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هنرهای تجسمی - پیاپی 74 (تابستان 1397)
  • پیاپی 74 (تابستان 1397)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/04/19
  • تعداد عناوین: 12
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  • عارفه صرامی *، اصغر فهیمی فر صفحات 5-12
    تصویرسازی دارای ویژگی بصری و ساده ترین راه انگاشتن است که فرایند دیداری نمودن تصورات را به کار میبندد. ایماژ همچون رسانه ای است که تاثیر و فرایند بازنمایی توانش های عاطفی را بر الگوهای دیداری و فرهنگی تصویرپردازی می کند؛ شاید بهترین و کوتاه ترین تعریف برای ایماژ جهان نگری تصویری و ذهنی است. در این مقاله آنجا که مقصود از ایماژ چیزی فراتر از تصویر محض است، برابرنهاده ی «پی انگاره» انتخاب شده است. براساس داده های تجربی کنش ما در تصور مشابه کنش ما در دیدن چیزها، شامل تصاویر است؛ اما، پرسش این است که، کدام وجه از پی انگاره در تفسیر ناظران در طول تاریخ تغییر می کند و توسط رسانه های خود انتقال می یابد؟ و چه نسبتی میان پی انگاره دریافت شده و حقیقت وجود دارد؟ این مقاله با طرح پژوهشی معناشناختی با استفاده از روش توصیفی و تحلیلی درباره ی محتوای دیداری مرتبط با تصویر و با شرح بسیاری از واقعیت های برجسته و کلی در کنش های هنری درباره ی بازنمودهای تصویری در پی پاسخ به پرسش های فوق است؛ تحلیل نتایج نشان می دهد که طبیعت بصری محتوای پی انگاره ها از کیفیتی پویا برخوردار است و این کیفیت، ماهیت ذهن ما را آشکار می کند، هم چنانکه چهارچوب و عینیت اثر حاکی از مضمون پویا است که هریک از شیوه های نگریستن متفاوت به جهان است.
    کلیدواژگان: تصویر، ایماژ، پی نگاره، ادراک بصری، تحلیل معناشناختی
  • محمدرضا ابوالقاسمی * صفحات 13-22
    رنگ یکی از اساسی ترین ارکان هنر نقاشی است. درباره رنگ در نقاشی از دیدگاه های گوناگون بحث شده و جنبه های فیزیکی، روان شناختی و فیزیولوژیکی آن بارها تحلیل شده است. اما هدف ما در این جا ارائه تحلیلی پدیدارشناختی از رنگ است. به همین منظور، با یاری گرفتن از مفاهیم روش پدیدارشناسی کوشیده ایم «به سوی خود رنگ» نظر کنیم و نحوه های ظهور و بروز آن را در نقاشی بکاویم. با مرور دیدگاه های هگل درباره نقاشی خواهیم دید که رنگ چگونه به رکن معنوی نقاشی مبدل می شود و آن را از سایر هنرهای بصری متمایز می کند. سپس به یاری اندیشه های ادموند هوسرل، مرلوپونتی و رومن اینگاردن ظهور رنگ در نقاشی را بررسی خواهیم کرد. بر مبنای فرضیه ما، رنگ در نقاشی یک ماده صرف نیست و بررسی عینی (ابژکتیو) آن شناخت کاملی به ما نمی دهد. نتیجه این پژوهش مشخص می کند که رنگ را باید رکنی پدیدارشناختی در نظر گرفت که می تواند دیالکتیک میان جهان بیرون و درون نقاشی را به ظهور برساند و بین خودش، نقاش و بیننده رابطه ای پویا و چند وجهی برقرار سازد. روش این مقاله تطبیق نظریه های پدیدارشناختی با آثار نقاشی غربی است. بدین منظور آثاری از مکاتب و سبک های مختلف نقاشی انتخاب شده اند و مطالعه پدیدارشناختی رنگ بر مبنای آن ها صورت پذیرفته است.
    کلیدواژگان: رنگ، نقاشی، پدیدارشناسی، نور
  • سعید اخوانی، فتانه محمودی * صفحات 23-34
    منظومه ی حماسی - مذهبی خاوران نامه ی ابن حسام خوسفی، در سال 830 ه.ق سروده و تصاویر و تذهیب نسخه، کار «فرهاد نقاش» دانسته شده است. نگارگر با به تصویر درآوردن این اثر ادبی، دایره دلالت های آن را گسترش داده و لایه های معنایی جدیدی بر آن افزوده است. مسئله ای که مطرح می شود این است که چه لایه های معنایی آشکار و پنهانی در نگاره های خاوران نامه وجود دارد.
    از این رو ضروری می نماید که این گنجینه ی هنری با رویکردهای جدیدی که در حوزه ی نقد هنری و زیباشناسی مطرح است مورد تحلیل قرار بگیرد. برای نیل به این مقصود در این مقاله تلاش شده است تا با روش توصیفی - تحلیلی، نگاره های خاوران نامه طبق الگوی آیکونولوژی -که توسط اروین پانوفسکی، مورخ آلمانی در قرن بیستم میلادی ارائه شد- خوانش و در مراحل سه گانه ی آن مورد بررسی قرار بگیرد. تا از این طریق لایه های مختلف معنایی آن آشکار گردد.
    این پژوهش نشان داد که مضامین و نحوه ی دید هنرمندان در سنت نگارگری ایران، نه به جهان واقعی بلکه به گفتمان ادبی/هنری مسلط ارجاع دارد که این گفتمان خود به وسیله حماسه از گفتمان اسطوره ای تغذیه می شود. از این رو لایه ی پنهان معنایی که در طی سه مرحله حاصل گردید، معطوف به عناصر چهارگانه و رمزگان اسطوره ای بود.
    کلیدواژگان: نگارگری، مکتب شیراز، خاوران نامه، آیکونولوژی، لایه های معنایی
  • روح الله اسحاق زاده، حمید صادقیان *، الهام روحانی اصفهانی صفحات 35-46
    کلام و تصویر دو عامل مهم برای ایجاد ارتباط هستند. در خوشنویسی انتقال پیام از طریق تصاویر و کلمات، دارای ساختار تجسمی است. حضور اصول و قواعد در کنار زیبایی و توجه به کیفیت های بصری، این خط را از نظر بصری و ساختار زیباشناختی ممتاز نموده است. آثار میرعماد درمیان خوشنویسان دوره صفوی، نمایش اوج تکامل این خط پس از گذشت چند قرن می باشد.
    این مقاله با گردآوری اطلاعات کتابخانه ای و اسنادی به روش توصیفی، تحلیلی به مقایسه کیفی گزیده ای از آثار میرعماد و امیرخانی پرداخته، تلاش دارد تا ارتباطات عینی و ادراکی در دو شیوه صفوی و معاصر را بررسی نماید.
