فهرست مطالب

Endocrinology and Metabolism - Volume:15 Issue:4, 2017
  • Volume:15 Issue:4, 2017
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1396/09/27
  • تعداد عناوین: 10
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  • Hossein Delshad, Fereidoun Azizi Page 1
    Context: Iodine deficiency is one of the most important health problems worldwide. The overall aim of this study was a narrative review of the past and present status of iodine nutrition in the Iranian population to gather and provide valuable background data in this field for future studies.
    Evidence Acquisition: For this narrative literature review study, published internal (SID, Iran doc, Iran medex) and international (Web of knowledge, Pubmed, SCOPUS) source studies were searched using the following medical subject heading terms: Iodine, IDD (iodine deficiency disorders), UIC (urinary iodine concentration), Goiter, IQ (intelligence quotient), thyroid hormone, Iodine and pregnancy, Iodine and breast feeding, as well as Iodized salt, reporting the prevalence of iodine deficiency and iodine nutrition status of different target populations in Iran over 25 years, between 1988 - 2014, were assessed. We found 185 abstracts by literature search, of which, 161 papers that were as case reports, animal study, with lack of regional or national data were excluded after full text evaluation. Finally 24 full papers covering regional or national data on iodine nutrition of the study population were eligible for our review.
    Results
    Iodine deficiency, as a nutritional problem, had been identified in Iran since 1968. In the years 1987 - 1989, a few studies were done to define the prevalence of iodine deficiency in the country. The first nation-wide survey was performed in 14 provinces. Based on this survey all provinces were suffering of endemic goiter. In 1989, iodine deficiency was recognized as a major problem for community health. In 1990, salt factories began to produce iodized salt and in 1996, the second national survey was performed in 26 provinces. This survey indicated that 40% of boys and 50% of girls have goiter, with a median urinary iodine excretion of 205 µg/L. The 3rd national survey in 2001 showed that the total goiter rate is 9.8% and median UIC of 165 μg/L. In 2007, the 3th national survey was conducted 17 years after iodized salt consumption by Iranian households. In this study the total goiter rate and median urinary iodine was 5.7% and 145 μg/L, respectively. The 5th national survey conducted in 2013, showed household consumption of iodized salt for all provinces was 98% and the median urinary iodine of school children was 161 μg/L. Following the 5th national survey, the 1st national survey of the iodine status and thyroid function of pregnant women, conducted in 10 provinces in the different region of the country, documented a median UIC for pregnant women of 87.3 µg/L, results of this national survey clarified that despite iodine sufficiency of school children in Iran, pregnant women have moderate iodine deficiency and need iodine supplementation.
    Conclusions
    The success of iodine deficiency control program depends on well designed programmatic steps and mandatory iodized salt consumption in certain situations. The iodine intake of school children is sufficient, however, Iranian pregnant women are suffering from moderate iodine deficiency and need iodine supplementation.
    Keywords: Iodine, Iodine Deficiency Disorders, Iodized Salt, UIC
  • Fereidoun Azizi, Ladan Mehran, Farhad Hosseinpanah, Hossein Delshad, Atieh Amouzegar Page 2
    Background
    Primordial and primary preventions of thyroid diseases are concerned with avoiding the appearance of risk factors, delaying the progression to overt disease, and minimizing the impact of illness.
    Summary: Using related key words, 446 articles related to primordial and primary, preventions of thyroid diseases published between 2001-2015 were evaluated, categorized and analyzed. Prevention and elimination of iodine deficiency are major steps that have been successfully achieved and maintained in many countries of the world in last 2 decades. Recent investigations related to the effect of cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and autoimmunity in the prevention of thyroid disorders have been reviewed.
    Conclusions
    The cornerstone for successful prevention of thyroid disease entails timely implementation of its primordial and primary preventions, which must be highly prioritized in related health strategies by health authorities.
    Keywords: Prevention, Thyroid Disease, Hyperthyroidism, Hypothyroidism, Thyroid Cancer, Pregnancy, Thyroid, Iodine Deficiency, Smoking
  • Hossein Hatami, Seyed Ali Montazeri, Nazanin Hashemi, Fahimeh Ramezani Tehrani Page 3
    Background
    Insulin resistance (IR) is a major cardiometabolic risk factor in females with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The euglycemic clamp is the gold standard method to measure IR. However, considering the time and cost that it takes, surrogate markers of IR are now widely used. The current study aimed at evaluating the cutoff points of even less invasive anthropometric and body composition variables to predict IR in females with PCOS.
