فهرست مطالب

تنشهای محیطی در علوم زراعی - سال یازدهم شماره 3 (پاییز 1397)
  • سال یازدهم شماره 3 (پاییز 1397)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/07/03
  • تعداد عناوین: 24
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  • ایرج همتی، سید سعید پورداد *، رجب چوکان صفحات 471-480
    به منظور بررسی اثر متقابل ژنوتیپ و محیط و شناسایی ژنوتیپ های پایدار، 20 ژنوتیپ اصلاح شده داخلی آفتابگردان در 10 محیط شامل چهار منطقه در شرایط رطوبتی متفاوت طی سه سال زراعی (90-89، 91-90 و 93-92) ، در قالب طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفتند. داده های حاصل از عملکرد دانه از طریق تجزیه گرافیکی GGE بای پلات بررسی شدند. بر اساس نتایج حاصل، ژنوتیپ های G3 (Sil-42) ، G15 (Sil-75) ، G17 (Sil-20) ، G14 (Sil-82) و G6 (Sil-162) ازنظر پایداری و عملکرد مطلوب ترین ژنوتیپ ها بودند، هم چنین ژنوتیپ های G9 (Sil-231) ، G4 (Sil-94) و G20 (Armaverski) به عنوان ناپایدارترین ژنوتیپ ها شناخته شدند. نمودار رابطه بین محیط ها نشان داد که بین محیط های E3 و E7، محیط های E4، E5 و E6 و هم چنین بین محیط های E2، E10 و E8 همبستگی بالای وجود داشت. محیط E9 با سه محیط E2، E8 و E10 همبستگی مثبت داشت. از طرفی محیط های E7 و E3 با محیط های E10، E2، E8 و E9 همبستگی منفی و نزدیک به 1- داشتند. بین محیط گروه E6، E5 و E4 با محیط های گروه E10، E2، E8 و E9 همبستگی وجود نداشت، لذا تقریبا محیط های مجزا محسوب شدند. مطلوب ترین محیط، محیط E4 (سرارود، سال زراعی 90-89 با آبیاری تکمیلی) بود که کمترین فاصله را از محیط فرضی ایده آل داشت. محیط E1 (گچساران، سال زراعی 93-92، بدون آبیاری) به عنوان نامطلوب ترین محیط شناسایی گردید.
    کلیدواژگان: آفتابگردان، اثرمتقابل، پایداری، GGE بای پلات
  • سحر شامنصوری، مهرآنا کوهی دهکردی *، محمود شمیلی صفحات 481-489
    تنش خشکی یک بحران در حال رشد است که به شدتتولید محصولات کشاورزی در سراسر جهان را محدود نموده و عامل مهمی در کاهش عملکرد گیاهان زراعی ازجمله نیشکر به خصوص در مناطق خشک و نیمه خشک به شمار می رود. به منظور گزینش سوماکلون های متحمل به خشکی در سه واریته تجاری نیشکر، تنش خشکی در چهار سطح )شاهد( صفرT1=، 25T2= ، 50 T3=و 75 T4= گرم در لیتر پلی اتیلن گلیکول در محیط کشت بافت MS اجرا گردید. شاخص های کمی بافت های کالوس به دست آمده از جهش تصادفی، موردمطالعه قرار گرفت. پس از باز زا شدن کالوس ها و انتقال گیاهک ها به محیط شاخه زایی، از هر سطح تنش خشکی واریانت های متعددی انتخاب و میزان تجمع پرولین در ارقام بررسی شد. بر اساس نتایج به دست آمده تمامی شاخص های کمی موردمطالعه در هر سه واریته تحت تاثیر تنش خشکی قرار گرفتند. در تیمارهای تحت تنش خشکی زمان القاء ظهور کالوس به طور میانگین 33. 8 درصد بیشتر از تیمار شاهد و درصد کالوس زایی به طور میانگین 31. 71 درصد کمتر از تیمار شاهد بود. درصد کالوس باززا نیز به طور میانگین 13. 53 درصد کمتر از تیمار شاهد و زمان القاء گیاهک به طور میانگین 43. 21 درصد بیشتر از تیمار شاهد به دست آمد. روند میزان تجمع پرولین به مقدار زیادی متاثر از ژنوتیپ بود وبا افزایش سطح تنش خشکی افزایش نشان داد. در سوماکلون های حاصل از واریته CP48-103 مقدار تجمع پرولین بیشتری مشاهده شد لذا سوماکلون های این واریته به شرط حفظ سایر شرایط زراعی خوب و بررسی مولکولی می توانند به عنوان ژنوتیپ های جدید معرفی گردند.
    کلیدواژگان: پرولین، پلی اتیلن گلیکول، سوماکلون، کالوس
  • سعید بخشی پور، جعفر کامبوزیا *، کوروس خوشبخت، عبدالمجید مهدوی دامغانی، مریم حسینی چالشتری صفحات 491-502
    معرفی ارقام مقاوم به خشکی در محصولات زراعی یکی از راهکارهای موثری است که در تلفیق با سایر روش های مدیریت کم آبی می تواند تاثیر این پدیده را به حداقل برساند. در نتیجه این تحقیق جهت بررسی 20 ژنوتیپ محلی و اصلاح شده برنج از نظر تنش خشکی و همچنین شناسایی شاخص های مناسب برای ارزیابی تحمل به تنش خشکی، در آزمایش گلدانی به صورت فاکتوریل با استفاده از طرح پایه بلوک کامل تصادفی با 3 تکرار در موسسه تحقیقات برنج کشور (رشت) در سال های زراعی 1394-1393 اجرا گردید. در این بررسی شاخص تحمل، شاخص پایداری عملکرد، شاخص تحمل به تنش، شاخص حساسیت به تنش، شاخص میانگین هارمونیک، شاخص میانگین هندسی بهره وری و شاخص میانگین تولید بر اساس عملکرد دانه در شرایط تنش و غیر تنش محاسبه گردید. شاخصی که انتخاب ژنوتیپ ها بر اساس آن نشان دهنده ثبات بهتر عملکرد در دو حالت تنش و بدون تنش گردید، به عنوان بهترین شاخص در نظر گرفته شد. بر این اساس شاخص حساسیت به تنش، شاخص تحمل به تنش، شاخص میانگین هندسی و شاخص میانگین هارمونیک به عنوان بهترین شاخص ها معرفی شدند و مناسب ترین ارقام بر اساس این شاخص ها در هر دو حالت تنش و غیر تنش، شامل ارقام هاشمی، علی کاظمی، شیرودی و سپیدرود بودند. نتایج این تحقیق نشان داد که برای گزینش بهترین ارقام برنج محلی و اصلاح شده ایرانی بر اساس عملکرد از شاخص حساسیت به تنش، شاخص تحمل به تنش، شاخص میانگین هندسی و شاخص میانگین هارمونیک استفاده نمود.
    کلیدواژگان: برنج، تنش خشکی، شاخص های تحمل و حساسیت، عملکرد
  • محمدرضا سرافراز اردکانی *، رمضانعلی خاوری نژاد، فواد مرادی، فرزانه نجفی صفحات 503-514
    علیرغم برخی کارکردهای مخالف همدیگر، هورمون ها نقش های مهمی در پاسخ گیاهان به تنش های محیطی بازی می کنند. بدین منظور در بررسی انجام شده، تاثیر کاربرد خارجی هورمون های سیتوکینین و آبسیزیک اسید- دو هورمون با عملکرد مخالف یکدیگر- و نیز ترکیب این دو هورمون بر محتوای نسبی آب، شاخص های فتوشیمیایی و هدایت روزنه ای در برگ پرچم دو رقم گندم نان متحمل (پیشگام) و حساس (MV-17) به تنش خشکی در رابطه عملکرد دانه این دو رقم در شرایط مزرعه در قالب طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در دو سطح آبیاری کامل و بروز تنش خشکی طی مرحله بعد از گرده افشانی ارزیابی و مقایسه گردید. درحالی که قطع آبیاری سبب کاهش معنی دار بیشتر محتوای نسبی آب، عملکرد کوانتومی فتوسیستم II، شاخص خاموش سازی فتوشیمیایی، هدایت روزنه ای و مزوفیلی، نرخ فتوسنتز و کارایی استفاده آب فتوسنتزی و نیز افزایش بیشتر خاموش سازی غیرفتوشیمیایی و غلظت دی اکسید کربن زیرروزنه ای در رقم حساس نسبت به رقم متحمل شد، ترکیب دو هورمون سبب بیشترین افزایش معنی دار محتوای نسبی آب، عملکرد کوانتومی فتوسیستم II، شاخص های خاموش سازی فتوشیمیایی و غیرفتوشیمیاییو نیز حداکثر عملکرد کوانتومی فتوسیستم IIبه ویژه در رقم متحمل شد. آبسیزیک اسید بهترین تیمار هورمونی در کاهش تبادلات گازی در جهت مقابله با خشکی بود درحالی که ترکیب دو هورمون، نرخ فتوسنتز و کارایی استفاده آب فتوسنتزی را به ویژه در رقم حساس افزایش داد. افت شاخص عملکرد دانه که در هر دو رقم طی بروز تنش خشکی مشاهده شد، طی تیمار ترکیبی سیتوکینین و آبسیزیک اسید و به ویژه در رقم حساس افزایش نشان داد. در یک نتیجه گیری کلی رقم حساس توانست در افزایش کارایی فتوسنتزی و عملکرد دانه سود بیشتری از تیمارهای هورمونی به ویژه برهمکنش دو هورمون سیتوکینین و آبسیزیک اسید ببرد.