    پرسش های قابل طرح عبارتند از این که؛ چه نیازی به ایجاد ارتباطات ظاهری و پنهانی در خط نستعلیق وجود دارد، نقش دانش بصری در ادراک این ارتباطات و اساسا وجوه افتراق و تفاضل میان نمونه آثار مشابه ارایه شده دو هنرمند چیست. نتیجه بررسی ها حکایت از حساسیت بیشتر هنرمند صفوی بر ارتباطات عینی و ادراکی عناصر بصری نسبت به هنرمند معاصر دارد چنانکه درک این ارتباطات علاوه بر لزوم شناخت اصول و قواعد خط، نیازمند شناخت روابط میان عناصر تجسمی و کیفیت های بصری موجود در آثار خوشنویسی خط نستعلیق می باشد.
    کلیدواژگان: روابط بصری، نستعلیق، صفوی، معاصر، میرعماد، امیرخانی
  • ناهید جعفری دهکردی *، خشایار قاضی زاده صفحات 47-54
    حرمت تصویرگری جانداران، موجب اعتلای هندسه اسلامی گردید؛ زمانی که تصویرسازی قرون وسطی به باروک منتهی می شد، هنر اسلامی به نقش ونگارهای آیینه کاری ها سوق پیدا می کرد. امتزاج آیینه کاری با نقوش هندسی و مشبک پنجره ها، روزن ها و درب ها باعث نمی شد بیننده از ورای آن ها به جهان بی روح، هندسی نگاه بیندازد، بلکه همان جهانی بود که در نگاه عارفانه شرقی، تجلی حضور مالامال و معطر یزدان بود. نگاه معناشناختی به این اشکال را می توان فلسفه مستتر در نهان و نهاد هندسه دانست که غیر از هندسه ایرانی-اسلامی کمتر سراغی از آن را می شود در هنر سایر نقاط جهان یافت.
    این جستار تلاش دارد با روش توصیفی-تحلیلی و مطالعات کتابخانه ای، به شناسایی رموز به کاررفته در نقش هندسی ستاره هشت پری بپردازد که در نگاره هایی از شاهنامه 602W موزه هنر والترز به عنوان سلاح و سپر رزم آوران دیده می شود. فارغ از کارکرد نظامی ستاره هشت پر، این نماد در هندسه اسلامی دارای مفهوم معنوی بوده و نماد یادشده، جدای از کارکرد فیزیکی خود به عنوان سلاحی که از نور بهره می گرفت، در هندسه اسلامی تلاشی برای بعددهی به انوار ساطعه خورشید حقیقت و تکاپویی برای انجماد انوار فرار زمان و غلبه بر گذار آن نیز بوده است. خورشیدی که در اندیشه اسلامی، هم قرینگی ماوراءطبیعی با حقیقت ازلی داشته و دارد.
    کلیدواژگان: شاهنامه602w، ستاره هشت پر، مفاهیم نمادین، هندسه اسلامی، سلاح های نوری، آیینه
  • آزاده سوری * صفحات 55-68
    در این پژوهش ابتدا ویژگی های نقش پردازی گلیم مورد بررسی قرار گرفته و سپس نقوش، دسته بندی و تحلیل شده اند. سوالی که در این پژوهش مطرح است، چگونه قدمت برخی نگاره های گلیم قشقایی فارس از «سپیده دم تاریخ» بس فراتر رفته، تا به امروز جاویدان مانده ؟ هدف از گرد آوری این نقوش شناسایی گنجینه گرانبها و کاربردشان در هنر امروز است که در فرهنگ و هنر ایرانی حائز اهمیت می باشد و باعث زنده نگه داشتن این نقوش دیرین سال می شود. از یافته های مهم پژوهش نمادهایی هستند که حضوری دیرینه در پهنه ی فرهنگ کهن مردمان اولیه و حاضر را دارند و هنوز در کنار جنبه های تصویری و زیباشناختی، جنبه های کاربردی خویش را از دست نداده و استمراری ملموس در زندگی روزمره مردم دارند. نگارنده برای رسیدن به نتیجه مطلوب از روش استقرایی و توصیف و ارزیابی و تحلیل یافته ها و داده های منابع بهره گرفته و در پروسه کار نیز از امعان نظر به تعلیل و تحلیل منابع و پروسه نقد علمی یافته ها بازنمانده است. نتایج حاکی از آنست که نقوش و اشکال هندسی، متقارن، انتزاعی بهمراه مفاهیم نمادین، آیینی اعتقادی، مذهبی و اسطوره ای در متن و زمینه گلیم و همچنین در سفالگری، فلز کاری، طبیعت، نقش برجسته ها، معماری منبع الهام بافنده بوده که از طریق ذهنی بافی تجلی یافته است.
    کلیدواژگان: نقش خراسانی، ایت ال، قزل قیچی، نگاره پیوسته مرغی، قوچکی پر و خالی
  • مریم کشمیری * صفحات 69-78
    حمزه اصفهانی در فرازی از کتاب سنی ملوک الارض والانبیا (4ه.ق) به زبان عربی، تن پوش های 26 شه بانو/شهریار ساسانی را از روی نسخه نگاره های صورملوک بنی ساسان باز گو کرده است. او برای توصیف جامه ها، واژگانی در 5 گروه (بلون، موشح، وشی بالذهب، وشی مدنر، وشی بلون) برگزیده، و هر کدام را با همنشینی یکی از این گروه ها و رنگی ویژه بازنمایانده است. معانی این واژگان عربی در سده های پی درپی، دستخوش دگرگونی هایی شده است. گوناگونی توصیف تن پوش ها در شرح و برگردان های امروزی، برخاسته از همین دگرگونی هاست. پژوهش پیش رو، برپایه معانی واژگان پیش گفته در عربی کهن، بازخوانی دیگر گزارش های تاریخی، کنکاش در شیوه بازنمایی جامه های شاهانه بر فلزکاری ها و سنگ تراشیده های ساسانی، و بررسی پارچه های آن دوران می کوشد مفهوم مناسب را برگزیند؛ گروهی از پارچه های ساسانی را بربنیان بازنمایی های الصور بشناسد؛ و ریزبینی و درستی گزارش اصفهانی را در سنجش با یافته های باستان شناختی بیازماید. از این پویه برمی آید بلون، پارچه هایی بی آرایه و رنگین است؛ موشح، دو شیوه بازنمایی جامه های گوهردوخت را در خود دارد؛ وشی بالذهب همان بافته های زرین است؛ وشی مدنر، آشناترین نقش اندازی پارچه های ساسانی (قاب بندی های گرد) را بازمی نماید؛ و وشی بلون، منقش های رنگ اندازی شده و مخططی است که امروزه، نه چندان دقیق، پارچه های یمنی نامیده می شود. پژوهش، رویکردی تاریخی دارد و در فرازهای گوناگون، برای بررسی داده ها، شیوه توصیفی تطبیقی و تحلیل را پی می گیرد. گردآوری داده ها، کتابخانه ای؛ و بررسی آن ها، کیفی است.