    Methods
    The current cross sectional study selected 224 females with PCOS, using Rotterdam criteria, referred to reproductive endocrinology research center; 88 of which were diagnosed with insulin resistance. Receiver operating characteristics curve was used to explore the best cutoff values of each anthropometric and body composition measures. IR was defined as homeostasis model assessment formula greater or equal to 2.6: HOMA-IR = fasting insulin (mU/L) × fasting plasma glucose (mM/L)/22.5.
    Results
    The highest area under the curve (0.751) was for the multiplication of waist circumference (WC) by body mass index (BMI), as a single index. The highest sensitivity and specificity were for body water (BW) percentage (82% for values greater than 32.85%) and WC (79% for values greater than 88 cm), respectively.
    Conclusions
    It was concluded that there were simple anthropometric variables; e.g., WC × BMI, percentage of BW, and WC that could help to estimate IR in clinical settings especially when the gold standard or surrogate markers of IR were unavailable.
    Keywords: Anthropometry, Insulin Resistance, Polycystic Ovary Syndrome, Body Composition, Homeostasis Model Assessment, Body Weights, Measures
  • Mostafa Hosseini, Roya Kelishadi, Masoud Baikpour, Neamatollah Ataei, Mostafa Qorbani, Mahmoud Yousefifard, Ramin Heshmat, Mohammad-Esmail Motlagh, Behnaz Bazargani, Arash Abbasi, Kazem Mohammad Page 4
    Background
    To date, few studies looked upon obesity and overweight in children and adolescents through the 3 different temporal dimensions of age, period, and cohort. The current study aimed at evaluating the trends of these health issues among children under 19 years old using the age-period-cohort (APC) analysis.
    Methods
    Data gathered through 5 cross sectional studies including 2 national health surveillance (1990 - 91 and 1999), and 3 CASPIAN surveys (2003, 2009, and 2011). Subjects were classified by their body mass index (BMI) into 3 groups of normal (BMI
    Results
    A total of 80,698 children and adolescents under 19 years old, including 40,419 (50.09%) males and 40,279 (49.91%) females, were evaluated. The prevalence of obesity decreased progressively by age in males and females with minor discrepancies. It increased from 1990 to 2009 in both genders, but from that point on remained quite constant in males and dropped significantly in females. The prevalence of obesity was steady in earlier birth cohorts, but increased significantly after the birth cohorts from 1986 to 1990.
    Conclusions
    Environmental factors and social stresses during neonatal and infantile periods (birth cohort effect) along with other variables influencing the children later in their lives (period effect) affect the prevalence of overweight and obesity substantially. Moreover, a decrease in the prevalence of obesity and overweight was observed by age increase (age effect).
    Keywords: Obesity, Overweight, Prevalence, Age, Period, Cohort Analysis
  • Forough Saki, Gholamhossein Ranjbar Omrani, Marjan Jeddi, Marzie Bakhshaieshkaram, Mohammad Hossein Dabbaghmanesh Page 5
    Background
    Improving peak bone mass and bone strength in the first years of life and enhancing it during young adulthood could prevent osteoporosis and fractures in the last years of life. We evaluated the prevalence of low bone mass in the lumbar and femoral neck and its associated factors in southern Iranian children.
    Methods
    This is a cross-sectional study on healthy Iranian children aged 9 - 18 years old during 2011 - 2012. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) was used for measuring bone mineral density (BMD). BMD Z-score ≤ -2 was considered as low. Anthropometric data, physical activity, sun exposure, puberty, and mineral biochemical parameters were assessed. Data were analyzed using SPSS v.15.
    Results
    477 normal children, including 236 (49.5%) girls and 241 (50.5%) boys, aged 13.8 ± 2.7 years were enrolled. Prevalence of low bone mass (LBM) in the femoral and lumbar region was 10.7% and 18.7%, respectively. The prevalence of LBM in femur of girls is twice more than boys. Fat mass index, BMI Z-score, and physical activity were associated with lumbar low bone mass. BMI Z-score and physical activity were associated with femoral low bone mass.