    کلیدواژگان: تبادلات گازی، رقم حساس به تنش خشکی، رقم متحمل به تنش خشکی، عملکرد دانه، کلروفیل فلورسانس
  • رئوف سیدشریفی * صفحات 515-531
    کاربرد کودهای زیستی و یونیکونازولروشیمناسببرایافزایش عملکرد گندم تحت شرایط محدودیت آبیاست. به منظور بررسی تاثیر یونیکونازول و کودهای زیستی بر طول دوره پر شدن دانه و سهم فرایند انتقال مجدد در عملکرد دانه گندم دررژیم های متفاوت رطوبتی، آزمایشی به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح پایه بلوک های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در سال 1394 در گلخانه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی اجرا شد. تیمارهای آزمایش شامل محلول پاشی با یونیکونازول در دو سطح )عدم محلول پاشی و محلول پاشی 0. 1 گرم در لیتر (، کودهای زیستی در چهار سطح) کاربرد میکوریزا، ازتوباکتر و سودوموناس، کاربرد توام میکوریزا با باکتری ها، عدم کاربرد کودهای زیستی به عنوان شاهد (و آبیاری در سه سطح) آبیاری کامل، آبیاری تا 50 درصد مراحل خوشه دهی و چکمه ای شدن به ترتیب به عنوان محدودیت ملایم و شدید آبی (بودند. نتایج نشان داد بیش ترین سهم انتقال مجدد ماده خشک از کل اندام هوایی (57. 6 درصد) و مشارکت ذخایر ساقه در عملکرد دانه (53. 4 درصد) و کمترین طول دوره پر شدن دانه (26. 6روز) در آبیاری تا 50 درصد چکمه ای شدن، عدم کاربرد کودهای زیستی و عدم محلول پاشی با یونیکونازول به دست آمد. حداکثر وزن تک بذر و طول دوره پر شدن دانه (به ترتیب با 0. 052 گرم و 34. 5روز) به کاربرد توام کودهای زیستی و یونیکونازول و در آبیاری کامل و کمترین آن ها (0. 030 گرم، 626. 6 روز) در عدم مصرف کودهای زیستی و یونیکونازول و در آبیاری تا 50 درصد چکمه ای شدن به دست آمد. حداکثر سرعت پر شدن دانه (0. 00248 گرم در روز) در کاربرد کودهای زیستی و یونیکونازول و در آبیاری تا 50 درصد چکمه ای شدن و کمترین میزان آن (0. 0016 گرم در روز) در عدم مصرف کودهای زیستی و یونیکونازول و در آبیاری کامل به دست آمد. به طورکلی کاربرد کودهای زیستی و یونیکونازول می تواند به عنوان یک فاکتور مدیریتی مناسب برای افزایش عملکرد دانه و طول دوره پر شدن دانه در شرایط محدودیت آبی باشد.
    کلیدواژگان: میکوریزا، ازتوباکتر، سودوموناس، کمبود آب
  • زینب عنافجه، محمد بنایان اول *، پرویز رضوانی مقدم، سید بهرام اندرزیان صفحات 533-545
    به منظور بررسی واکنش گیاه گندم به شرایط قطع آبیاری در مراحل مختلف رشد و سطوح نیتروژن، آزمایشی به صورت کرت‏های یک‏بار خردشده در قالب طرح بلوک‏های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مزرعه پژوهشی مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خوزستان در سال زراعی 94-1393 اجرا گردید. در این آزمایش قطع آبیاری در 4 سطح (عدم قطع آبیاری، قطع آبیاری در مرحله ساقه رفتن، قطع آبیاری در مرحله گلدهی و قطع آبیاری در مرحله پر شدن دانه) به عنوان عاملa در کرت‏های اصلی و نیتروژن از منبع اوره در سه سطح (0، 100 و 200 کیلوگرم در هکتار) به عنوان عامل b در کرت‏های فرعی موردبررسی قرار گرفتند. نتایج نشان داد که سطوح متفاوت قطع آبیاری و نیتروژن تاثیر معنی‏داری بر روی عملکرد دانه، عملکرد بیولوژیک و درصد نیتروژن دانه و بقایا داشتند. سطوح آبیاری به طرز متفاوتی به نیتروژن واکنش نشان دادند‏ و بین سطوح متفاوت آبیاری تفاوت معنی‏دار ازنظر تمامی صفات به‏جز عملکرد بیولوژیک وجود داشت. اثر افزایش نیتروژن نیز بر تمامی صفات معنی‏دار بود؛ اما اثر متقابل سطوح قطع آبیاری و سطوح متفاوت نیتروژن تنها بر روی عملکرد دانه، عملکرد بیولوژیک و درصد نیتروژن دانه و بقایا تاثیر داشته و بالاترین مقادیر از تیمار تامین آبیاری در تمام دوره رشد و مصرف 200 کیلوگرم در هکتار نیتروژن به دست آمد. هم‏چنین تجزیه رگرسیون صفات مورداندازه گیری شده نشان داد با افزایش نیتروژن مقدار عملکرد دانه، عملکرد بیولوژیک و درصد نیتروژن دانه و بقایای تمامی رژیم‏های آبیاری افزایش می‏یابد. برش دهی اثر متقابل نیز روشن می سازد که عملکرد تمامی سطوح آبیاری و درصد نیتروژن دانه و بقایا به کاربرد سطوح مختلف آبیاری و نیتروژن واکنش نشان دادند.
    کلیدواژگان: تنش رطوبتی، نیتروژن دانه و بقایا، اجزای عملکرد
  • فهیمه فریدی مایوان، مجید جامی الاحمدی *، سید وحید اسلامی، کوروش شجاعی نوفرست صفحات 547-560
    به منظور شناخت مناسب ترین الگوی کشت و تاثیر کاربرد کود سولفات پتاسیم بر برخی خصوصیات فیزیولوژیکی و عملکرد غده در شرایط معمول و تنش آبی پژوهشی به صورت کرت های دو بار خردشده در قالب طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مزرعه واقع در جلگه رخ، خراسان رضوی در سال 1395 انجام گردید. فاکتورهای آزمایشی شامل الگوی کاشت در سه سطح: کاشت معمول (تراکم 6. 6 بوته در مترمربع) ، کاشت معمول متراکم (تراکم 7. 4 بوته در مترمربع) و کاشت زیگزاگ (تراکم 7. 4 بوته در مترمربع) در کرت اصلی، میزان آبیاری در سه سطح: 100 (شاهد) ، 80 و 60 درصد آب مورد نیاز در کرت فرعی و کود سولفات پتاسیم در سه سطح: عدم مصرف سولفات پتاسیم، 75 کیلوگرم سولفات پتاسیم در هکتار و 150 کیلوگرم سولفات پتاسیم در هکتار به عنوان کرت فرعی فرعی بود. نتایج نشان داد که الگوی کشت، میزان آبیاری و کود سولفات پتاسیم تاثیر معنی داری بر حداکثر شاخص سطح برگ، محتوی نسبی آب برگ، تعداد کل غده، تعداد غده غیر بازار پسند و عملکرد دارد و کاهش در ارتفاع بوته، حداکثر شاخص سطح برگ، محتوی نسبی آب برگ و عملکرد کل تحت شرایط 60 درصد آب مورد نیاز نسبت به شاهد مشاهده گردید. بر اساس نتایج آزمایش بیشترین میزان عملکرد کل در الگوی کشت زیگزاگی با 100 درصد آب مورد نیاز و مصرف 150 کیلوگرم در هکتار کود سولفات پتاسیم مشاهده شد. کشت زیگزاگی با ایجاد توزیع یکنواخت تر و کاهش رقابت بین بوته ها افزایش عملکرد را در پی داشت.
    کلیدواژگان: تنش خشکی، شاخص سطح برگ، عملکرد غده، محتوی نسبی آب برگ
  • بابک پیکرستان، مهرداد یارنیا، حمید مدنی * صفحات 561-568
    به منظور بررسی شاخص های رشد و کلروفیل دوهیبرید ذرت شیرین چیس و چلنجر درشرایط کم آبیاری و محلول پاشی با ترکیبات حاوی عنصر روی، آزمایشی به صورت اسپیلت پلات فاکتوریل در قالب بلوک های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه آزاداسلامی واحد اراک در سال های 1393 و 1394 انجام شد. تیمارالگوی آبیاری در کرت های اصلی شامل آبیاری کامل مزرعه یا کلیه جویچه ها (شاهد) ، آبیاری یک درمیان جویچه ها، آبیاری یک درمیان متناوب جویچه ها و در کرت های فرعی تیمار محلول پاشی با عنصر روی شامل عدم محلول پاشی (شاهد) ، کاربرد سولفات روی زینک درآپ (دو در هزار لیتر) ، کاربرد سولفات روی زینک فست (دو در هزار لیتر) و دو هیبرید ذرت به صورت فاکتوریل قرار گرفتند. نتایج نشان داد تاثیر الگوهای آبیاری، محلول پاشی روی، رقم و برهمکنش آن ها بر شاخص های رشد، میزان کلروفیل و کاروتنوئید در سطح احتمال 1% معنی دار بود. بالاترین میزان شاخص سطح برگ،شاخص رشد و میزان کلروفیل درروش آبیاری کامل با میزان 3. 76، 50. 66% و 0. 892 میلی گرم بر گرم مشاهده گردید که تفاوت معنی دار 12. 98، 8. 41 و 16. 64 درصدی نسبت به روش آبیاری یک درمیان جویچه ها داشت اما با آبیاری تناوبی تفاوت معنی دار نداشت. بالاترین شاخص سطح برگ، شاخص رشد و میزان کلروفیل در تیمار کاربرد زینک فست به میزان 3. 868، 50. 20% و 0. 887 میلی گرم بر گرم مشاهده شد درحالی که در تیمار عدم کاربرد روی این میزان 3. 412، 50. 08% و 0. 595 میلی گرم بر گرم کاهش یافت یعنی 15. 38، 11. 21 و 19. 94% افت نشان داد. بر اساس نتایج این تحقیق، در شرایط کم آبی، استفاده از الگوی آبیاری تناوبی و محلول پاشی با زینک فست در تولید ذرت شیرین رقم چلنجر قابل توصیه است.
