can be in relation to this toxicity and oxidative stress. Also the present results revealed that the increase in the activity of catalases, ascorbate peroxidase and malondialdehyde content prevent the occurrence of oxidative damage under Pb stress. The results showed that lead and zinc interaction effects were significant on grain yield, chlorophyll b and malondialdehyde. The foliar application of zinc improved catalases enzymatic activity, decreased membrane lipid peroxidation and prevented destruction of chlorophyll and maintained yield in stress lead. The optimization of zinc under Pb stress could alleviate Pb-induced toxic effects by enhancing biochemical reactions and physiological processes in safflower plant. The variance analysis showed that only lead and calcium interaction effects on chlorophyll a were significant. Content of chlorophyll a increased at non-stress conditions along with the foliar treatment of calcium (10 mM) compared to the control.
    Conclusions
    The lead toxicity led to decline in growth and dry matter accumulation and the reduction of chlorophyll synthesis in plants and finally the reduction of the safflower yield. In the lead stress condition, the foliar application of zinc sulfate can be affected in the activation of plant defense systems and prevented the destruction of chlorophyll. Calcium successfully prevented occurrence of chlorosis and increased chlorophyll content. Based on the results, it seems that the application of zinc can have a greater impact on improving safflower growth than calcium fertilizer in lead stress. So in areas contaminated by heavy metals lead, zinc sulfate fertilizer can be as a solution to keep growing and production plants.
    Keywords: Chlorophyll, Enzyme activity, Heavy metal, Malondialdehyde
  • A. Abbasian, Gh Asadi, R. Ghorbani Pages 380-388
    Introduction
    Invasive plants threaten the ecosystems of agriculture, forests and rangelands. In this regard, Centaurea balsamita is an annual plant of asteraceae family that invades the fallow and slope lands. This plant is reproduced by seed and distributed in Syria, Turkey, Iran, Afghanistan and Central Asia (Turkmenistan to Tian Shan). Given that, according to studies accomplished in the world, threats of invasive plants are widely known, and since most studies related to freezing and cold stress tolerance are conducted on crop plants and there is little information about invasive plants, and considering that the precise identification of problematic invasive species. This study was performed to evaluate invasive plant Centaurea balsamita cold acclimated in spring to chill and freezing stress.
    Materials And Methods
    The experiments were conducted at Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Faculty of Agriculture, in 2014 in a completely randomized design. In this experiment Centaurea balsamita in 2 to 4 and 4 to 6 leaf stage after the period of cold acclimation in the spring exposed to ten chilling and freezing temperatures (4, 2, 0, -2, -4,-6, -8, -10, -12 and -14 °C). In the experiment the pots were kept in the nursery from March 12, 2014 to April 19, 2014 and after cold acclimation period under these conditions, they were exposed to Chilling and freezing temperatures using thermogradient freezer. Freezer temperature was 8 °C at the beginning of the experiment and after placing the samples inside, the temperature decreased with the speed of 8 °C per hour. The cytoplasm membrane stability of Centaurea balsamita was evaluated using electrolyte leakage; then the lethal temperature of 50% of samples was determined based on leakage percentage (LT50el). Survival percentage was evaluated by counting the number of live plants in each pot. Then, at the end of the recovery period, the lethal temperature for 50% of survival percentage (LT50su) and reduction temperature for 50% of dry weight (RDMT50) were determined (three weeks after the application of freezing treatment).