    Conclusions
    High prevalence of low bone mineral density in children 9 to 18 years in south of the country is concerned and is needed to plan for prevention and treatment. BMI-Z score, fat mass index, and physical activity were the 3 most important preventive factors in developing low bone mass in children.
    Keywords: Children, Iran, BMI, Bone Mineral Density
  • Sara Jalali-Farahani, Parisa Amiri, Sepideh Bakht, Zeinab Shayeghian, Leila Cheraghi, Fereidoun Azizi Page 6
    Background
    Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is a multi-dimensional concept that is affected by different variables. A large body of evidence shows that socio-demographic factors have a significant influence on HRQOL. When considering differences in cultural contexts and social values of various countries and the lack of evidence regarding socio-demographic determinants of HRQOL among the Iranian general population, it is important to verify the main socio-demographic determinants of HRQOL in an urban Iranian population.
    Objectives
    This study aimed to explore socio-demographic factors associated with HRQOL and to ascertain the determinants of poor HRQOL in participants of the Tehran lipid and glucose study (TLGS).
    Methods
    The participants included 3491 adults, aged ≥ 20 years, who had participated in the TLGS. To obtain socio-demographic and HRQOL information, participants were interviewed by trained interviewers. Mean HRQOL scores were compared using the student’s t test and analysis of variance (ANOVA). To determine significant determinants of poor HRQOL, multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed.
    Results
    Mean ages of males and females were 47.7 ± 15.6 and 47.8 ± 14.2 years, respectively and 58.6% of participants were male. Males had significantly higher scores compared to females in both the physical and mental domains of HRQOL (P
    Conclusions
    Current findings highlight the importance of socio-demographic determinants of HRQOL in both genders, specifically in the physical domain, and demonstrate their roles to be more prominent in males. These findings highlight gender-specific associations between socio-demographic factors and various aspects of HRQOL among the TLGS population, which could be applied in future research focusing on non-communicable diseases and planning health promotion programs.
    Keywords: Health, Related Quality of Life, Socio, Demographic Factors, Chronic Diseases, Adults, Iran
  • Mostafa Hosseini, Mohammad Esmail Motlagh, Mahmoud Yousefifard, Mostafa Qorbani, Neamatollah Ataei, Hamid Asayesh, Mehdi Yaseri, Rasool Mohammadi, Masoud Baikpour, Arash Abbasi, Roya Kelishadi Page 7
    Background
    Neck circumference (NC), emerging as a key morphological index for pediatric obesity, is associated with obesity- and overweight-related detrimental conditions in children. In this study, we aimed to provide the age- and sex-specific percentile reference values for neck circumference of the Iranian children and adolescents.
    Methods
    We used the data gathered through the weight disorders survey of CASPIAN IV study conducted in 2011 - 2012 in Iran, including a total of 21954 Iranian children and adolescents, composed of 10750 girls and 11204 boys, aged 7 - 18 years old. We presented the interval of NC percentile in three age groups of 7 - 10 years, 11 - 14 years, and 15 - 18 years. Finally, age-specific nomograms of NC for both genders in the Iranian and Canadian populations were compared.
    Results
    The intervals of 90th percentile of NC for boys in the three periods of school age (7 - 10 years), pre-adolescence (11 - 14 years), and adolescence (15 - 18 years) were 24.2 - 30.0 cm, 26.6 - 33.2 cm, and 30.1 - 38.5 cm, respectively. These intervals for girls were 23.7 - 30.1 cm, 26.5 - 33.7 cm, and 28.5 - 36.0 cm, respectively. NC increased with age in both boys and girls and its variability showed an increasing trend with age.
    Conclusions
    We demonstrated for the first time the NC reference values for the Iranian children and adolescents aged 7 - 18 years old. Considering the significant differences between our national NC references and the values reported from the Canadian population, it seems logical to use these national percentiles not only for epidemiologic studies but also for routine clinical examinations.
    Keywords: Neck Circumference, Anthropometric Measures, Obesity, Children, Adolescence
  • Motahareh Makhdoomi Arzati, Niyaz Mohammadzadeh Honarvar, Ahmad Saedisomeolia, Siyamand Anvari, Mohammad Effatpanah, Raoofe Makhdoomi Arzati, Mir Saeed Yekaninejad, Rezvan Hashemi, Mahmoud Djalali Page 8
    Background
    Lipid and glycemic abnormalities are prevalent in diabetes leading to long term complications. Use of safe and natural foods instead of medications is now considered by many scientists.