    کلیدواژگان: الگوی آبیاری، ذرت، روی، شاخص برداشت، کلروفیل
  • سمیه محمدی نژاد، امین باقی زاده، مهدی رحیمی * صفحات 569-577
    به منظور بررسی واکنش 20 اکوتیپ لوبیا قرمز به تنش خشکی، آزمایشی به صورت کرت های خردشده بر پایه طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در سال زراعی 96- 1395 در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه تحصیلات تکمیلی صنعتی و فناوری پیشرفته کرمان اجرا گردید. در این مطالعه فاکتور اصلی شامل سه دور آبیاری و فاکتور فرعی 20 اکوتیپ لوبیا قرمز بود. نتایج نشان داد که بین سطوح تنش و اکوتیپ ها ازنظر ارتفاع ساقه اصلی، تعداد ساقه فرعی، تعداد غلاف در بوته، تعداد دانه در تمام غلاف های بوته، تعداد غلاف نابارور، طول غلاف، وزن خشک بوته و عملکرد اقتصادی اختلاف معنی داری در سطح یک درصد وجود داشت. تنش باعث کاهش تعداد غلاف در بوته، ارتفاع ساقه اصلی و سایر خصوصیات مورفولوژیک گردید. بر اساس نتایج به دست آمده از مقایسات میانگین اکوتیپ های قزوین، ماهان، حسن آباد و دهزارچی مطلوب ترین و اکوتیپ بافت به عنوان اکوتیپ نامطلوب در نظر گرفته شدند؛ بنابراین، به نظر می رسد اکوتیپ های مطلوب فوق برای کاشت در اراضی که در معرض تنش خشکی قرار دارند مناسب باشند.
    کلیدواژگان: دور آبیاری، وزن خشک بوته، عملکرد دانه
  • مجتبی نوروزی، نورعلی ساجدی *، مسعود گماریان صفحات 579-589
    به منظور بررسی تاثیر محلول پاشی اسید سالیسیلیک و سلنیوم در مراحل رشد برعملکرد و اجزای عملکرد نخود در شرایط دیم، آزمایشی به صورت اسپلیت پلات فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی با چهار تکرار در سال زراعی 1393-1392 اجراشد. عوامل مورد آزمایش شامل اسیدسالیسیلیک در سه سطح (بدون مصرف،محلول پاشی اسیدسالیسیلیک باغلظت 100 و 200 میلی گرم در لیتر) ، سلنیوم در دو سطح (بدون مصرف و محلول پاشی سلنیوم به میزان 18 گرم درهکتار) در مراحل مختلف رشد رویشی، زایشی و رویشی توام با زایشی بودند. نتایج نشان داد با محلول پاشی سلنیوم و مقادیر مختلف اسیدسالیسیلیک تعداد دانه در غلاف افزایش یافت. با محلول پاشی 100 و 200 میلی گرم در لیتر اسیدسالیسیلیک، تعداد دانه در بوته به ترتیب 50. 6 و 87. 2 درصد و با محلول پاشی سلنیوم تعداد دانه در بوته نسبت به شاهد 45. 4 درصد افزایش نشان داد. نتایج نشان داد که بیشترین عملکرد دانه معادل 940. 5 کیلوگرم در هکتار از محلول پاشی 200 میلی گرم در لیتر اسیدسالیسیلیک توام با محلول پاشی 18 گرم درهکتار سلنیوم حاصل شد. نتایج کلی نشان داد که در شرایط دیم با محلول پاشی توام سلنیوم و اسیدسالیسیلیک در دو مرحله رویشی و زایشی می توان به عملکرد مطلوب رسید.
    کلیدواژگان: رقم آزاد، سلنیت سدیم، صفات زراعی، عملکرد دانه
  • عبدالحمید آقجه لی *، علی نخزری مقدم، علی راحمی کاریزکی، ابراهیم غلامعلی پور علمداری صفحات 591-602
    ماش در جلوگیری از فرسایش خاک به صورت گیاه پوششی و به عنوان علوفه ی سبز در تغذیه دام استفاده می شود. به منظور بررسی تاثیر آبیاری تکمیلی و تقسیط نیتروژن بر کمیت و کیفیت ماش (Vigna radiata L.) ،آزمایشی به صورت کرت های خردشده در قالب طرح پایه بلوک کامل تصادفی با 3 تکرار در سال 1395 در مزرعه دانشگاه گنبدکاووس انجام شد. عامل اصلی آبیاری تکمیلی در چهار سطح شامل یک، دو، سه و چهار مرتبه آبیاری و عامل فرعی تقسیط نیتروژن در چهار سطح شامل عدم مصرف نیتروژن، مصرف 25 درصد به هنگام کاشت و 75 درصد قبل از گل دهی، 50 درصد به هنگام کاشت و 50 درصد قبل از گل دهی و 75 درصد به هنگام کاشت و 25 درصد قبل از گل دهی بود. میزان مصرف نیتروژن خالص 75 کیلوگرم در هکتار بود. عملکرد دانه در تیمار یک مرتبه آبیاری بسیار کم (568. 6 کیلوگرم در هکتار) و با افزایش دفعات آبیاری به ترتیب 47. 06، 80. 79 و 105. 6 درصد برای 2، 3 و 4 نوبت افزایش یافت. افزایش دفعات آبیاری درصد پروتئین را کاهش اما عملکرد پروتئین را افزایش داد. بیشترین عملکرد دانه مربوط به تیمار مصرف 25 درصد نیتروژن به هنگام کاشت و 75 درصد قبل از گل دهی بود درحالی که در تیمار عدم مصرف نیتروژن حداقل عملکرد به دست آمد. بیش ترین درصد پتاسیم دانه مربوط به تیمارهای چهار و سه مرتبه آبیاری بود. درمجموع، چهار مرتبه آبیاری و سهم کمتر نیتروژن به هنگام کاشت (25 درصد) شرایط بهتری را برای تولید بیشتر دانه فراهم کرد.
    کلیدواژگان: اجزای عملکرد، پتاسیم، پروتئین، عملکرد دانه
  • بی بی الهه موسوی فر، حمیدرضا خزاعی *، محمد کافی صفحات 603-614
    مطالعه ای با هدف بررسی تاثیر تنش خشکی بر فتوسنتز و عوامل موثر بر آن در گیاه کوشیا در قالب طرح کاملا تصادفی با 3 تکرار در گلخانه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد در سال 92-1391 اجرا شد. 9 تیمار خشکی شامل: شاهد (بدون تنش) ، تنش ملایم در مرحله رویشی، تنش شدید در مرحله رویشی، تنش ملایم در مرحله زایشی، تنش شدید در مرحله زایشی، تنش ملایم در مرحله رویشی و تنش شدید در مرحله زایشی، تنش شدید در مرحله رویشی و تنش ملایم در مرحله زایشی، تنش ملایم در کل دوره رشد و تنش شدید در کل دوره رشد گیاه بودند. نتایج نشان داد که غلظت کلروفیل a و b، رنگ دانه کل و قرائت کلروفیل متر در تیمارهای تحت تنش نسبت به شاهد کمتر بود و بین تیمارهای شاهد و تنش ملایم خشکی در مرحله رویشی تفاوت معنی داری ازلحاظ آماری مشاهده نشد. اثر خشکی بر شاخص های فلورسانس کلروفیل معنی دار بود و حداکثر عملکرد کوانتومی فتوسیستم II به دلیل افزایش فلورسانس مبدا و کاهش فلورسانس حداکثر، کاهش یافت. میزان فتوسنتز نیز تحت تاثیر خشکی در مراحل مختلف رشد کاهش یافت. بیشترین و کمترین میزان زیست توده نیز به ترتیب در تیمارهای شاهد و تنش شدید کل دوره مشاهده شد. میزان عملکرد زیست توده در شاهد، تنش ملایم در مرحله رویشی، تنش شدید در مرحله رویشی، تنش ملایم در مرحله زایشی، تنش شدید در مرحله زایشی، تنش ملایم در مرحله رویشی و تنش شدید در مرحله زایشی، تنش شدید در مرحله رویشی و تنش ملایم در مرحله زایشی، تنش ملایم در کل دوره رشد و تنش شدید در کل دوره رشد گیاه به ترتیب 42. 93، 36. 75، 27. 09، 27. 29، 32. 80، 29. 72، 25. 76، 34. 69 و 21 گرم در بوته بود. درنهایت این مطالعه نشان داد که عوامل روزنه ای (تعرق، هدایت روزنه ای و CO2 زیر روزنه) با فتوسنتز همبستگی معنی داری نداشتند و بنابراین نقش محدودکننده ای در فتوسنتز و زیست توده کوشیا ندارند؛ اما عوامل محدودکننده غیرروزنه ای (کلروفیل a و b، قرائت کلروفیل متر و حداکثر عملکرد کوانتومی فتوسیستم II) با میزان فتوسنتز همبستگی مثبت و معنی داری داشتند و کاهش در هریک از این عوامل به کاهش در میزان فتوسنتز و زیست توده منجر شد.
    کلیدواژگان: تبادلات گازی، رنگیزه های فتوسنتزی، فلورسانس کلروفیل، کارآیی مصرف آب فتوسنتزی
  • زهرا شریفی، سیدوحید اسلامی *، مجید جامی الاحمدی، سهراب محمودی صفحات 615-626
    اثرسطوح رطوبتی و نوع مالچ بقایای گیاهی بر سبز شدن و رشد اولیه گیاهان گلرنگ و گندم، در دو آزمایش جداگانه در گلخانه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه بیرجند بررسی شد. آزمایش مربوط به هر گیاه به‏صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملا تصادفی در سه سطح رطوبتی (25، 50 و 80 درصد ظرفیت نگهداری آب خاک گلدان) و 5 تیمار مالچ بقایای گیاهی (خلر، منداب، تریتیکاله، جو و شاهد (بدون بقایای گیاهی) ) با سه تکرار اجرا شد. نتایج اثر متقابل نوع مالچ بقایای گیاهی و سطوح رطوبتی بر سرعت تجمعی سبز شدن گیاهچه گندم نشان داد که به طورکلی در سطوح رطوبتی 50 و 80 درصد ظرفیت زراعی، سرعت تجمعی سبز شدن گیاهچه گندم در تیمارهای مختلف مالچ بقایای گیاهی با شاهد اختلاف معنی داری نداشت اما در سطح رطوبتی 25 درصد ظرفیت زراعی، سرعت تجمعی سبز شدن گیاهچه گندم در تیمارهای جو، خلر، منداب و تریتیکاله به ترتیب به میزان 48. 47، 36. 94، 44. 306 و 61. 94 درصد نسبت به شاهد افزایش یافت. اثر متقابل نوع مالچ بقایای گیاهی و سطوح رطوبتی بر سطح برگ گیاهچه گلرنگ نیز نشان داد که در سطوح رطوبتی 80 و 25 درصد ظرفیت زراعی، سطح برگ گیاهچه گلرنگ در تیمارهای بقایای خلر، منداب و تریتیکاله نسبت به شاهد (عدم بقایای گیاهی) بیشتر بود و بیشترین سطح برگ گیاهچه گندم در تیمار بقایای خلر حاصل شد که در سطوح رطوبتی 80 و 50 درصد ظرفیت زراعی به ترتیب به میزان 64. 08 و 68. 05 درصد نسبت به شاهد بیشتر بود. در سطح رطوبتی 50 درصد ظرفیت زراعی، وزن خشک گیاهچه گلرنگ در تیمار مالچ بقایای جو، خلر، منداب و تریتیکاله به ترتیب به میزان 18. 46، 77. 13، 22. 14 و 45. 19 درصد نسبت به شاهد بیشتر بود. بر اساس نتایج تحقیق حاضر، استفاده از مالچ بقایای گیاهی خلر در اکثر موارد تاثیر مثبتی بر خصوصیات رشدی گیاهزراعی داشت و لذا استفاده از مالچ بقایای گیاهی (به‏ ویژه خلر) می تواند به عنوان راهکاری پایدار در مناطق خشک و نیمه خشک که با محدودیت آب مواجه اند استفاده شود.