    Results And Discussion
    The lowest and highest percentage of electrolyte leakage in cold acclimated Centaurea balsamita, with spring conditions influenced by chilling and freezing temperatures were at 4 °C and -14 °C, respectively. Temperature reduction from -6 °C to -8 °C caused significant increase (P ≤ 0.05) in electrolyte leakage in Centaurea balsamita. In addition, the lowest and highest percentage of survival in cold acclimated Centaurea balsamita, with spring conditions influenced by chilling and freezing temperatures were observed at 4 °C and -14 °C, respectively. Temperature reduction from -6 °C to -8 °C caused significant decrease (P ≤ 0.05) in survival percentage in Centaurea balsamita. The highest and lowest dry weight in cold acclimated Centaurea balsamita, with spring conditions influenced by freezing temperatures, after the recovery period (21 days after application of freezing treatment) were observed at 4 °C and -14 °C, respectively. Temperature reduction to below -6 °C caused significant decrease (P ≤ 0.05) in biomass of Centaurea balsamita. According to the results of the present experiment, LT50el, LT50su and RDMT50 for acclimated Centaurea balsamita with spring conditions are -7.05 °C, -7.6 °C and -7.15 °C, respectively. Researchers reported that the plants with more tolerant to cold have less LT50el, LT50su and RDMT50.
    Conclusions
    This study showed that in invasive plants such as Centaurea balsamita, using electrolyte leakage and survival tests can be relatively good methods in assessing and identifying invasive plants tolerant to cold, and help to identify invasive plant cold tolerance, predict their distribution and invasion. However, to ensure more about the cold tolerance of this invasive plant, it is recommended to cold acclimate this plant in areas with higher elevation and colder than Mashhad to achieve more accurate assessment of cold tolerance. Yet, due to low LT50su of this plant when distributed, migration this invasive plant to wheat, barley and rangelands is highly plausible.
    Keywords: LT50el, LT50su, RDMT50, Recovery
  • M. Dorrani-Nejad, Gh Mohammadi-Nejad, R. Abdolshahi Pages 389-398
    Introduction
    Wheat is the oldest and most important cultivated crop in the world and has fundamental role in human food security. Drought is one of the most common environmental stresses that affect growth and development of plants. Most parts of Iran’s cultivation land are located in arid and semiarid regions and because of water deficiency, plant stress appear and wheat performance reduces severely in these regions. In such circumstances, the production of drought tolerant varieties has special importance. Understand the genetic basis of yield and yield related traits is necessary in breeding programs. One of the best approaches to determine genetic parameters is generation means analysis method, due to it allows breeders to predict epistasis. In order to estimate genetic parameters and evaluation of gene action controlling agronomic traits in bread wheat under moisture stress, F4 families derived from cross between Roushan and Kavir along with F2, F3 and parents, were evaluated under moisture stress.
    Materials And Methods
    Field experiment was carried out in research field of Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, during growing season of year 2013-2014 using Augmented design with 5 known check cultivars (Roushan, Falat, Mahdavi, Karchia and Shahpasand). Stress treatment was cut off irrigation at heading stage. Grain yield and some agronomic traits were measured. Generation means analysis method was used to determine genetic parameters including additive effect (d), dominance effect (h), additive × additive [i], and dominance × dominance effect [l] were evaluated for different traits. Generation means analysis was carried out using equation 1.
    Y= mα[d]β[h]α2[i]αβ[j]β2[l] (1)
    Broad and narrow sense heritability of evaluated traits were estimated according to equation 2 and 3.
    Results And Discussion
    The study revealed a complex genetic control for studied traits. Genetic variation in F2, F3 and F4 was more than parents. Five-parameter model including m, [d], [h], [i] and [l] explained genetic variation for plant height, awn length, grain number per plant, 1000-grains weight, biology and grain yield. While, a four parameter model including m, [h], [i] and [l] were explained genetic diversity of grain filling period and a four-parameter model including m, [d], [h], and [l] was valid for explaining genetic variation of number of spike per plant and harvest index. A three parameter model including m, [d], [i] made the significant contributions to the inheritance of spike length. The additive genetic variance was detected as the most important genetic effect in controlling grain yield, biologic yield, harvest index, 1000-grian weight, awn length, spike length and grain filling period. Therefore, selection in early generations is effective for these traits. High narrow sense heritability of these traits proposes that the most part of genetic variance could be fixed in segregating generations. Broad and narrow sense heritability of studied traits in the present population were 0.46 to 0.96 and 0.16 to 0.93, respectively. 1000-grian weight, grain yield, biologic yield, grain filling period and harvest index had the highest narrow sense heritability, respectively. Therefore in the present population, selection based on these traits could result in good genetic gain. While, dominant effect was more important for plant height, number of spike per plant and grain number per plant. Significant differences between broad and narrow sense heritability of these traits has confirmed the fact that the dominance effect is very important. Therefore, selection should be made in later generations until desirable genes are fixed. Low narrow sense heritability was observed for number of spike per plant (0.16). Therefore, selection based on this trait can not have good genetic gain in present population. In this study, environmental variation was less than additive and dominance variance that show accuracy of the estimations and low impact of the environment on evaluated traits. Plant height, number of spike per plant and grain number per plant showed one degree greater than of dominance. These result showed over dominance of genes controlling mentioned traits.