    کلیدواژگان: پارچه های ساسانی، صور ملوک بنی ساسان (الصور)، موشح، موشی (وشی)، مدنر
  • طیبه بهشتی * صفحات 79-86
    برخی پژوهش های معاصر نشان داده اند صفحه آرایی نسخ خطی ایرانی با تکیه بر اصل تقسیم متوالی چهارچوب یک صفحه به بخش های برابر صورت گرفته است. با این وجود نسخه های ایرانی بسیاری وجود دارند که روش صفحه آرایی آن ها به الزامات شیوه یادشده پاسخ نمی دهند. پژوهش پیش رو کوشیده است با استفاده از رویکرد کمی و روش تحقیق توصیفی-تحلیلی موردی، چگونگی صفحه آرایی سه نمونه از قرآن-های تیموری محفوظ در موزه ملی ایران را بکاود. ویژگی مشترک این نسخه ها آن است که نه تنها صفحه-آرایی هیچ یک از آن ها بر اساس اصل تقسیم متوالی چهارچوب یک صفحه به بخش های برابر قابل توجیه نیست؛ بلکه در تمامی این نسخ، به رغم ابعاد و تناسبات گوناگون‏، فاصله سطح حروف تا عطف نصف طول حاشیه سرصفحه‏، پاصفحه و یا هر دو است. به طوری که با در نظر گرفتن شیوه ساخت کتاب در قرون میانه اسلامی که مبتنی بر دوبرگه بوده، می توان حدس زد‏ هنرمندان صفحه آرا پس از تقسیم طول دوبرگه به n قسمت برابر‏، 1⁄n آن را از وسط به حواشی عطف و به همین مقدار از بالا یا پایین کادر به حواشی سرصفحه یا پاصفحه اختصاص داده اند. آن گاه با استفاده از روش های هندسی، محل قرار گرفتن سایر ابعاد قاب تذهیب یا قالب متن را تعیین کرده اند.
    کلیدواژگان: صفحه آرایی، قرآن های تیموری محفوظ در موزه ملی ایران، اسکلت شطرنجی شکل، دوبرگه، روش های هندسی
  • ندا شفیقی *، زهرا رهبرنیا صفحات 87-98
    «به منظور کنترل»،عنوان چیدمانی تعاملی مبتنی بر نوشتار و حرکت،کاری از گروه هنری «نوتا بن» است که در سال های 2011 الی 2015 در جشنواره ها و نمایشگاه های متعدد بین المللی ارائه شده است.این چیدمان چندرسانه ای با بهره مندی از فناوری های نوین دیجیتالی در تلفیق با بدن انسان،به بازدیدکنندگان خود،امکان کنکاش در فضایی تایپوگرافیک و مواجهه باتجربه ای منحصربه فرد را عرضه کرده است. جستار پیش رو با روش توصیفی، تحلیلی و شیوه ای استقرایی این اثر تعاملی را بر اساس قوانین ادراک دیداری گشتالت مطالعه می کند.آنچه در اصول بصری گشتالت اهمیت دارد پی بردن به ادراک ارتباط است که موجب رفتار معنادار می شود،بر این اساس کشف کیفیت تاثیرگذاری قوانین ادراک بصری گشتالت بر چیدمانی تعامل گرا جهت شناسایی قابلیت های آن در ایجاد ارتباطی سودمند،هدف پژوهش حاضر بوده است.دستاوردهای حاصل از تطابق اصول این نظریه با چیدمان «به منظور کنترل» نشان داد که استفاده از آن ها، سازمان دهی بهتر اجزا و دریافت آسان تر و منطقی تر اثر را رقم می زند؛ که همین امر موجب مشارکت فعالانه مخاطب در چیدمان و تعامل بیشتر با سایر بازدیدکنندگان بوده،به برقراری ارتباط و تبادل دانش و تجربه منجر می گردد. علاوه بر آن باوجود نقش تاثیرگذار طراحان چیدمان تعاملی در پیاده سازی اصول گشتالت در ساختار،نباید از پراگنانس های متنوع و متفاوت ایجادشده توسط کنش های تصادفی و حرکات مخاطبین نیز مغفول ماند.
    کلیدواژگان: هنر تعاملی، چیدمان، تایپوگرافی تعاملی، اصول ادراک بصری گشتالت، مخاطب
  • فاطمه مرسلی توحیدی، میترا معنوی راد *، محمدرضا مریدی صفحات 99-110
    امروزه تلفن های همراه هوشمند، با دو ویژگی متمایز خود، یعنی صفحات نمایش لمسی و امکان نصب اپلیکیشن های هنری، به مثابه یکی از جلوه های رسانه های دیجیتال، وضعیت جدیدی از فرآیند تولید و انتشار هنر را به وجود آورده اند. این رسانه، با مادیت زدایی از فرآیند تولید هنر و تکثیر آن، ویژگی های متنی و فرامتنی نوینی را به فرهنگ دیداری افزوده اند که در بستر خود، نقطه مولد مفاهیم بدیعی بر فرهنگ بصری دیجیتال است؛ تبیین و مفهوم سازی این پدیده بصری نوین، گامی است به سوی شناخت مختصات فرهنگی تصویر در رسانه دیجیتالی آن چه حول محور «جامعه نمایشگرها»، مفهوم می یابد.
    این پژوهش، با اتخاذ روش توصیفی- تحلیلی و با استناد به اطلاعات و منابع کتابخانه ای، با مطالعه چندین نمونه از اپلیکیشن های هنری تلفن همراه هوشمند، بر آن است تا ویژگی های فرهنگ بصری برآمده از تولید هنر در نرم افزارهای تلفن همراه را با توجه به آرای متفکران پیشگام در طرح مفهوم فرهنگ بصری دیجیتال، چون لو مانوویچ و اندرو دارلی، بررسی کند. نتایج پژوهش حاکی از آن است؛ هنر رسانه ای نوین با عزیمت از تصویر به اسکرین و جامعه نمایشگرها، به مفاهیمی نوین در عادتواره بصری، نظیر خصوصی سازی سیار و ارتباطات خانه به دوش، حاضرآماده های دیجیتال و تغییر فضای مصرف... دامن زده اند.