    کلیدواژگان: بقایای گیاهی، تنش خشکی، جوانه زنی، رشد گیاهچه
  • بتول صابرتنها *، براتعلی فاخری، نفیسه مهدی نژاد، زهره علیزاده صفحات 627-643
    این پژوهش به منظور بررسی تاثیر تنش کم آبی و نانو ذرات نقره بر صفات فیزیولوژی در گیاه زعفران انجام شد. آزمایش در دو سطح کم آبی و نرمال بر روی 10 اکوتیپ زعفران در سه سطح شاهد (آب مقطر) ، 55و 110 پی پی ام نانو ذرات نقره پیاده شد. این بررسی به صورت اسپلیت پلات فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه بیرجند و پژوهشکده زیست فناوری دانشگاه زابل انجام شد. بعد از تهیه نمونه های برگی از تمامی تیمار ها، عصاره آنزیمی برای اندازه گیری میزان آنزیم ها، کلروفیل a و b، کارتنوئید و پروتئین تهیه شد. داده ها با نسخه 9. 2 نرم افزار SAS مورد تجزیه وتحلیل قرار گرفتند. اثرات اصلی تیمار های اکوتیپ، نانوذره نقره، تنش خشکی و اثرات متقابل آن ها برای آنزیم های کاتالاز، پلی فنل اکسیداز، فنیل آلانین آمونیالیاز، کلروفیل b وکارتنوئید در سطح احتمال یک درصد معنی دار شدند. بیشترین مقدار کلروفیل b، کارتنوئید و فنیل آلانین آمونیالیاز تحت تنش خشکی در غلظت 55 پی پی ام نانوذره نقره نسبت به شاهد و سطح 110 پی پی ام مشاهده شد که می توان استدلال کرد نانو ذرات به دلیل خاصیت آب دوستی و آنتی باکتریال توانسته عملکرد بالایی داشته باشد. بیشترین مقدار کلروفیل a، کاتالاز، پلی فنل اکسیداز و گایاکول پراکسیداز تحت تنش خشکی در تیمار آب مقطر (شاهد) مشاهده شد که می توان استدلال کرد نانو نقره در این صفات سمیت ایجاد کرده و باعث کاهش عملکرد در سطوح نانو نقره نسبت به شاهد شده است. درنتیجه اکوتیپ های قاین و آرین شهر در شرایط تنش خشکی تحت نانو ذرات نقره با غلظت 55 پی پی ام بیشترین عملکرد داشتند.
    کلیدواژگان: الیسیتور، کاتالاز، کارتنوئید، کلروفیل
  • علی جلالوند *، بابک عندلیبی، افشین توکلی، پرویز مرادی صفحات 645-659
    خشکی یکی از مهم ترین تنش های محیطی است که مورفولوژی، فیزیولوژی و بیوشیمی گیاه را تحت تاثیر قرار می دهد به همین دلیل پژوهشی به منظور ارزیابی اسانس و خصوصیات فیزیولوژیکی گیاه دارویی بادرشبویه در شرایط تنش خشکی در بهار سال های 1393 و 1394 در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه زنجان به اجرا درآمد. آزمایش به صورت اسپلیت پلات با دو عامل سطوح رطوبتی و تنظیم کننده های رشد در قالب طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی با چهار تکرار اجرا شد. عامل اصلی سطوح رطوبتی در دو سطح بدون تنش (آبیاری کامل تا انتهای دوره رشد) ، تنش خشکی (آبیاری کامل تا قبل از شروع گلدهی و قطع آبیاری قبل از شروع گلدهی تا انتهای دوره رشد) اجرا شد. عامل فرعی سطوح مختلف اسید سالیسیلیک (800 و 1600 میکرو مولار) ، سایکوسل (600 و 1200 میکرو مولار) و شاهد (محلول پاشی با آب مقطر) که قبل از گلدهی به صورت یک بار محلول پاشی اعمال شد. نتایج نشان داد که تاثیر سال بر میزان کلروفیل های a، b، کاروتنوئید، شاخص محتوای کلروفیل، مجموع کلروفیل های a و b، عملکرد و درصد اسانس در سطح یک درصد معنی دار شد و تاثیر سال بر میزان پرولین معنی دار نبود. همچنین نتایج نشان داد که درصد و عملکرد اسانس در سال 1393 بیشتر از سال 1394 شد. اثر متقابل تنظیم کننده های رشدی در سطوح رطوبتی نشان داد که در شرایط تنش خشکی نشت الکترولیت ها افزایش می یابد و درنتیجه پایداری غشاء نسبت به شرایط آبیاری نرمال کاهش پیدا می کند. پایداری غشاء با عملکرد اسانس و شاخص محتوای کلروفیل همبستگی منفی و با میزان پرولین همبستگی مثبت و معنی داری دارد. همچنین بین میزان کلروفیل هایa و b و کاروتنوئید و مجموع کلروفیل های a و b همبستگی مثبت و معنی داری وجود دارد. اثر متقابل تنظیم کننده های رشد در رطوبت برای همه ترکیبات اسانس به جزء ترکیب Nerylactate در سطح یک درصد کاملا معنی دار شد. با توجه به نتایج آزمایش می توان بیان کرد که تنش خشکی سبب کاهش عملکرد و درصد اسانس در گیاه بادرشبویه شد.
    کلیدواژگان: پرولین، پایداری غشاء، کلروفیل، بادرشبی
  • امین فتحی، صادق بهامین * صفحات 661-674
    به منظور بررسی اثرات سطوح آبیاری و محلول پاشی (سولفات روی، اسید هیومیک و اسید سالیسیلیک) بر روی چای ترش آزمایشی در سال 1392 در مزرعه ای در سرابله از توابع شهرستان سیروان واقع در استان ایلام در قالب طرح بلوک کامل تصادفی به صورت اسپلیت پلات با سه تکرار اجرا شد. فاکتورهای آزمایشی شامل عامل اصلی آبیاری با سه سطح 100، 130 و 160 میلی متر تبخیر از تشتک کلاس A و عامل فرعی محلول پاشی با چهار سطح شامل اسید هیومیک، سولفات روی، اسید سالیسیلیک و شاهد بودند. نتایج به دست آمده در تیمار سطوح آبیاری نشان داد که بیشترین تعداد میوه در بوته در تیمار 100 میلی متر تبخیر به میزان 56. 34 و کمترین تعداد میوه در بوته در تیمار 160 میلی متر تبخیر به میزان 45. 27 به دست آمد. با محلول پاشی اسید سالیسیلیک بیشترینمیزان آنتوسیانین به میزان 0. 26 (میکروگرم بر میلی لیتر) و کمترین میزان هم در حالت عدم محلول پاشی (شاهد) به میزان 0. 2 (میکروگرم بر میلی لیتر) به دست آمد. نتایج به دست آمده در تیمار آبیاری نشان داد که بیشترین اسانس در تیمار 160 میلی متر تبخیر به میزان 2. 21 درصد و کمترین اسانس در تیمار 100 میلی متر تبخیر به میزان 1. 98 درصد به دست آمد. به طورکلی نتایج این تحقیق نشان داد تنش خشکی سبب کاهش عملکرد کمی و کیفی در چای ترش می شود. همچنین استفاده از محلول پاشی (اسید سالیسیلیک و سولفات روی و اسید هیومیک) در بهبود اثرات تنش خشکی و عملکرد کمی و کیفی گیاه دارویی چای ترش نقش بسزایی دارد. محلول پاشی سولفات روی به عنوان بهترین تیمار برای افزایش اسانس مشخص شد، از طرف دیگر سالیسیلیک اسید بیشترین تاثیر را بر افزایش وزن میوه داشت ولی ازآنجاکه اختلاف معنی داری با سولفات روی نداشت، لذا سولفات روی به عنوان بهترین تیمار مشخص شد.