    Conclusions
    Based on the results obtained in this experiment, it can be concluded that there is a considerable genetic diversity in the population F2, F3, F4 derived of Roushan and Kavir cross which can be used as a high potential population for genetic improvement of evaluated traits. The Results showed that additive variance was more important than dominance in genetic control of evaluated traits. So, selection during early generations is recommended in wheat breeding program of this population.
    Keywords: Additive, Cut-off Irrigation, Dominance, Heritability
  • H. Abbasi, M. Aghaalikhani, J. Hamzei Pages 399-412
    Introduction
    Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo var. Styriaca) is one of the medicinal plants belonging to the Cucurbitaceae family. It is valuable in terms of seed oil and its fatty acids. The seed oil of this crop is widely used in the pharmaceutical industry. Reduction of agrochemicals (herbicides and fertilizers) is considered as research priority in medicinal plants production. Therefore, the selected practices and inputs should be environmentally sound, cost-effective and lead to high yield. Because of large inter-row space in pumpkin field, there is vast area of the bare soil which leads to weed establishment and loss of soil moisture. It seems that black plastic mulch protects soil moisture and controls weeds, thus increases seed yield. Also, biofertilizers due to available micronutrients, solubility of phosphorus, biological nitrogen fixation and phyto-hormones production increase the yield and improve the quality characteristics such as the seed oil and seed protein content. Therefore, in this research, the effect of black plastic mulch and biofertilizer on yield and quality of pumpkin under different irrigation intervals were studied.
    Materials And Methods
    This experiment was carried out as split plot factorial based on randomized complete block design with three replications at Agricultural Research Station, Bu-Ali Sina University of Hamedan during 2013 growing season. Treatments were included two irrigation intervals (I1: 7 days and I2: 12 days interval), black plastic mulch in two levels (M1: mulch and M2: no mulch), and four fertilizer regimes (F1: Supply 25% of nitrogen and phosphorus requirements of plants from chemical sources (urea triple super phosphate) biofertilizers (nitroxin渪phosphate), F2: Supply 50% of nitrogen and phosphorus requirements of plants from chemical sources biofertilizers, F3: Supply 75% of nitrogen and phosphorus requirements of plants from chemical sources biofertilizers and F4: Supply 100% of nitrogen and phosphorus requirements of plants from chemical sources). , Biological yield, fruit yield, seed yield, harvest index, seed oil percent and oil yield, seed protein percent and protein yield and fatty acid profile were measured in the end of growing season. Harvest index was calculated by dividing the seed yield to biological yield. The seed oil was extracted by using the Soxhlet method and seed protein content was measured by Kjeldahl method. Fatty acids profile were also determined using gas chromatography device (GC) based on Metcalf et al. method. Data were analyzed by using the statistical analysis system (SAS, Ver. 9.2) and means were compared with LSD test at the 5% level of probability.