    کلیدواژگان: فرهنگ بصری دیجیتال، اپلیکیشن، تلفن همراه، لو مانوویچ، اندرو دارلی
  • بهاره جهانبخش *، مرتضی پورمحمدی صفحات 111-118
    مطالعات رفتاری از رایج ترین مطالعات شاخه های علوم انسانی هستند که رفتارهای جامعه مورد مطالعه، درشرایط ویژه مشاهده و ضبط می شوند. رفتارها، کدگذاری شده و تبدیل به یک زنجیره حرکت میشوند که به لحاظ آماری قابل آنالیز هستند. هدف از پژوهش حاضر، افزایش دانش نسبت به طراحان و شناخت ابعاد متفاوت رفتاری آنهاست. دراین مقاله، با انجام طراحی توسط طراحان حرفه ای و مبتدی، نحوه تفکرشان دربرخورد با مسائل درشرایط مختلف، مورد بررسی قرارگرفت. نمونه آماری، دانشجویان مقطع کارشناسی طراحی صنعتی دانشگاه هنر اسلامی تبریز بودند. 8 گروه 2 نفره از دانشجویان سال اول، بعنوان طراحان مبتدی و 8 گروه 2 نفره از دانشجویان سال آخر بعنوان حرفه ای درنظرگرفته شدند. انتخاب، اتفاقی و با دعوتنامه از سوی محقق صورت پذیرفت. نیمی از طراحان درشرایط پاسخ تکنولوژیک و نیمی دیگر درشرایط غیرتکنولوژیک، به طراحی پرداختند. جلسات طراحی ضبط و با استفاده از روشFBS کدگذاری شدند. آنالیز داده ها توسط روش لینکوگرافی و برنامه لینکودر انجام شد. براساس آزمون T، مقدار P در شاخص های شناختی بالاتر از 0.05 بودند. درنتیجه حل مسائل درشرایط مختلف به سطح توانایی های طراحان مرتبط نمیباشد. همچنین طراحان حرفه ای و مبتدی فارغ ازاینکه چه سوالی به آنها داده شده، از استراتژی واحدی برای حل مسئله استفاده مینمایند. همچنین در مکتوب نمودن مدارک، تغییر معنادار دارند (05/0p<).
    کلیدواژگان: تکنولوژی، تفکر طراحان، طراحان صنعت، طراحان مبتدی، طراحان حرفه ای، روش لینکوگرافی
  • معصومه اسماعیل زاده *، زهرا قدوسی نژاد، مهران فاطمی نیا صفحات 119-129
    با توجه به جایگاه مشارکت در طراحی خدمات، اهمیت رویکرد مشارکتی در این حوزه روز به روز افزایش می یابد. اما در رابطه با روند طراحی مشارکتی در حوزه ی طراحی خدمات و فواید حاصل از بکارگیری رویکرد طراحی مشارکتی در این حوزه، مواردی وجود دارد که به بررسی و مطالعه ی بیشتر نیاز دارد. بنابراین هدف از انجام این پژوهش، بررسی روند طراحی خدمات با رویکرد مشارکتی و تاثیرات مثبت حاصل از این رویکرد در چنین پروژه هایی می باشد. در این نوشتار روش تحقیق از نوع تحلیل کیفی مبتنی بر مطالعه ی موردی است؛ که در این راستا چهار پروژه ی طراحی خدمات به عنوان مطالعه های موردی انتخاب شده است. مهم ترین نتیجه ای که در راستای تحلیل این پروژه ها بدست آمد نشان می دهد که می توان فرآیندی سه مرحله ای را در اجرای کلیه ی پروژه های طراحی خدمات که در قالب رویکرد طراحی مشارکتی به انجام می رسند، شناسایی و به طراحان در این حوزه معرفی کرد. همچنین با بررسی تاثیر ابزارهای طراحی مشارکتی در ارتقای حوزه های نوآوری در طراحی خدمات، این نتیجه بدست آمد که بکارگیری این ابزارها در حوزه های نوآوری می تواند تاثیرات مثبتی در پی داشته باشد. در انتها جهت ارزیابی فرآیند پیشنهادی در این نوشتار، روند یک پروژه ی اجرایی و نتایج حاصل از آن مورد ارزیابی و مقایسه ی تطبیقی قرار گرفت.
    کلیدواژگان: طراحی مشارکتی خدمات، روند طراحی مشارکتی، ابزار و تکنیک های مشارکت، فواید طراحی مشارکتی
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  • Arefe Sarami *, Asghar Fahimifar Pages 5-12
    Visualization have visual features and is the simplest way of imaginings, which employs a process of visual imagery. Image is a medium and seems that any visual image can be used in a sensory visualizing. Nonetheless, it should be noted that there are some difficulties to understanding the meaning of image, and pictorial and subjective ideology may be the best definition for it. According to our knowledge and identification of the world, experimental data shows that our practice in imagining, the same ours in seeing includes picture. Herein the questions are: 1) which aspect of image can be differently interpreted through the history and transferred by its medium? And 2) to what extent there are some equal characteristics among perceived image and reality? This paper will answers those questions in a semantics research about the visual content of picture and by employing some reasonable account, explain the striking realities within artworks. We should consider that, imagination do not have grammar rules, grammar allow images to represent linear process and these modes render instantaneous while grammar elaborates the meaning in a temporally articulated sequence. This, the image’s essential instantaneity is lost, while its concise quality constitutes a unifying synthesis that is already present: this is above all a concise vision of a totality articulated in its unity. When we speak of a grammar of the imagination, we make an analogy with verbal language without overlaying these two fields. If we speak of a semantics of the image, we are dealing with a process of organizing a structure that cannot be individuated and facing it sequentially that can be logically reconstructed. We administrate ourselves through experience by seeing. This vision is full of pre-cognitions of the world. It is not relevant here to claim what the image reflects; but, it is important to understand what is evoked to us by image. As we have seen, the image is endowed with an entry point. It has a frame through which it objectifies itself for us. What we have recognized in our world through the image, what in the image has enticed our attention, is, so to speak, brought onto the stage. We find ourselves alternatively in the image, it has also become a part of us, an image of ourselves. The part that we call memory. Our knowledge (and more than any other that gained through the image) has a history. The space occupied by the image consequently becomes the space of the subject, a space in which we hold fast to our vision in the objectivity of the medium in order to locate ourselves in this same objectivity, and to work from within it. The resulting position thus sheds light that the certain visual nature of image content have a live quality and this can make the entity of our mind apparent. Further, the Framework and objectivity of artwork stand on the active subject-matter which any of them is the way of seeing the world.