    Objectives
    This study aimed at determining the effect of ginger on lipid and glucose levels of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
    Methods
    In a double‐blind placebo-controlled trial, 50 patients with type 2 diabetes were randomly allocated to 2 groups of intervention (n = 25) and placebo (n = 25). Each patient received 2000 mg per day of ginger supplements or placebo for 10 weeks. Serum levels of fasting blood sugar (FBS), total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerol (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C) were analyzed. Daily dietary intakes and anthropometric parameters were also determined.
    Results
    Data from 45 patients were analyzed (23 patients in the ginger group and 22 patients in the control group) at the end of the study. Ginger consumption significantly reduced serum levels of fasting blood glucose (-26.30 ± 35.27 vs. 11.91 ± 38.58 mg/dl; P = 0.001) and hemoglobin A1C (-0.38 ± 0.35 vs. 0.22 ± 0.29 %; P
    Conclusions
    The current results showed that ginger could reduce serum levels of fasting blood glucose and hemoglobin A1C in patients with diabetes.
    Keywords: Ginger, Type 2 Diabetes, Blood Sugar, HbA1C, Lipid Parameters
  • Fariba Karimi Page 9
    Introduction
    Primary adrenal lymphoma is rare, with a few cases reported in the literature. Most often it manifests as bilateral adrenal lesions and adrenal insufficiency is a common complication.
    Case Presentation
    A 53-year-old male was referred with abdominal discomfort and darkening of the skin since 1 month prior to admission. His workups detected large bilateral adrenal masses. The patient was admitted due to hypotension, and was diagnosed with adrenal insufficiency. Laboratory studies showed high erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and adrenocorticotropin levels. There was no other organ involvement and computed tomography (CT)-guided percutaneous biopsy of the adrenal gland revealed B-cell type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Replacement therapy with glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid was initiated with remission of symptoms. After 3 months of chemotherapy his condition improved, but the patient worsened thereafter and died 2 months later.
    Conclusions
    However, this case reminded the importance of considering primary adrenal lymphoma in the differential diagnosis of bilateral adrenal masses, especially if the patient presents with adrenal insufficiency.
    Keywords: Primary Adrenal Lymphoma, Adrenal Insufficiency, B, cell Lymphoma
  • Devi Dayal, Olivia Pepper, Renuka Ramakrishnan, Eileen Baildam, Poonam Dharmaraj, Gavin Cleary, Liza Mccann, Clare Pain, Senthil Senniappan Page 10
    Introduction
    Sarcoidosis is a multisystemic granulomatous disease with diverse and often non-specific symptoms during childhood. The clinical manifestations sometimes include endocrinopathies related to sarcoid infiltration of various endocrine organs, but more commonly due to the associated autoimmune endocrine disorders. There are only a few reports of multiple autoimmune and non-autoimmune endocrine problems occurring simultaneously in patients with sarcoidosis. We report a girl with probable sarcoidosis who also had Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, Type 1 diabetes (T1D) and secondary adrenal insufficiency.
    Case Presentation
    A 9-year-old girl previously diagnosed with autoimmune hypothyroidism and vitamin D deficiency, presented with hypercalcemic pancreatitis after initiating vitamin D supplementation that lead to a diagnosis of probable sarcoidosis. Secondary adrenal insufficiency and T1D were subsequently diagnosed. Her angiotensin converting enzyme levels on 2 occasions were 106 and 135 nmol/mL/min (normal range 10 - 43). All investigations conducted to exclude several infectious and malignant conditions that may mimic sarcoidosis were negative. The patient showed a good response to treatment with hydrocortisone, levothyroxine, insulin and methotrexate.
    Conclusions
    To our knowledge, ours is the youngest ever patient reported in the literature with sarcoidosis to develop multiple autoimmune and non-autoimmune endocrinopathies.
    Keywords: Sarcoidosis, Hypercalcemia, Pancreatitis, Type 1 Diabetes, Hashimoto's Thyroiditis, Adrenal Insufficiency