    Results and Discussion Results indicated that more traits of pumpkin were affected by three way interaction. The highest biological yield, seed and oil yield were obtained in the I1M1F3, I2M1F3 and I2M1F3 treatments, respectively. 12 day irrigation interval, using of black plastic mulch and 75% chemical fertilizers biofertilizers application had the highest protein yield (364.05 kg per hectare). Using of biofertilizers with supply 75% of the nitrogen and phosphorus requirements of plants from chemical sources, provided proper nutritional conditions for plant growth and increased fruit and seed yields. Also, using of black plastic mulch with 12 days irrigation interval increased yield due to the maintenance of soil moisture and weeds control. The major fatty acids in seed oil were unsaturated. The amount of unsaturated fatty acids such as linolenic acid (0.1 to 0.25 %), linoleic acid (36.5 to 57.44 %), oleic acid (21.5 to 39.5 %), and saturated fatty acids including palmitic acid (8.5 to 14.5%) and stearic acid (5 to 7%) were variable. Other fatty acids in seed oil of pumpkin were including arachidonic, myristic, and palmitoleic acid.
    Conclusions
    The results of this study indicated that I2M1F3 treatment could be introduced as the superior because in the circumstance of this treatment, chemical fertilizer decreased by 25%, weeds were controlled non-chemically and maximum fruit, seed and oil yield with 59554, 1559 and 731 kg per hectare, respectively, were obtained with less water amount. Seed oil of this treatment had 33.89% oleic acid and 44.9% linoleic acid in its fatty acid profile, which could be considered as a high quality oil. Therefore with correct management of inputs such as the replacement of chemical fertilizers by the biofertilizers, reducing water consumption and non-chemical weed control using mulch, acceptable yield will be achieved and our agroecosystem would be closer to sustainable production and development.
    Keywords: Biophosphate, Fatty acid, Harvest index, Mulch
  • Kh Dabighi, E. Fateh, A. Aynehband Pages 413-424
    Introduction
    Green manure is a crop used primarily as a soil amendment and a nutrient source for future crops. Leguminous green manure may add N to crop systems through biological fixation, and the slow release of N from decomposing green manure residues may be well timed with plant uptake. Leguminous and non-leguminous plants are used as green manures. Leguminous plants can form symbiotic associations with Rhizobium bacteria in order to atmospheric N fixation. This fact causes that the green manures, which their principal component are leguminous plant residue, added more nitrogen to the soil compared to non-legume. Muurinen et al. (2007) reported that strong N translocation from vegetative parts of the main shoot in wheat, which exhibited higher competition for N between vegetative and reproductive organs. Therefore, improved understanding of plant N requirements and dynamics, particularly biomass production efficiency (BPE) from vegetative parts among species and cultivars, is needed to determine better nitrogen use efficiency (NUE). So that the objective of this study was to determine the effects of legume and non-legume green manure crops in combination with different N fertilizer rates on nitrogen efficiency indices of canola.
    Materials And Methods
    In order to study the effect of different green manure and nitrogen sources on nitrogen efficiency indices of canola, a field experiment was conducted in the experimental farm of Agricultural Faculty of Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz during 2013-2014 growing season. The experimental was carried out as split plot based on randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. The main plot was different green manure including millet, barley, mungbean, intercropping of millet and mungbean, and fallow (without green manure application). The subplot treatments were different nitrogen sources at three levels including no nitrogen fertilizer (Control), 50 % chemical nitrogen biological nitrogen (Nitroxin) and 100 % chemical nitrogen. Nitrogen fertilizer was applied 200 kg per hectare in the form of urea. The plots of green manure were established on 6 Sep. 2010 and incorporated to the soil on 17 Oct. 2013. Then canola (cv. Hyola401) was planted on 10 Nov. 2013 and was harvested on 21 Apr. 2014. Each plot size was 6 m2 (2 m × 3 m) that consisted of 6 rows of canola plants. Grain yield was determined by harvesting from a 2 m2 area in each plot. All dry vegetative samples and also grains were first ground and then plant N concentration was determined by standard macro-Kjeldahl procedure. N content was calculated by multiplying the N concentration by dry weight. Analysis of variance was used to test the significance of data and means were compared with LSD test.