    Keywords: Picture, Image, Visual Perception, Semantic Analysis
  • Mohamadreza Abolghassemi * Pages 13-22
    this paper intends to be an attempt of using the phenomenological approach with regard to paint itself in painting. The way of approaching this topic was suggested to us by the two great phenomenologists, Edmund Husserl, Merleau-Ponty and Roman Ingarden. We hoped to show that paint is not a mere material in the hand of painter, otherwise, the painting come to live by paint. In other words, the painter does not work on paint, but she works with it. Ancient texts show that color has not been the determinant element of painting. Greek terms denoting painting, such as skiagraphia, iconographia or zographia testify that color has been absent in the Greek conception of painting. This historical fact indicates the traditional prevelge for drawing reducing coloring as a secondary feature of painting. This general trend has been reversed by Hegel’s Lectures on Aesthetics particulary in his interesting ideas about painting (as a romantic art). We will see then that the color has been described by Hegel as the spiritual moment of painting by which it is distinguished from other hand-mad pictures. Color has a specific magic function which transform the light to the depicted objects on canvas. It is in and by the color that painting establishes its visual world. The perceiver sees not simply the color, but world-color, or, in other words, world as it is appeared through color used in painting. According to Maurice Merleau-Ponty, color has a disclosing function: it reveals the depth of Being otherwise inaccessible to the viewer. The visible is, so to speak, the self-disclosing color itself. Describing Cézanne works, Merleau-Ponty emphasizes how the Cézanne’s coloring methode could be regarded as the phenomenology applied to painting or, to put it otherwise, phenomenological painting. We will see that the impressionists introduced the time to painting through color. By painting a single landscape through different time scale of the day, Monet for instance depicts changing color-light-time as a visual whole. It’s the time which is embodied in the color changments of the landscape. Due to impressionism, the time is transformed to color and vice versa. We used the notion of “Intentionality” to clear that paint is an intentional visual element, which represent the intentionality of painter’s mind. Ingarden was interested to the ontology of work of art. We have tried to apply one of his ontological concepts to the painting. Color could be thus regarded as a place for viewer interpretation aiming to determine the aesthetic object as a work of art. Having in view the concept of “places of indeterminacy” from Ingarden’s phenomenological aesthetics, we tried to show that paint is a potentiality that is realized by both painter’s intentions and the attitudes chosen by conceiver of the work. It is by the act of intentional seeing that a colored field transfom to painting. As a result, an aesthetic object and its elements – the paint – can be a work of art if it appears itself to a conceiver who determines its indeterminacies.
    Keywords: Color, Painting, Phenomenology, Light
  • Saeid Akhavani, Fattaneh Mahmoudi * Pages 23-34
    One of the most important artistic and intellectual currents of thought in the history of Iran is literature. Culture of Iran cannot be separated from its context. Painting as a valuable legacy of art interacts with literature. One of the examples of this interaction between painting and literature is Khavaran Nameh manuscript by Ibn Hesam Khosfi. The importance of this version which painted and arranged in ninth AH is in artistic scenes. This religious-epic collection includes a description of First Imam's campaign; the poems, painting, and gilding of this version is appointed to "Farhad Naghash".
    The paintings in this study is inspiration of Khavaran Nameh manuscript by Ibn Hessam Khosfi which is a prominent literary work. The significance of this version which painted and arranged in ninth century AH is in artistic scenes. This religious-epic collection contains descriptions of Imam Ali's (AS) battles. This collection is written in 830 AD and has followed the rhetoric of Ferdowsi's Shahnameh. Paintings and gildings of this version is appointed to "Farhad Naghash". He was from Shiraz and had created art in special manner. According to dated images (painted in 881, 882, 892 AH), it can be said this precious version is finished around 892 AH and it took ten years for him to write and design it. By painting this literary work, the painter has expanded the implication and added new layers of meaning. The problem that arises here is finding the explicit and hidden layers of meaning in the paintings of Khavaran Nameh manuscript. Therefore it is necessary to analyze and research artistic treasures of Iran with its theories, approaches, and new method in the field of art criticism and aesthetics. This article is an attempt to collect information in two ways: a library method and descriptive-analytic method. The paintings of Khavaran Nameh manuscript read and examined in three stage steps based on the Erwin Panofsky's iconology pattern that presented in twentieth century in order to make different layers of meaning transparent.
    One of the innovative aspects of the present study lies in new approach to analyzing Khavaran Nameh's manuscript paintings. Artistic and literary works have different text and hypertext aspects, every critic shows one of these aspects. Some of these aspects are inter-textual and others are intra-textual.
    The themes and the artist's point of view toward Iran traditional painting has been showed in this study not to the real world but to literary and art discourse. This discourse is related to myth by means of literary epic. The hidden meaning which achieved by three stage of iconology refers to four elements and mythical concepts.
    The study of several paintings selected from Khavaran Nameh manuscript showed that the meanings of most of these paintings rooted in literature; even the paintings of completely religious books have mythical themes. Undoubtedly, read and meaning extracted from this study is not the definite meaning of these paintings. This point indicated that these paintings have high interpretational capacity and should be studied with new critical art approaches.
    Keywords: Iranian painting, Shiraz doctrine, Khavaran Nameh, iconology, layers of meaning
  • Rohollah Ishaqsadeh, Hamid Sadeghian *, Elham Rohani Esfahani Pages 35-46
    Word and image are two important factors to establish the connection. Formation of a signal in the form of letters, for expressing ideas and mental concepts took place distant past. Using text glyphs if the distance of time and space, get a sense was also easier. Writing and calligraphy In addition transferring messages through images and words, are visual structure. So in hieroglyphics only the characters but the message transfer agent Calligraphy artist initiative has been verified and tasteful field writing. The principles and rules of calligraphy in the beauty and attention to visual quality, including features that The line of visual and aesthetic structure has been privileged over other lines. The works surviving from Mir Emad Calligraphy in the Safavid period, showing the peak of the evolution of this line is that after centuries of formation, Attractions and hidden in the works of the best artists of his works of contemporary calligraphy in terms of visual and visual communications verifiable and comparable. So that by comparing the strengths and weaknesses of each of these works can be in terms of aesthetics and visual qualities outlined Selected samples to compare the effects of each period, the index of similar works Miremad the Safavid period and Amirkhni the contemporary period. Such relationships Nstlyq three categories: visual communication, understanding and communication connections are writing. Here are a dedicated communications objective and perceived communication or hidden in two contemporary style and Safavi has been studied. Considering the importance of hieroglyphics as the most beautiful bride Islamic lines and lines of Persian literature, research activity, comprehensive, adequate and functional aesthetic principles have been done in the discussion.
    Basically without careful analysis and rational calligraphic works great and can not index any new developments in the field of calligraphy found his way.
    So far, few studies have been done on the bases of visual nastaliq
    Therefore, none of the visual elements of visual communication objective and hidden relationships and the visual quality of the calligraphy analyzed Nstlyq not taken seriously
    In this paper, collecting information through library and documentary descriptive, analytical qualitative comparison of excerpts from the works of Mir Emad and Amirkhni addressed, Objective and comprehensive communications effort is intended to be reviewed in two ways Safavid and contemporary. According to the research are among the examples given.