    کلیدواژگان: آنتوسیانین، تنش کم آبی، سرعت رشد محصول، طول گل آذین، وزن خشک کاسبرگ
  • محمد علیوند، الناز فرج زاده معماری تبریزی * صفحات 675-690
    در اغلب تحقیقات تاثیر منفی ترکیبات دگرآسیب بررسی شده، ولی تحقیقات بسیار کمی در خصوص تاثیر مثبتی که این گیاهان می توانند در کشاورزی داشته باشند، انجام شده است. این مطالعه به منظور تاثیر پرایمینگ بذر گلرنگ با غلظت های مختلف عصاره گیاهان دارویی رازیانه (Foeniculum vulgare) ، زیره سبز (Cuminum cyminum) و نعناع فلفلی (Mentha × piperita) (عدم پرایمینگ، هیدروپرایمینگ، غلظت یک درصد و غلظت دو درصد عصاره) در سطوح مختلف آبیاری انجام پذیرفت (در شرایط آزمایشگاهی شاهد، 3- و 6- بار و در شرایط مزرعه ای آبیاری پس از 70، 100 و 130 میلی متر تبخیر از تشتک تبخیر). آزمایش در آزمایشگاه به صورت فاکتوریل بر پایه طرح کاملا تصادفی و در مزرعه به صورت اسپلیت فاکتوریل پلات بر پایه طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار در سال 1395 و در مزارع دانشگاه آزاد ملکان به اجرا در آمد. در شرایط مزرعه ای سطوح آبیاری به عنوان کرت اصلی در نظر گرفته شد. بر اساس نتایج این مطالعه در شرایط آزمایشگاهی پرایمینگ بذر گلرنگ با عصاره گیاهان دارویی مورد بررسی، باعث بهبود جوانه زنی (تا 11. 6 درصد) و رشد گیاهچه های گلرنگ (تا 38. 8 درصد) و بهبود شرایط فیزیولوژیکی در گیاهچه های گلرنگ شد. در شرایط مزرعه ای کم آبی شدید کاهش معنی داری (تا 38. 2 درصد) را در عملکرد دانه گلرنگ باعث شد، ولی پرایمینگ با عصاره گیاهان دارویی، به ویژه غلظت یک درصد و غلظت دو درصد زیره سبز و نعناع فلفلی افزایش معنی داری (تا 50. 9 درصد) را در این صفت در هر دو شرایط کم آبی و آبیاری کامل باعث شد. با توجه به این نتایج می توان عملکرد گلرنگ را چه در شرایط کم آبی و چه در شرایط آبیاری کامل به طور مطلوبی با پرایمینگ با عصاره گیاهان دارویی مورد بررسی، افزایش داد.
    کلیدواژگان: پرایمینگ بذر، تنش، غلظت، فیزیولوژی
  • حمیده غفاری، محمودرضا تدین *، جمشید رزمجو صفحات 691-705
    شوری آب یا خاک یکی از مهم ترین تنش ها در مناطق خشک و نیمه خشک است که به شدت رشد گیاهان را از طریق تاثیر بر فرآیندهای فیزیولوژیک محدود می کند. آزمایش حاضر با هدف بررسی بهبود تحمل به شوری سویا با محلول پاشی پرولین و اسیدسالیسیلیک در سال 1395 در فضای باز گلخانه های دانشگاه شهرکرد در جعبه های کاشت با چهار تکرار به صورت اسپیلیت پلات در قالب طرح کاملا تصادفی اجرا شد. عامل اصلی شامل شوری در سه سطح (0، 50 و 100 میلی مولار) و عامل فرعی محلول پاشی پرولین 10 میلی مولار، اسید سالیسیلیک 3 میلی مولار، ترکیب اسید سالیسیلیک 3 میلی مولار با پرولین 10 میلی مولار، و شاهد (محلول پاشی با آب) بود. صفات پرولین، فعالیت آنزیم های آنتی اکسیدانی، مالون دآلدئید، پراکسید هیدروژن، ارتفاع و وزن خشک اندام هوایی اندازه گیری شدند. نتایج نشان داد اثرات محلول پاشی پرولین و اسید سالیسیلیک به طور چشمگیری محتوای پرولین، فعالیت آنزیم های آنتی اکسیدانی، ارتفاع و وزن خشک اندام هوایی را در سویا تحت تنش شوری افزایش داد. به علاوه، تحت شوری 100 میلی مولار، محلول پاشی پرولین و اسید سالیسیلیک باعث کاهش مالون دآلدئید و پراکسیدهیدروژن به ترتیب 23 و 25 درصد در مقایسه با تیمار محلول پاشی با آب شدند. همچنین ارتفاع و وزن خشک اندام هوایی در سطح شوری 100 میلی مولار با کاربرد پرولین و اسیدسالیسیلیک به میزان 32 و 38 درصد نسبت به محلول پاشی با آب افزایش یافتند. بنابراین نتایج این مطالعه نشان می دهد کاربرد پرولین و اسیدسالیسیلیک همراه باهم، تحمل به تنش شوری در سویا را از طریق فعال کردن سیستم دفاعی آنتی اکسیدانی و کاهش پراکسیداسیون لیپیدهای غشا بهبود می دهد.
    کلیدواژگان: سویا، فعالیت آنزیم های آنتی اکسیدانی، مالون دآلدئید، وزن خشک اندام هوایی
  • قادر رستمی، محمد مقدم *، عبدالله قاسمی پیربلوطی، علی تهرانی فر صفحات 707-720
    به منظور بررسی تاثیر محلول پاشی آهن و روی به فرم های سولفاته و نانو ذرات بر خصوصیات مورفولوژیکی و بیوشیمیایی نعناع فلفلی تحت تاثیر تنش شوری، آزمایشی به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کامل تصادفی با 3 تکرار در گلخانه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد اجرا شد. عامل اول شامل: تنش شوری در چهار سطح (صفر، 40، 80، 120 میلی مولار NaCl) و عامل دوم شامل: محلول پاشی کود در پنج سطح (شاهد (بدون کاربرد کود) ، سولفات آهن 1500 میلی گرم در لیتر، سولفات روی 1500 میلی گرم در لیتر، نانو اکسید آهن 300 میلی گرم در لیتر و نانو اکسید روی 300 میلی گرم در لیتر) بود. نتایج نشان داد که تنش شوری بر شاخص های رشدی و بیوشیمیایی نعناع فلفلی تاثیر معنی داری داشت و سبب کاهش صفات مورد بررسی شد. همچنین بررسی اثر متقابل داده ها نشان داد که بیشترین میزان شاخص های رشد و محتوای کلروفیل در تیمارهای شاهد (بدون تنش شوری) و تنش ملایم (40 میلی مولار) همراه با محلول پاشی نانو کود آهن و روی حاصل شد. به طوری که بیشترین ارتفاع بوته (78 سانتی متر) ، تعداد شاخه فرعی (36 شاخه در بوته) و طول برگ (6 سانتی متر) مربوط به تیمار شاهد (بدون تنش شوری) و محلول پاشی نانو کود آهن بود. درحالی که بیشترین عرض برگ (2. 16 سانتی متر) در تنش ملایم 40 میلی مولار همراه با کاربرد نانو کود آهن به دست آمد که تفاوت معنی داری با کاربرد کودهای نانو در تیمار شاهد نداشت. بیشترین میزان کربوهیدرات های محلول با مقدار 1. 28 و 1. 12 میلی گرم در گرم وزن خشک به ترتیب در شرایط تنش شوری 40 و 80 میلی مولار همراه با کاربرد نانو کود آهن به دست آمد. به طورکلی می توان گفت که مصرف نانو کود آهن و روی نسبت به شکل سولفاته آن در شرایط تنش شوری ملایم (40 میلی مولار) می تواند باعث افزایش رشد گیاه و بهبود خصوصیات بیوشیمیایی نعناع فلفلی شود.
    کلیدواژگان: نعناع فلفلی، شاخص های رشد، رنگیزه های فتوسنتزی، محلول پاشی
  • احمدرضا دهقانی تفتی *، سهراب محمودی، حسینعلی علیخانی، معصومه صالحی صفحات 721-736
    به منظور بررسی اثر قارچ میکوریزا آربوسکولار و باکتری حل کننده فسفات معدنی در شرایط تنش شوریبر خصوصیات کمی و کیفی گیاه دارویی اسفرزه (Plantago ovata Forsk) ، آزمایشی به صورت اسپلیت فاکتوریل بر پایه طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار انجام شد. عامل شوری آب آبیاری در سه سطح 2. 5 (شاهد) ، 5 و 10 دسی زیمنس بر متر به عنوان فاکتور اصلی و دو عامل قارچ میکوریزا آربوسکولار شامل دو سطح (کاربرد قارچ Glomus intraradicesو عدم مصرف قارچ به عنوان شاهد) و باکتری حل کننده فسفات نیز شامل دو سطح (کاربرد باکتری Pseudomonas fluorescens و عدم مصرف باکتری به عنوان شاهد) به صورت فاکتوریل در کرت های فرعی بودند. نتایج نشان داد بیشترین درصد موسیلاژ و میزان تورم به ازای گرم موسیلاژ به ترتیب به میزان 28. 8 درصد و 119. 3 میلی لیتر در تیمار 10 دسی زیمنس بر متر حاصل گردید. بیشترین عملکرد موسیلاژ و فاکتور تورم به ترتیب به میزان 215 کیلوگرم بر هکتار و 17 میلی لیتر در ترکیب تیماری2. 5 و 10 دسی زیمنس بر متر و کاربرد قارچ Glomus intraradices حاصل شد. همچنین مقایسه میانگین اثر تلقیح و عدم تلقیح به وسیله باکتری حل کننده فسفات معدنی نشان داد که بیشترین طول سنبله، درصد موسیلاژ، عملکرد موسیلاژ و فاکتور تورم به ترتیب به میزان 2/2 سانتی متر، 26. 8 درصد، 146. 7 کیلوگرم در هکتار و 14. 2 میلی لیتر با کاربرد باکتری fluorescens Pseudomonas حاصل شد. درمجموع ترکیب تیماری 2. 5 دسی زیمنس بر متر، کاربرد قارچ Glomus intraradices و باکتری fluorescens Pseudomonas بیشترین عملکرد کمی و کیفی گیاه دارویی اسفرزه را حاصل نمود.