    Results And Discussions
    The results showed that the increasing nitrogen application had negative effect on efficiency indices except of nitrogen reliance index (NRI). The highest nitrogen reliance index (NRI) (0.46 kg per kg plant) was obtained at control (without green manure and 100% chemical nitrogen) and the lowest (0.16 kg per kg plant) was revealed at mungbean intercropping with integrated nitrogen application. The highest nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) (21.4 kg per kg), and nitrogen uptake efficiency (NUE) (1.04 kg per kg) were obtained at mungbean green manure and no nitrogen fertilizer, respectively. The highest nitrogen agronomic efficiency (NAE) (24.98 kg per kg) was revealed at millet-mungbean intercropping and nitrogen integrated management. Totally the results indicated the positive effects of biological and chemical combined fertilizer and green manure plants on yield increment and efficiency indices, and decreasing of dependency on chemical inputs that it is in the way and the goal of sustainable agriculture.
    Keywords: Biological nitrogen fertilizer, Green manure, Nitrogen efficiency index, Nitroxin, Seed yield
  • B. Saadatian, M. Kafi Pages 425-437
    Introduction
    Although silicon (Si) is the second most abundant element in the earth’s crust and its content in plants often reaches values of macronutrients, it is not listed among plant essential elements. However, the beneficial effects of Si in alleviation of various kinds of biotic stresses are well known. Concerning biotic stress, Si enhances, for instance, the resistance of plants to the pathogenic fungi, and it protects plants against and various kinds of insects. Silicon can also mitigate abiotic stresses in plants. Silicon can also reduce the negative effects of some toxic metals in plant species. Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most dangerous toxic metals for living organisms. It is a hazardous contaminant of food and through the food chains enters the human body as a cumulative poison. Contamination of agricultural soils by Cd represents a serious. Environmental problem in many countries and ranks high in food safety issues. Silicon was recently described as an effective substance for alleviation of Cd toxicity in some plants. The use of nano-compound material has given a lot of attention by the agricultural researchers, especially by those investigating seed characteristics, although their exact mechanisms of actions are not well understood. Nanomaterials, because of their tiny size, show unique characteristics. For example, they can change physico-chemical properties compared to bulk materials. They have greater surface area than bulk materials, and due to this larger surface area, their solubility and surface reactivity tend to be higher.
    Materials And Methods
    This experiment was conducted in an environmentally controlled Research greenhouse in Department of Agronomy, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran. Corn (SC 704) seeds were germinated in a soil less growing system in cocopite. When the seedlings were at the two leaves stage of growth, they were transplanted hydroponic culture. Experiment was carried out as a factorial based using completely randomized design with four replications the. Treatments were included cadmium (CdSO4) stress levels (Zero, 50 and 100 μmol l-1) and sodium silicate treatments (control (Zero), Nano and micro particles with 2 mM concentration).
    Results And Discussion
    The results showed that the effects of sodium silicate, cadmium and their interactions on membrane stability index, specific leaf area, stomatal conductance, Fv/Fm, height, stem diameter, leaf area, shoot dry weight, root dry weight and shoot to root weight ratio was significant. But interaction between cadmium and sodium silicate on relative water content and leaf chlorophyll index was not significant. By increasing of Cd concentration, membrane stability index, chlorophyll index, Fv/Fm, relative water content, specific leaf area, stomatal conductance, height, stem diameter, leaf area, shoot dry weight and root dry weight trials reduced compared to control significantly. In no cadmium condition, sodium silicate nano-particles application reduced height, stem diameter, leaf area and shoot dry weight 12.8, 9, 34.2 and 23.2% compared to control, respectively. In contrast, using of micro particles in non-stress condition, had a positive effect on above mentioned traits. But in 50 μmol l-1 Cd, nano-particles increased membrane stability index, specific leaf area, stomatal conductance, stem diameter and shoot dry weight trials, significantly. At highest concentration of cadmium, effect of micro particles on membrane stability index, stomatal conductance and shoot to root was higher than nano-particles. Also, using of nano particles had a positive effect on above mentioned traits in Cd stress condition. In general, application of nano particles in non-cadmium stress conditions had phytotoxicity effects on corn and only in cadmium stress condition, the effect of these particles showed their positive effect.