    Questions are being raised in this paper is to both apparent and hidden hieroglyphics need to make contact there, Intuitive knowledge in understanding what role this communication, mainly the similarities and differences in the difference between the samples of Miremad and Amirkhni similar effects are. The result of the research shows is that sensitive artist Safavid period, especially relations of visual communications objective and perceptual visual elements more contemporary artists have been hidden. In addition to recognizing the principles and rules as well as understand the communication writing, Requires a thorough understanding and recognition of objective and perceptual relationship between visual elements and visual quality of the calligraphy is nastaliq Safavid period in the works of the artist fully considered the issue.
    Keywords: Graphic, Nstaliq, Safavid, Contemporary, Mir Emad, Amirkhni
  • Nahid Jafari Dehkirdi *, Khashayar Ghazizadeh Pages 47-54
    Sanctity of human faces painted and even the animals, would promote Islamic geometry and architectural drawings. Same time that illustrated medieval Europe was the leading Baroque, Islamic art also keep up to mirror and sparkle motifs house mirror was gone. Humans desire to understand oneself and the world together, He was on it to the sacred objects of the universe.
    It is obvious that the development, growth of mystical geometry and load it, was based on strict law lord who hitched a way to test any type of painting and Makeup in its territory. However, the dam couldn’t bear it against the people of art, and Opened the way to the creation of various art works, But spiritual geometry in a way that went down to Ghana and evolve and take in all the arenas of radiation on moral and religious places.
    To identify the role of Zarineh eight-pointed stars, Simineh evident in the paintings of Shahnameh Safavi W602 version Walters Museum of consider that the shield is seen warriors and military insignia.
    Look at the philosophy underlying the latent semantic geometric shapes and angles institution know that it has been less discussed in the arts around the world, except, at the same Iranian-Islamic geometry that we have spoken about it here.
    Studies show that Eight Islamic symbol in geometry, Is an attempt to expand the sunlight and debris survey attempts to escape freezing time. That Sun in the Islamic thought, it is symmetrical with the supernatural and eternal truth.
    Geometric designs and latticed windows doesn’t make the viewer look at the world, among them dry and lifeless geometric. But this geometry deep semantic and spiritual look at the beautiful world saw what I saw there. The globe in Eastern mystical look, full and fragrant direct a manifestation of God.
    In this article we try one of the perceptions that sacred association in the form of eight-pointed stars has to be explored. In a comprehensive perspective eight of the role of the dominant religions and cultures is of great sanctity. The role of the sun on the armor and shields and ancient armies of four mirrors in the form of eight or eight-radius side can be explained in this way. This role could induce the enemy so that his rival is a Fred men with Divine glory that the fate of the war, he will return to profit. But the rays of the sun Genealogy can be in his eight books of ancient Greece and Macedonia, as well as shields. Even in Sweden, one of the surviving motifs, from the Stone Age, shows one of sailing with a sun shield in hand. So they can then outlined in countless motifs and paintings, in West and East, from China to Tunisia and Holy Russia. But now, the topic of our hallowed number eight light emitted by the Sun of Truth. It is the role of Islamic geometry, an attempt to expand the sunlight and debris survey attempts to escape freezing time.
    Keywords: 602W Shahnameh, the eight-pointed stars, symbolic meanings, Islamic geometry, light weapons, mirror
  • Azadeh Souri * Pages 55-68
    The motifs and designs of Qashqayi Kilim are representative of the creative mind, subtlety of essence, and the profoundness of the thoughts of their weavers. Utilizing geometrical designs including broken, parallel lines as well as triangle, square and all types of lozenges in a harmony with one another in order to create balance, and symmetry all prove that visual elements are utilized and reached the sublime beauty and perfection.One of the very important features is avoiding circular and curved shapes because using geometric shapes is easier and weaving curved shapes require deeper knowledge.This geometric orientation is of the first primitive experiences of the human in the primitive and nomadic human societies that did not enter the rural and sedentary stage of life. The birth place of these motifs come back to the mythological beliefs and symbolic paintings and the coding are pertinent to the prehistoric era in the works created by the mosaic makers of the 3rd and 4th millennium BC and some belonged to motifs of Persian empire, Sassanid dynasty and the early period of the Islamic period. Similarity of some of motifs of Iran, Qafghaz, Minor and middle Asia, Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, by the paintings pewters and the steel objects of thousand years in regard to their shape, the coding content and the symbolic essence encompass a vast historical and geographical place that have not had any equality in history. In this article firstly the features of the motifs and images in the Kilim will be studied, then the motifs will be categorized and studied. The hypothesis in this research is that how the history of some motifs of Qashqayi Kilim exceed the dawn of history and stay immortal up to now. The objective of collecting these motifs is to acknowledge this precious collection and their application in today art, with that high status in Iranian culture and art and maintaining the existence. The signs and symbols that have had a long presence in the ancient culture of the primitive people have not lost their application, practical facets along with their visual and aesthetic dimensions maintaining their tangible existence in daily lives of the people. For conclusion, the compiler utilized deductive and descriptive method, data analysis of the sources as well as scientific criticism of the sources. The findings indicate that motifs, geometrical shapes, harmonious and abstract in addition to the symbolic, ritual and ideological, religious and mythical symbols that were in the text and background as well as in mosaic making, iron working, nature, motif, engraves, architecture as the sources of inspiration for the weaver all are displayed through mental weaving .Collecting and making an archive along with the symbolic concepts could be a very valuable work in order to maintain these works and for the use of the researchers. The proximity of these motifs to the graphic works and their applicability in today art as well as their design creativity make them valuable and these are could be considered as the important factors of choosing this work.