    کلیدواژگان: سودوموناس فلورسانس، فاکتور تورم، گلوموس اینترادیسه، موسیلاژ
  • الهام نورعلی *، حبیب الله نادیان، سیروس جعفری، مختار حیدری صفحات 737-748
    رشد و عملکرد گیاهان در بسیاری از مناطق دنیا تحت تاثیر تنش های محیطی متعدد، محدود می شود. حضور فلزات سنگین یکی از مهم ترین تنش های محیطی است که می تواند منجر به کاهش رشد و تولید محصول شود. تنش شوری نیز از مهم ترین عوامل محدودکننده رشد گیاه، بخصوص در مناطق خشک و نیمه خشک، محسوب می گردد. به منظور بررسی واکنش گیاه گشنیز به تنش شوری و حضور کادمیوم در خاک ازنظر برخی مولفه های رشد و غلظت عناصر روی (Zn) ، مس (Cu) ، آهن (Fe) و کادمیوم (Cd) ، آزمایشی به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملا تصادفی در شرایط گلخانه ای دانشگاه کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی رامین خوزستان انجام شد. تیمارهای آزمایشی شامل شوری از نوع کلرید سدیم در سه سطح 2 (شاهد) ، 5 و 8 دسی زیمنس بر متر و کادمیوم از منبع کلرید کادمیوم در 3 سطح 0 (شاهد) ، 50 و 100 میلی گرم بر کیلوگرم می باشند. نتایج نشان داد که تیمارهای آزمایشی، بر صفات موردمطالعه اثر معنی داری داشتند. نتایج حاصل حاکی از کاهش ارتفاع، وزن خشک اندام هوایی و وزن خشک ریشه با افزایش غلظت کادمیوم و شوری بود. همچنین تحت شرایط تنش شوری و حضور کادمیوم در خاک غلظت عناصر روی، مس و آهن اندام هوایی کاهش و غلظت کادمیوم آن افزایش یافت. بیشترین میزان کاهش مولفه های رشد و غلظت عناصر روی، مس و آهن در بالاترین سطح شوری خاک (8) و بالاترین سطح کادمیوم (mg/kg100) مشاهده گردید. بر اساس نتایج پژوهش حاضر وجود هم زمان دو تنش شوری و فلز سنگین کادمیوم در خاک، باعث کاهش رشد گیاه و بیش اندوزی فلز کادمیوم در این شرایط شده است.
    کلیدواژگان: تنش گیاهی، فاکتورهای رشد، فلزات سنگین، قابلیت جذب، کلرید سدیم
  • سجاد رحیمی مقدم، جعفر کامبوزیا، رضا دیهیم فرد * صفحات 749-764
    این تحقیق به منظور ارزیابی ریسک ناشی از تنش گرما در ذرت دانه ای استان خوزستان تحت شرایط افزایش دمای ناشی از تغییر اقلیم در شش شهرستان از استان خوزستان انجام شد. بدین منظور، ابتدا اقلیم آینده این شهرستان ها با استفاده از داده های اقلیمی بلندمدت دوره پایه و با استفاده از روش AgMIP تحت دو سناریوی اقلیمی RCP4. 5 و RCP8. 5 برای دوره 2069 -2040 تولید شدند و سپس از مدل APSIM برای شبیه سازی رشد و عملکرد ذرت دانه ای استفاده شد. نتایج این تحقیق نشان داد که میانگین دما در طول فصل رشد ذرت در استان خوزستان تحت RCP4. 5 و RCP8. 5 نسبت به دوره پایه (27. 2 درجه سانتی گراد) به ترتیب 8. 5 و 34. 57 درصد افزایش داشت. با در نظر گرفتن متوسط کل استان، میانگین عملکرد و تعداد دانه در مترمربع در دوره پایه 8. 8 تن در هکتار و 2305. 7 دانه در متر مربع بود. این مقدار در سال 2050 تحت RCP4. 5 و RCP8. 5 به ترتیب به 8. 5 و 8. 7 تن در هکتار و 2227. 3 و 2254. 3 دانه در متر مربع کاهش یافتند. با در نظر گرفتن متوسط همه تاریخ کاشت ها، مناطق و دوره های آینده تغییر اقلیم در استان خوزستان، احتمال تشکیل عملکرد اقتصادی، عملکرد غیر اقتصادی و عملکرد صفر به ترتیب 45. 4، 13. 5 و 41. 2 درصد می باشد. به طور کلی نتایج این تحقیق نشان داد که تاریخ کاشت مرسوم در منطقه (سی ام بهمن) تاریخ کاشت مناسبی برای دوره پایه و آینده نیست و تاریخ کاشت زودهنگام (دوازده بهمن) در اکثر مناطق می تواند به عنوان یک راهکار سازگاری موثر برای کاهش ریسک ناشی از افزایش دماهای حدی هم در دوره پایه و هم در دوره آینده در نظر گرفته شود.
    کلیدواژگان: تعداد دانه، عملکرد دانه، AgMIP، تاریخ کاشت، تغییر اقلیم
  • شریفه محمد آلق، حسین صبوری *، علی ستاریان، عباس بیابانی، عبدالطیف قلیزاده صفحات 765-775
    برنج، در چرخه غذایی جهان نقش مهمی دارد به طوری که غذای اصلی بیش از 50 درصد مردم جهان را تامین می کند. به منظور مکان یابی QTLهای مرتبط با تحمل به کمبود فسفر در مرحله گیاهچه ای 96 لاین که از نسلهشتمتلاقیارقام اهلمی طارم و ندا بهدستآمدهبودنددرآزمایشگاه هایگیاه شناسیوژنتیکدانشگاهگنبدکاووسدرسال 1393 تحت شرایط نرمال و تنش کمبود فسفر موردمطالعهقرارگرفتند. صفات موردبررسی عبارت بودند از محتوای کلروفیل برگ، تعداد ریشه، طول ساقه و ریشه، طول و عرض برگ برحسب سانتی متر، حجم ریشه، وزن خشک ساقه و ریشه، میزان فسفر، سطح ریشه، سطح برگ، قطر ریشه و چگالی سطح ریشه و محاسبه شدند. نقشه پیوستگی تهیه شده بر اساس 30 نشانگر SSR و 60 آلل تکثیرشده چند شکل از 15 نشانگر ISSR با استفاده از 96 فرد جمعیت F8 اهلمی طارم و ندا، نشانگرها را به 12 گروه پیوستگی متعلق به 12 کروموزوم برنج با طول نقشه بر اساس تابع کوزامبی را برابر با 1411. 3 سانتی مورگان و فاصله در بین دو نشانگر مجاور برابر با 15. 34 سانتی مورگان منتسب کرد. با توجه به نتایج حاصل از مکان یابی ژنی در شرایط نرمال درمجموع 43 QTL برای صفات ارزیابی شده در شرایط نرمال شناسایی شد. qRN-6b، qRW-5b، qRW-5c، qLA-7 و qNP-6b به ترتیب در جهت افزایش تعداد ریشه، وزن ریشه، سطح برگ و میزان فسفر در شرایط نرمال بزرگ اثر بودند. در شرایط کمبود فسفر 13 QTL مکان یابی شد. برای میزان فسفر در شرایط کمبود فسفر دو QTL روی کروموزوم های 9 و 10 شناسایی شدند. qCHL-2a و qCHL-2b در جهت افزایش کلروفیل در شرایط کمبود فسفر بزرگ اثر بودند. در این پژوهش QTLهای بزرگ اثر موثر در بالا رفتن نمود گیاه در شرایط نرمال و کمبود فسفر ردیابی شد که پس از تعیین اعتبار می توان از نشانگرهای پیوسته مذکور می توان در برنامه های انتخاب به کمک نشانگر استفاده نمود.
    کلیدواژگان: QTL، تنش، ریشه، مکان یابی
  • نجمه افتخار، سیف الله فلاح * صفحات 779-790
    سرب یک عنصر غیرضروری است که علاوه بر سمیت زیادی که برای انسان دارد اثرات سوئی نیز بر گیاهان می گذارد. به منظور بررسی اثر چای کمپوست و پتاسیم هیومات بر تحمل گیاهچه های آفتابگردان به غلظت های سمی سرب، آزمایشی به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملا تصادفی با سه تکرار انجام شد. تیمارهای آزمایش شامل شاهد، پتاسیم هیومات و چای کمپوست و چهار غلظت سرب (صفر، 200، 400 و 600 میلی گرم سرب بر کیلوگرم خاک) بودند. غلظت چای کمپوست (1:5) و پتاسیم هیومات 300 میلی مول بر لیتر بود. نتایج نشان داد که به طورکلی وزن خشک ریشه، وزن خشک ساقه، وزن خشک برگ، کلروفیل a و کلروفیل b در پاسخ به افزایش غلظت سرب در خاک کاهش و میزان کارتنوئید، پرولین و نشت الکترولیتی افزایش نشان دادند. پرایمینگ بذر با پتاسیم هیومات و چای کمپوست اثر منفی آلودگی خاک با سرب بر پارامترهای مذکور را تعدیل می کند. تحت تنش سرب، پتاسیم هیومات باعث افزایش وزن خشک ریشه به میزان 733 میلی گرم، وزن خشک برگ به میزان 73 میلی گرم، کلروفیل a، کلروفیل b، غلظت سرب ریشه و اندام هوایی شد؛ اما چای کمپوست موجب افزایش پرولین (به میزان 27 میکرومول بر گرم) و کاروتنوئید (به میزان 0. 7 میلی مول بر گرم وزن تازه برگ) و کاهش نشت الکترولیتی (به میزان 5. 45 درصد) نسبت به تیمار شاهد گردید. به طورکلی نتیجه گیری می شود که کاربرد پتاسیم هیومات و چای کمپوست با افزایش میزان رنگدانه های فتوسنتزی و پرولین و کاهش میزان نشت الکترولیتی بردباری آفتابگردان را در خاک های آلوده به سرب افزایش می دهد.
    کلیدواژگان: تنش فلز سنگین، پرولین، کاروتنوئید، نشت الکترولیتی
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  • Iraj Hemmati, Sayyed Saeid Pourdad *, Rajab Choukan Pages 471-480
    Introduction
    Sunflower is an important oilseed crops that about 11.8 percent of global vegetable oil production to be allocated. GGE Biplot is a multi-dimensional method in quantitative genetic decomposition and plant breeding that in addition to decomposition GEI performs decomposition of the interaction of genotype× quality, genotype× marker and data analysis related to Diallel confluence. The purposes of research are included:Studying the interaction of genotype and environment in area laboratory of sunflower crop plant performance and introducing the most stable and desirable number or sunflower numbers in under investigation areas and environments.
    Materials And Methods
    For investigating the interaction of genotype and environment of 17 artificial sunflower numbers by the names of Sil-96, Sil-54, Sil-42, Sil-94, Sil-140, Sil-162, Sil-200, Sil-205, Sil-231, Sil-210, Sil-211, Sil-224, Sil-80, Sil-82, Sil-75, Sil-53, Sil-20 and three numbers of pollinator Lacomka, Zaria and Armaverski as witnesses of the experiment were studied. In this experiment four places as the names of Sararood (Kermanshah), Gachsaran, Ghamlou (Kurdistan) and Gobad were participated that in Sararood of Kermanshah in crop year 2011-2012, 2012-2013, 2014-2015 was planted in two situations of without irrigation and supplementary irrigation. In Ghamlou in two crop years 2012-2013, 2014-2015, in Gachsaran and Gobad also in crop year 2014-2015 was planted only in the situation of without irrigation. But in general 10 environments were tested. Experiments in all stations were done in the form of complete random blocks design with three repeats.