    Conclusions
    In general, silicon nanoparticles were only beneficial effect of cadmium stress. Hence, the use of sodium silicate nanoparticles of was possible only in conditions of cadmium stress.
    Keywords: Chlorophyll fluorescence, Correlation, Hydroponic culture, Nano-particles
  • F. Golestani Far, S. Mahmoodi, Gh. R. Zamani, M. H. Sayyari Zahan Pages 438-450
    Introduction
    Deficiency of water during the plant growth is one of the main factors which reduce the crops production around the world. Drought stress is one of the most important tensions that may occur around the low rainfall, high temperature and wind blowing environments. Plant response to this stress depends on the stage of plant growth and drought intensity. Weeds are unwanted and harmful plants with disturbance in agricultural practices which make increase the cost of crop production and reduce the crop yields. Rye (Secale cereal L.) is one of the most important weeds at wheat fields in Iran (Baghestani and Atri, 2003). Low expectations, allelopathic effects and similarity of life cycle and morphology, caused increasing of rye density in winter wheat fields. Water use efficiency (WUE) as an important physiological characteristic indicates the ability of plants to water stress. WUE may be affected by climatic and soil or plant factors. In plant communities, competition is one of most important physiological topics (Evans et al, 2003). At Inter-specific competition, weeds interfere to absorbing of light, water and nutrients through the adjacency with crop and so affect the growth and yield of crops. Weeds often compete with crops for soil water and reduce the accessibility of water. Competition between weeds and crops decrease the soil moisture and cause water stress which might decrease the weeds and crops growth. When the supply of water is limited, water drainage overlap areas in soil profile could be occurred relatively fast at early of in the crop life cycle.
    Materials And Methods
    In order to study the effects of drought stress on water use efficiency and root dry weight of wheat (Triticum aesativum L.) and rye (Secale cereale L.) in competition conditions, a pot experiment was conducted in the greenhouse of Agriculture Faculty , University of Birjand in 2012. The experiment was arranged as factorial based on completely randomized design with three replications. The treatments were included four wheat density (0, 8, 16 and 24 plants per pot), four rye density (0, 2, 4 and 6 plants per pot) and two levels of drought stress (irrigation after depletion of 20 and 60 % of field capacity moisture).
    Results And Discussion
    The results showed that all interaction effects were significant (P
    Conclusions
    The results of this study indicated that drought stress reduced root dry mater of rye and water use efficiency of wheat and rye. Increasing inter-specific competition between wheat and rye reduced water use efficiency and root dry matter in two plants, but increasing intra-specific competition increased the studied traits. Generally, because of the overlap area of root development in wheat and rye, and more extensive root system of rye than the wheat, rye has higher competitive strength for water uptake.
    Keywords: Additive series, Competition, Water deficit, Weeds
  • B. Parsa Motlagh, P. Rezvani Moghaddam, R. Ghorbani, Z. Azami Sardooei Pages 451-462
    Introduction
    Roselle (Hibiscus sabdarjffa L.) is an annual or biennial plant cultivated for its stem, fiber, edible calyces, leaves and seeds and belongs to the malvaceae family. Sepals of Roselle have good color and are potential source of antioxidant compounds, Studies conducted on medicinal plants in natural ecosystems suggest that using sustainable agricultural system provides the best conditions for the production of these plants, leading to maximum qualitative and quantitative yield in such conditions. Roselle is one of the plants that needs less water and is resistant to drought. It can be used as a suitable plant for cultivation in southern areas of Iran that face water scarcity.
    Materials And Methods
    In order to evaluate the effects of fertilizer resources and different irrigation regimes on yield, yield components, antioxidant activity and calyx anthocyanin content of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.), an experiment was conducted at Agricultural Research Farm of Jiroft University in 2013 and 2014 growing seasons. An experiment was conducted as strip plot based on a randomized complete blocks design with three replications. Three irrigation regimes (100, 80 and 60% of crop water requirement) were assigned as horizontal factor and four fertilizer resources (mycorrhiza, vermicompost, cow manure and chemical fertilizer (NPK)) were allocated as vertical factor. Plant water requirement was calculated by AGWAT software. Then, treatments of 80 and 60 percentage of water requirement was determined and irrigation water was recorded in each irrigation period using water meter. The antioxidant activity and anthocyanin content of Roselle calyx were determined using the method described by Abe et al., (1998) and Wanger (1976), respectively. Finally, data analysis was done using SAS 12.5 and means were compared by LSD’s multiple range test at 5% level of probability.