    Keywords: Khorasani motif, pool company (the dog), QezelQichi, Integrated Chicken image, Quchaki filled or empty
  • Maryam Keshmiri * Pages 69-78
    In a part of an Arabic book called Taʾrīk̲h̲ sinī mulūk al-arḍ wa ’l-anbiyāʾ (The History of Prophets and Kings; 4th AH / 10th AC), Hamza ibn al-Hasan al-Isfahani had described the garments of twenty four Sasanian Kings as well as two Sasanian queens based upon paintings presented in the lost book of Sovar Molouk Bani Sasan (The Effigy of the Sasanian Kings). He used five major categories to explain the kings’ and queens’ trousers and garments: 1. Be-Lown, 2.Movashah, 3.Vashy-e- be Zahab, 4. Vashy-e- Modannar, 5. Vashy-e- be Lown. He accompanied the description of each of these clothes within the five mentioned categories with a specific description of color. The meaning of these terms has been changed during centuries. The various and sometimes even contradictory descriptions of these clothes in the contemporary translations and exegesis are the results of the same historical changes and expansions of the meaning of these terms. The research in hand, is based upon the signification of the mentioned terms in Ancient Arabic, re-reading of the historical texts, a nuance observation in the representation of kings’ and queen’ garments available on the Sasanian metal works and relieves as well as reading the remaining fragments of Sasanian textiles kept in world’s museums, to 1. establish the proper meaning of these Arabic terms; 2. Identify a group of Sasanian textiles in accordance with the paintings in Sovar Molouk Bani Sasan; 3. Examine Isfahani’s precision in terms of the archeological findings. This research indicates that Be-Lown refers to colored fabrics without any patters; Movashah is used to present the clothes that are decorated with various gems as well as peals; Vashy-e- be Zahab refers to various usages of gold in decoration of the Sasanian garments, for instance the textiles woven with gold strings, silk fabrics with golden embroidery of various patters; or the fabrics with painted golden patterns. Vashy-e- Modannar refers to the fabric which might be the most famous Sasanian textile. These fabrics present repetitive circular frames. This form had been adapted by many Weaving workshops in Byzantium, Far East, Soghdian and Islamic workshops after the fall of Sasanian Empire. Some fragments of the products of these weaving workshop as well as the fragmentations of the original Sasanian fabrics are being kept in museums across the globe such as Metropolitan Museum of Art, Cleveland Museum of Art, Hermitage Museum The Art Walters Museum, etc. Vashy-e- be Lown presents the kind of dyed fabrics, either colorfully or in a single color (such as red, blue, yellow, green and another natural color), producing a marble like appearance or a fabric with bodies of haphazard lines as decorating elements. All kinds of fabrics available in this fashion are wrongly labeled as Yemeni in contemporary times. This research benefits from a historical approach. In order to analyze data, the descriptive, comparative and analytical methods have been used. The data have been gathered in the librarian method and the analysis is qualitative.
  • Tayebe Beheshti * Pages 79-86
    Old sources are silent about the layout system in Iranian manuscripts. Only some contemporary researchers try to retrieve this system relied on the analysis of a number of these manuscripts. M. Amin. Mahdavi, in a paper titled "Evidence for grid layout in Persian manuscripts" attempts to determine the location of the text format on a page, on the basis of review of 84 different versions; uses a chess plot that divides the page into a horizontal and vertical network structure. In his article "Recherche sur le Module et le trace Correcteur dans la Miniature Orientale", Chahryar Adle also justifies the layout of “Futohate Homayon”, based on the chess infrastructure. Using such an infrastructure means that, on the one hand, the four parameters of the length of the header, the length of the footer, the width of the outer margin and the width of the inner margin should be from the proper relation or at least by an additional 1⁄2, as claimed by Adle, with the length of the page in the parameters of the header and footer lengths and with the width of the page in the parameters of the outer and inner margins; and on other hand, the parameters of the header length with the length of the footer and the width of the outer margin with the width of the inner margin, also show significant proportions. However, there are some Timurid versions, which lack some of these qualities in some of the parameters, and therefore the method proposed by these researchers cannot justify the system governing their layout. The present research has tried to determine how these manuscripts are made layout, in the form of three Quranic versions which are now preserved in the National Museum of Iran. The approach of this research is quantitative and the method used in it is descriptive analytic case study. The results of this discussion showed that there might have been another way of design, not based on the principle of dividing the sides of a page into equal parts, but on the basis of two-page design on the face. In this way of layout, the designer divides the length of the bi sheet into n equal parts, assigns 1⁄n of the middle to the inner margins, and the same amount from the top or bottom of it to the margin of the header or footer. Then, using some geometric methods, which mainly relate to the drawing of the main rectangle's diagonals such as bi sheet rectangles or page rectangles or sub-rectangles such as rectangles derived from the page frame and guide lines; determine the location of the other dimensions. The latter method is not only compatible with the construction of a book in the Islamic Middle Ages, which is based on a bi sheet, but also allows the designer to choose the frame appropriately, without the need for the use of the sophisticated numeral system; provides a framework for the inclusion of illumination or text, in which the length ratio is always proportional to width.
    Keywords: layout, Timurid Qurans in the National Museum of Iran, chess infrastructure, bi sheet, geometric methods
  • Zahra Rahbarnia Pages 87-98
    “In order to control” as an interactive installation based on typography and motion that is Nota Bene –the creative and artistic group- made and presented it in years 2011 to 2015 in numerous international festival and exhibitions. This multimedia installation uses new digital media technologies combined with the human body and lets its visitors to explore in typographic space and has unique experience. Present research method is a descriptive, analytical and deductive manner, therefore studying this interaction work with the Gestalt visual rules. What is important in gestalt visual perception principles is realizing the communication perception that cause significant behavior. The purpose of this study was to discover the impact quality of gestalt visual perception rules in an interactive installation to identify its potential in creating beneficial communication. Achievement of accommodation of this theory to typographic installation showed that use them get better organized components and also makes perception work easier and logical which cause the audience to participate actively and had more interaction with other visitors and leads to communicate, exchange knowledge and experience. Moreover, despite of an effective role of designer in the implementation of gestalt principles in structure, should not be ignored varied and different pragnans of audience random acts and movements. In addition, the relationship between form and content is based on the collaborative and dynamic presence of the participants, but their collective solidarity in determining the trend and fate of the layout, which can be broadly extended to civil society, is likely to bring different and more appropriate results to Follows. The achievements of matching the present sample and Gestalt's rules showed that although the content and Raw material of the work of art were at the discretion of the artist and the perceptual principles of Gestalt were designed in advance, the dependence of the seven principles of Gestalt's visual perception on random acts, motions, and audience's decision It also should not be overlooked in the process of completing the effect, so that if the element of writing and movement are the most important components of the planned layout, the presence of the audience is certainly the most important and decisive element of the unpredictable and effective in its perceptual process, such that the transcript It has established with these rules. Also, after examining the principles of Gestalt, a general arrangement was made that the effect of each of the laws was not the same and exhibited different pregnancies, thus emphasizing one of them as the most important principle in the arrangement is difficult and unrecognizable, While the performance of these rules on the form and content can be estimated in equal proportions. Another noteworthy point in the "in order to control" is that typography is more in the service of visual aesthetics and the participants are also more externally distinct, but with all this, the title, content of the layout and general goals of the ideologists can still be matched to the visual structure.