    Results And Discussion
    The results of variance analysis showed that the effects of environment and the interaction of genotype and environment in one percent probability level was meaningful for seed performance. Surveying Polygon of genotype interaction in environment showed that genotypes G14¡ G9¡ G8¡ G4¡ G18¡ G19¡ G20 which had the most distance from Bipolt center and placed in Polygon vertices that they were premier genotypes. The lines which designed from Biplot center divided the shape of Polygon to seven Mega environments. The first Mega environment was included into the environments E4, E5 and E6 in which genotype G17 had the most performance. The second Mega environment was included into the environments E3 and E7 that G2, G14 and G9 were premier genotypes of this environment. The third Mega environment was included into environment E1 that genotype G8 was high performance genotype in this environment. The fourth Mega environment was included into the environments E2, E9, E8 and E10 in which genotype G20 was premier genotype. The relationship among environments showed that the angle between environments E3 and E7 and also between the environments E4, E5 and E6 and also between environments E2, E10 and E8 was very close each other and it indicates high correlation of these environments each other. The environments E7, E2 and E1 had relatively short length of vector that indicates low value for the capability of their difference. In contrast, the environments E3, E5, E6, E4, E10, E8 and E9 had tall length of vector and at last they had more capability for difference. Graphic average surveying of performance and the stability of genotypes showed that genotypes G17 and then genotypes G15, G3, G2, G14 and G6 had the highest performance. Genotypes G11, G10, G12, G13, G19 and G7 had low performance and high stability. Artificial number G9 had the most performance of seed and suitable stability.
    Surveying genotypes towards ideal genotypes showed that genotype G17 was the closest genotype to ideal genotype that had the most performance and also it was among stable genotypes. Genotypes G3 and G15 which had high stability was also close to ideal genotype and they can select as suitable genotypes.
    Surveying environments towards ideal environment showed that the most desirable environment is environment E4, then environments E5, E6, E10, E2, E8, E7, E9, E3 and E1 were in next priorities respectively that among them, environment E1 was the most undesirable environment.
    Conclusion
    Genotypes G3, G14, G15 and G17 were the most stable and desirable genotypes. On the other hand genotypes G9, G4 and G20 were known as the most undesirable genotypes. Furthermore, the results of decomposition GGE Biplot could introduce environment E4 which have the least distance from hypothetical ideal environment as the most desirable environment.
    Keywords: Interaction, GGE biplot, Stability, Sunflower
  • Sahar Shamansori, Mehrana Koohi Dehkordi *, Mahmood Shomeili Pages 481-489
    Introduction
    Sugarcane is one of perennial industrial plants and is among the world's ten strategic products. It has a long history of cultivation and more than 75 percent of the world's sugar production accounts. The sugarcane is now cultivated in the tropical and subtropical regions as the main supplier of sugar consumed (Shoshtari et al., 2008). Drought is one of the most challenging issues of sustainable agriculture that limits the production of sugarcane. In some cases, yield losses due to drought are estimated up to 50% (Dias, 2011). As Iran is in the arid and semi-arid zones, the efficient use of water resources and strengthening the mechanisms of drought tolerance can play an important role in improving the production of crops. For this reason, achieving the varieties that have higher production power in optimum conditions and also their yield loss is negligible under stress conditions, is essential as the purpose of breeding (Fisher, 1979). Laboratory screening methods are quick and easy tests to evaluate the response of genotypes to drought stress. In recent decades somaclonal variation could enhance the ability of the plant breeder to obtain unique diversity to select varieties resistant to stress and may be obtained heritable variation (Ehsanpour, 2002). The purpose of this research is to identify somaclones that have the necessary utility in terms of yield and drought tolerance.
    Material and
    Methods
    The experiment was carried out in plant tissue culture laboratory, Department of Agricultural Research, Karun Agro industry Inc. Shushtar, Iran. To obtain somaclone variant, three commercial varieties of sugarcane in Khuzestan Province, including CP48-103, CP69-1062 and CP57-614 were selected. The shoot tips with young leaves (having apical Meristem) were collected from the fields of Karun Agro industry. Drought stress was performed on four levels (0, 25, 50 and 75 g/l of Polyethylene glycol) in MS medium. MS medium containing 3 mg/l of 2, 4‐D was prepared for callus induction and the cultures were incubated in the dark at 25 C. Growth indices were recorded during 8 weeks and then, the number of embryogenic callus was counted in each petri dish and the data were analyzed in a split-plot design. After determining the best regeneration medium for each variety, drought-tolerant embryogenic callus were transferred to the regeneration medium containing Intended amount of PEG. After regeneration, shoot apex were transferred to shooting medium (Shomeili, 2011) and after 3 to 5 times of subculture that each lasted three weeks, healthy shoots at an approximate length of 10 were transferred to rooting medium. After sufficient propagation of full-rooted seedlings, drought stress was conducted exactly similar to the callus formation stage on the basic MS medium and drought-tolerant seedlings were determined by measuring the proline content.
    Result and
    Discussion
    The results showed that studied quantitative indixes in all three varieties were affected by drought stress. Some of these characteristics such as Callus emergence induction time, Callus regeneration percentage and Shoot initiation induction time were affected by the genotype more than drought stress. In a CP48-103 variety, despite the fact that in the control (no drought stress) showed better growth indices than two other varieties, but many indices were dropped by drought stress. In this variety, Callus emergence induction time and Callus regeneration percentage was not affected by drought stress and respectively, with an average of 18.3 days of callus formation and producing 71.9 percent of regenerated callus had the best response among the studied varieties. Proline assay used to compare drought tolerance of obtained variants. The results showed that proline accumulation was greatly influenced by genotype, so that in a CP48-103 variety, at all levels of drought stress more proline was produced rather than CP57-614 variety. In general, the variants obtained from the drought stress with 50 g/L of PEG in two CP48-103 and Cp57-614 varieties had the accumulation of more proline than the variants obtained from the drought stress with 25 g/L of PEG.
    Conclusion
    Although in this study the callus from a CP48-103 variety showed a more sensitive to drought than other genotypes, the obtained variants from this variety by producing greater amounts of proline strengthened its mechanisms of drought tolerance and this is likely to be able to better withstand environmental conditions for farming compared to his native varieties that have shown high sensitivity to drought stress, and if the other good crop conditions maintain, this variety is introduced as a new genotype.
    Keywords: Callus, PEG, Proline, Somaclone
  • Saeed Bakhshipour, Jafar Kambouzia *, Koros Khoshbakht, Abdolmajid Mahdavi Damghani, Maryam Hosseini Chaleshtori Pages 491-502
    Release of drought tolerant cultivars along with advance agronomic practices are effective ways to manage drought and water deficit in agriculture. In order to evaluate drought stress on 20 Iranian native and improved rice genotypes and determination of proper drought tolerance indicators in rice, an experiment was conducted based on factorial randomized complete block design with three replications at Rice Research Institute of Iran (Rasht), during 2014-15. In this study, on the basis of yield performance in stress and none stress conditions, indices of tolerance (TOL), yield stability index (YSI), stress tolerance index (STI), stress susceptibility index (SSI), harmonic mean (HM), geometric mean productivity (GMP) and mean productivity (MP). Among these indices, the indices that could led to increase yield under both normal and stress conditions, were considered as the best indices. Accordingly, stress susceptibility index (SSI), tolerance index (STI), geometric mean productivity (GMP) and harmonic mean (HM) were found to be the best indices for drought resistance selection. Regarding these criteria, the cultivars of the Hashemi, Alikazemi, Shiroodi and Sepidrood were considered as the most tolerant genotypes. The result of this research showed that the indices including stress susceptibility index (SSI), stress tolerance index (STI), geometric mean productivity (GMP) and harmonic mean (HM) could be used for selection of the best Iranian rice variety based on yield. Release of drought tolerant cultivars along with advance agronomic practices are effective ways to manage drought and water deficit in agriculture. In order to evaluate drought stress on 20 Iranian native and improved rice genotypes and determination of proper drought tolerance indicators in rice, an experiment was conducted based on factorial randomized complete block design with three replications at Rice Research Institute of Iran (Rasht), during 2014-15. In this study, on the basis of yield performance in stress and none stress conditions, indices of tolerance (TOL), yield stability index (YSI), stress tolerance index (STI), stress susceptibility index (SSI), harmonic mean (HM), geometric mean productivity (GMP) and mean productivity (MP). Among these indices, the indices that could led to increase yield under both normal and stress conditions, were considered as the best indices. Accordingly, stress susceptibility index (SSI), tolerance index (STI), geometric mean productivity (GMP) and harmonic mean (HM) were found to be the best indices for drought resistance selection. Regarding these criteria, the cultivars of the Hashemi, Alikazemi, Shiroodi and Sepidrood were considered as the most tolerant genotypes. The result of this research showed that the indices including stress susceptibility index (SSI), stress tolerance index (STI), geometric mean productivity (GMP) and harmonic mean (HM) could be used for selection of the best Iranian rice variety based on yield. Release of drought tolerant cultivars along with advance agronomic practices are effective ways to manage drought and water deficit in agriculture. In order to evaluate drought stress on 20 Iranian native and improved rice genotypes and determination of proper drought tolerance indicators in rice, an experiment was conducted based on factorial randomized complete block design with three replications at Rice Research Institute of Iran (Rasht), during 2014-15. In this study, on the basis of yield performance in stress and none stress conditions, indices of tolerance (TOL), yield stability index (YSI), stress tolerance index (STI), stress susceptibility index (SSI), harmonic mean (HM), geometric mean productivity (GMP) and mean productivity (MP). Among these indices, the indices that could led to increase yield under both normal and stress conditions, were considered as the best indices. Accordingly, stress susceptibility index (SSI), tolerance index (STI), geometric mean productivity (GMP) and harmonic mean (HM) were found to be the best indices for drought resistance selection. Regarding these criteria, the cultivars of the Hashemi, Alikazemi, Shiroodi and Sepidrood were considered as the most tolerant genotypes. The result of this research showed that the indices including stress susceptibility index (SSI), stress tolerance index (STI), geometric mean productivity (GMP) and harmonic mean (HM) could be used for selection of the best Iranian rice variety based on yield.