    Results And Discussion
    Based on two years data combined analysis, the results indicated that fertilizer resources and irrigation levels had significant effect on plant height, Inflorescence length, number of bolls, boll dry weight, calyx yield, biomass yield, anioxidant activity and anthocyanin content. Calyx harvest index was not affected by fertilizer resources and irrigation levels. The interaction effect of fertilizer resources and irrigation regimes had a significant effect on calyx yield. The evaluation of anthocyanin value at different levels of irrigation showed that, except for in time of using vermicompost, anthocyanin value at the irrigation level of 60% was higher than irrigation levels of 100 and 80% of plant water requirement in combination with other different nutrition sources. The highest anthocyanin value was found in the control treatment when it was under moisture level of 60 percent. It has been stated that flavonoid increased under the water shortage and drought, leading to production of anthocyanin pigment. In a study conducted on Roselle, it was found that applying bio-fertilizers alone or in combination with chemical fertilizers increased carbohydrates and anthocyanin content. The highest calyx yield (1248 kg ha-1) was obtained at 100% crop water requirement 犌 manure treatment and the lowest calyx yield (510 kg ha-1) was obtained at 60% crop water requirement control treatments.
    Conclusions
    It seems that cow manure and vermicompost can have a positive impact on soil water holding capacity compared to other sources of fertilizers (mycorrhiza and chemical fertilizer) by increasing soil organic matter. Although mycorrhiza can have positive effects on plants growth, it seems that under this experiment, air temperature and low moisture holding capacity and organic matters of soil lead to a reduction in the positive effects of these soil organisms.
    Keywords: Biomass, Cow manure, Mycorrhiza, Vermicompost
  • M. Madadizadeh, J. Kambouzia, S. Soufizadeh, B. Panahi Pages 463-476
    Introduction
    Nitrogen is one of the most abundant elements on earth and major essential for crop growth and development that is heavily used in modern agriculture to maximize yields. Among cereals, maize (Zea mays L.) is an important food and feed crop which ranks third after wheat and rice in the world. As N fertilizer costs remain relatively high and environmental concerns over excessive N application increase, the objectives of the present study were: (i) to compare maize hybrids growth and yield responses to N rates, (ii) to determine optimum N rate for maize grain yield production, (iii) to explore the physiological functions controlling maize growth and yield and (iv) to identify more effective physiological indices in maize grain production under N stress as well as potential condition.
    Materials And Methods
    Two field experiments were conducted in 2014 and 2015 at the Experimental Field of Kerman Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center, Kerman, Iran. The experiment was laid out as a randomized complete block design with factorial arrangement of treatments and three replications. Four nitrogen rates (0, 92, 220 and 368 kg N ha-1) were applied to three maize hybrids (KSC 704, Maxima and TWC 604). Statistical analysis was done using SAS software (version 9.4).
    Results And Discussion
    Due to a significant lack of homogeneity of variance across the two years, data from the two years were treated as independent experiments and analyzed separately. Results showed that both N rates and hybrids had significant effect on growth indices and maize grain yield. The interaction between genotype and N rate was significant for grain yield in 2015 (P
    Conclusions
    In this study, maize grain yield increased with N application up to 368 kg ha-1. However an economic evaluation is essential in order to optimum N fertilizer recommendation. LAI and LAID were known as key indices in maize grain yield formation. Nitrogen stress decreased maize grain yield mainly by reduction in LAI and LAID. Significant yield benefits were observed in KSC 704 and maxima compared to TWC 604 in both N stress and potential conditions.
    Keywords: Grain yield, Growth indices, Nitrogen stress