    Keywords: Interactive Art, Installation, Interactive typography, Gestalt principles of visual perception, audience
  • Fatemeh Morsali Tohidi, Mohammadreza Moridi Pages 99-110
    In modern life, cybernetic patterns, technology and new information systems, moreover, are added to software features and along with other fields, art has also been released from the previous paradigm in the performance and presentation of the work and has been presented in the form of a variety of digital media. Today, smartphones, with two distinctive features, namely touch screens, and the ability to install art apps, as one of the effects of digital media, have created a new state of the art production and distribution process and a new aesthetic sphere, has been opened to a audiences. An artistic sphere derived from digital add-ons has entered with a new language in the aesthetic area; Today, smartphones have created a new status of the process of producing. Digital art has a tremendous variety today and provides numerous possibilities by the applications. Smartphones and tablets have provided fast and easy processing. Add-ons are capable of providing greater variety and faster access and more epidemic. Smart phones that come with a combination of phone and internet have taken many roles in addition to their traditional roles of calling and sending messages in recent years and with the multiple capabilities, they are no longer just a phone. This access creates new conditions that are both shared and interdisciplinary. Simultaneous access to both visual and audio information and the portability of mobile phones and tablets makes them the ideal device. The art created in this way has some new features.
    Artistic software is one of the synthetic effects of digital knowledge with other biological and empirical fields. The current situation can be regarded as the focal point of a period in which the traditional and classical relations between the audience, the production of art and the visual culture have been eliminated, and a new visual culture formed around what the digital art theorist, Lev Manovich interprets from the " community of displays ". The present paper assumes that the artistic media has added the textual and modern metaphorical features to visual culture by degrading the process of art production and reproduction, and its context is the source of the original concepts for digital visual culture.The explanation and conceptualization of this innovative visual phenomenon is a step towards understanding the cultural coordinates of the image in the digital media, which is about the concept of the " community of displays ".
    By adopting a descriptive-analytical method and based on library information, studying several examples of smart cell phone art applications, this survey research intends to study the characteristics of visual culture derived from the production of art in mobile applications, according to the views of the pioneering thinkers in the concept of digital visual culture, such as Lev Manovich, Andrew Darley,. The results of the survey indicate that the modern art media have fueled new concepts in the visual acuity, such as mobile privatization and home-to-home communication, digital presentations, and consumption space change,by departing from the image to the screen and the community of displays.
    Keywords: Digital Visual Culture, App, Mobile Phone, Lev Manovich, Andrew Darley
  • Bahareh Jahanbakhsh * Pages 111-118
    One of the most common types of studies in various branches of the humanities is behavioral studies. In conventional methods of these studies, behavior study population, the special conditions are observed and recorded. Then these behaviors are categorized or coded so. Coding the data changes a chain of "event" that are available to study and analysis. The aim of this study is to increase knowledge of the designers and understanding of different aspects of their behavior. In this paper Industrial design undergraduate students of Tabriz Islamic Art University were tested. 8Group 2 first-year undergraduate students were considered as beginner designers and 8Group 2 final-year undergraduate students were considered as professional. In this article, the tests are designed by professional designers and beginner designers, the thinking in dealing with issues in conditions technical and technological conditions were studied. Students selected randomly done by invitation by researcher. Half of statistical samples conditions response to technological and the other half conditions technological answer to their design. Session with a video camera was confiscated by the researcher and data from 16protocols recording. Recording sessions were written and were coded using FBS method. Literature of 16session of the research by 2people was coded, independently and according to plan Ontology categories (FBS). The results were compared with each other and were evaluated 2 encoders using the Delphi method. The data analysis was used linkography method and software linkoder. linkography is a structured of study quantitative method of design thinking in the form of a network graph (Graph networking). In this way, all of the activities of the designer during the design process, including a network graph and communication between them are model. Model made to our way of thinking allows designers and effective decisions during the design process and we conclude about the way a little analysis. Linkoder output data is in the form of text and diagrams. T-test did to determine the reliability of the difference between two sets of professional designers and beginners in technological different situations. To determine the value of p, solving its demographic indicators was tested based on ontology FBS. Was compared data from meeting technological design with data from other technical design sessions and data extracted from the group of professional designers and Beginners designers groups. The breadth of his creativity and the effects of their subjective experience were measured and expertise in productivity was assessed. The study of the mind were studied and how their thinking and creativity in finding solutions designers. Because P-value in the cognitive indicators were higher than the 0.05, thus decided to solve problems in different situations is not related to the ability of designers. Our research indicates that as well as professional and Beginners designers, regardless of what the question or the answer to it is how, from a strategy to solve their problem also. There is a significant change in terms of cognitive indicators of professional designers and beginners designers, only about writing the texts and sketches and records. Beginners’ designers about 93% more than professional designers, design and have more literature (p
    Keywords: Technology, Designers Thinking, Industrial Designers, Designers Beginner, Professional Designers, Linkography Method
  • Masoumeh Esmaeelzadeh *, Zahra Ghodusineghad, Mehran Fateminia Pages 119-129
    Due to the role of participation in service design, the importance of the concept participatory design approach is increasing in this area. In the literature in this area is mentioned many benefits of using participatory approach in the service design. some of these are: 1. development of different and new services with better values for users, 2. reducing the time of development services, 3. User education, 4. Long-term and better relationships between service providers and customers. But some questions still remained unanswered in the participatory design process in the service design and benefits of this approach ahead in this direction. So the aim of this study is to investigate the process of participatory design in service design projects based on tools and techniques (And possibly achieve a comprehensive process in this area), also to survey the benefits which are originated from the selected tools. The other purpose of this study is to show the importance of co-design in service design process. The research method in this paper is a qualitative analysis based on case study. For this, four projects have been selected in the field of service design from scientific articles as case studies that three of them are based on participatory design and one of them is based on a different approach. The important result of this research showed that we can probably identify a three-step process in all participatory service design projects to introduce it to designers in this area. The steps of this suggested process are: 1.preparation of operative groups 2.collective ideas 3.participatory review and extracting the ideas. The first phase of this three-step process also is diagnosed in three separate steps that are as follows: 1.Selected the type of group or groups participants 2.Recognition of diverse mental models of participants 3.informing participants with methods and objectives of the project. So the inputs in the first stage are different subjective assumptions and outputs are mindfulness participants to the matter. The last phase of this process also has three steps: 1.review 2.completion 3.selection. So at this stage (participatory review and extracting the ideas), Input are diverse ideas and output is a selective idea that is selected with the participation of all participants. Also with a comparative analysis of innovation areas in service design (which are known 7P and are included: Place, Product, price, promotion, Participants, Physical evidence and Process) with participatory design tools, it was found that the use of participatory design tools has positive effects in these areas. Finally, to assess the process proposed in this paper, the process of an execution project and the results of this were evaluated. The author’s suggestion for future research in the field of participatory design is to measure the result of the comparative analysis of innovation areas in service design with participatory design tools practically with executive projects to be aware of the positive impact of it and can be compared its influence with the implementation of other similar methods.
    Keywords: participatory service design, participatory design process, participatory tools, techniques, benefits of participatory design