    Keywords: Drought stress, Rice, Tolerance, sensitivity indices, Yield
  • Mohammad Reza Sarafraz Ardakani *, Ramezanali Khavari-Nejad, Foad Moradi, Farzaneh Najafi Pages 503-514
    Introduction
    Drought stress is a major factor that reduces growth, development and production of plants especially in generative phase. Among crop plants, wheat (Triticum aestivum), which often experiences water-shortage conditions, is an appealing study system because there are so many natural genotypes differing in drought tolerance. Wheat as well as the most cereals is especially threatened by water deficit during flowering and grain filling period in relation to decreasing yield potential (Khanna-Chop and Selote., 2007). Phytohormones play an important role in plants tolerance of abiotic stresses by mediating a wide range of adaptive responses although some of them act differently. Abscisic acid (ABA) and cytokinin (CK) are two antagonist hormones that play useful roles when stresses as drought appear. But, recent data implied that abscisic acid (ABA)/CK ratios in xylem sap are important for stress signaling. Therefore, this experiment was established to study and compare the influence of exogenous treatments of individual CK and ABA and also CK and ABA interaction on flag leaves relative water content (LRWC), chlorophyll florescence and gas exchange in related to yield were studied in Triticum aestivum cv. Pishgam (drought-tolerant) and cv.MV-17 (drought-sensitive) under irrigation and drought conditions after post-anthesis stage.
    Materials And Methods
    The influence of CK, ABA and their combination CK/ABA on LRWC, photochemical efficiency and gas exchange in Triticum aestivum cv. Pishgam (drought-tolerant) and cv.MV-17 (drought-sensitive) flag leaves and yield under irrigation and drought conditions during the grain-filling period. Factorial experiment was based on based on split plot in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Chlorophyll fluorescence as photochemical efficiency was assayed by OS1-FL, a pulse modulated fluorometer (OptiScience Corporation, Tyngsboro, MA). Gas exchange traits were determined at flowering using a portable gas exchange measuring system (Li 6400, Li-Cor, USA). For yield assay, 60 plants were selected randomly to assess grain weight 1000 and grain yield per plant. One-way ANOVA was applied to determine the significance of the results between different treatments and then Duncan multiple range tests (p
    Results And Discussion
    Drought stress decreased LRWC in Pishgam cv. more than MV-17, significantly. Among hormonal treatments, the interaction of CK and ABA increased LRWC in both cultivars, significantly more than other hormonal treatments during drought stress. Chlorophyll florescence results showed that ФPSII and qP decreased and NPQ increased significantly in sensitive cv. more than tolerant cv. when irrigation was interrupted. CK and ABA interaction increased Fv/Fm, ФPSII and NPQ more than other hormonal treatments. Also CK/ABA application caused the significant increment in qP in Pishgam cv. Stomatal conductance (gs), net photosynthesis (A), transpiration (E) and Mesophyll conductance (MC) decreased in both cultivars when drought occurred while sub-stomatal CO2 concentration (Ci) and photosynthetic water use efficiency (PWUE) increased. These changes were more significant in sensitive cv. than tolerant cv. CK and ABA interaction increased Ci, A and PWUE in both cv. more than other hormonal treatments, while ABA treatment was the most effective hormonal treatment in reduction of gs, E and MC under drought condition. Yield reduced in both cultivars when drought stress appeared. Yield reduction was more in sensitive cv. CK and ABA combination was the most effective treatment for increment of yield, especially in sensitive cv. under drought stress. More Physiologic damages and yield reduction under drought exposure in susceptible cultivars were reviewed in the previous study (Chaves et al., 2003). CK effects on chlorophyll stability, protein synthesis in chloroplast and ABA effects on reduction of oxidative damage in photosynthesis system under drought and salt stress are reasons for production efficiency in plants (Pospisilova, 2003; Pospisilova et al., 2005). óAlso assesment of correlation coefficient showed the most significant relation between NPQ, A and PWUE with 1000-grain weight and grain yield.
    Conclusion
    It seems that CK and ABA combination is the best treatment in related to improvement of chlorophyll florescence, photosynthesis and yield efficiency in both cultivars under drought stress. Also, MV-17 (sensitive cv.) could use the hormonal treatment better than Pishgam (tolerant cv.) to improve photosynthesis and yield stability.
    Keywords: Chlorophyll florescence, Drought-sensitive cultivar, Drought-tolerant cultivar, Gas exchange, Grain yield
  • Raouf Seyed Sharifi * Pages 515-531
    Introduction
    Drought stress is the most influential factors affecting crop yield particularly in arid and semiarid regions. This stress induces various biochemical and physiological responses in plants as a survival mechanism (Tas and Tas 2007). Drought, being the most important environmental stress, severely impairs plant growth and development, limits plant production and the performance of crop plants, more than any other environmental factor (Shao et al. 2008.( Under stress condition, high yield of wheat grain is as a result of the grain filling rate and the ability to transfer assimilates stored to the grain (Santiveri et al., 2002). Borrás et al. (2004) reported that dramatic decrease in grain filling period and grain yield are related to lack of assimilate supply during the grain filling period. Santiveri et al. (2002) found that grain filling period appears to be greatly affected by environmental factors than grain filling rate. Most of the assimilates used for grain filling is produced by the upper canopy, which develops mainly from the spike, the flag leaf, and its sheath (Loss & Siddique, 1994). Dry matter and stem reserves provide a powerful resource for grain filling under any type of stress (Wang et al., 2009). Ehdaie et al. (2008) suggested that wheat in dry land areas may rely more on stem reserves for grain filling than on the current photosynthesis. Xue et al. (2006) reported that after anthesis, when photosynthetic activity is reduced by drought or salinity, grain filling becomes more dependent on mobilized of the dry matter (22 to 80%) that accumulates in the grain stem reserves. Application of bio- fertilizers and uniconazole are proper methods for increasing wheat yield under water limitation conditions.
    Materials And Methods
    In order to study the effects of uniconazole and bio- fertilizers on grain filling period and contribution of remobilization in grain yield of wheat under different moisture regimes, a factorial experiment was conducted based on randomized complete block design with three replications at research greenhouse of faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili in 2015. Experimental factors included foliar application of uniconazole at two levels (without uniconazole as control and foliar application of 0.1 g.L-1), bio fertilizers in four levels (application of mycorrhiza, application of Azotobacter㻇鶢殧, co-inoculation with PGPR鬧⢮롢 and no application of biofertilizers as control), and irrigation in three levels (full irrigation, irrigation until%50 of heading and booting stages as moderate and severe water limitations, respectively). Mycorrhiza fungi (Glomus mosseae) was purchased from the Zist Fanavar Turan institute and soils were treated based on the manufacturer’s protocol 10 g of inoculums per 1 kg soil. Azotobacter chrocoococum and Psedomunas putida were isolated from the rhizospheres of wheat by Research Institute of Soil and Water, Tehran, Iran. The strains and cell densities of microorganisms used as PGPR in this experiment were 107 bacteria per milliliter (108 cfu/ml-1). uniconazole were sprayed prior to booting stage. To investigate grain filling parameters in each sampling, three plants in each pot were taken. The first sampling was taken on the 15th day after heading and other samplings were taken in 4 days’ intervals for determining the accumulation of grain weight .
    Results And Discussion
    The results showed that the maximum contribution of remobilization from aaboveground organs (57.6%), contribution of stem reserves at grain yield (53.4%) and also the minimum of grain filling period (26.6 days) were obtained with irrigation until 50% of booting, no usage of biofertilizers and without uniconazole. The Maximum single grain weight and grain filling period (0.052 g and 34.5 days respectively) were observed with full irrigation and application of both biofertilizers and uniconazole, whereas the lowest amounts of these traits (0.03 g and 26.6 days) were observed with irrigation till 50% of booting stage, and no usage of both bio fertilizers and uniconazole. The maximum grain filling rate (0.00248 g.day-1) was obtained with irrigation until 50% of booting stage and application of both biofertilizers and uniconazole, whereas its minimum rate(0.00016 g.day)was obtained with full irrigation and no usage of biofertilizers.
    Conclusion
    Generally, it seems that application of bio-fertilizers and uniconazole can be considered as appropriate management factors for increasing grain yield and grain filling period under water limitation conditions.
    Keywords: Azotobacter, Mycorrhiza, Psedomunas, Water deficiet
  • Zeinab Anafjeh, Mohammad Banayan-Aval *, Parviz Rezvani-Moghadam, S. Bahram Andarziyan Pages 533-545
    Introduction
    Drought and nitrogen deficiency are major environmental factors limiting plant growth and selection of product types in many agricultural ecosystems limit. Drought stress and decreasing the nitrogen rate caused a significant decrease in the yield and yield components. According to some reports, the average wheat yield in the world is 30-60% of the yield, the main reason for which is the lack of water. Therefore, the purpose of this experiment was to investigate the response of wheat to different irrigation and nitrogen levels in Ahwaz climatic conditions.
    Materials And Methods
    In order to study Wheat response to different levels of nitrogen and irrigation regimes in Ahwaz condition, an experiment was conducted in 2014-2015 at Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center of Khuzestan. The experimental design was split plot with randomized complete block design in three replications. Treatments were included: irrigation regimes (full irrigation, Cutting off Irrigation at stem elongation, anthesis and grain filling stages) as main plot and three nitrogen levels (0, 100 and 200 kg N ha-1) as sub plot.
    Results And Discussion
    The factors of grain yield, biological yield, harvest index, the number of ear per m2, the number of grain per ear, 1000-grain weight, grain nitrogen percentage and residues nitrogen percentage were measured in this research. The results indicated that grain yield, biological yield, grain and residues nitrogen percentage were significantly affected by interaction between irrigation regimes and nitrogen levels. The greatest amount of biomass, grain yield, and grain and residues nitrogen percentage was obtained from full irrigation and 200 N ha-1. The results of regression analysis revealed that with increasing nitrogen increased the traits grain yield, biological yield and grain and residues nitrogen percentage of all the regimes of irrigation. But the cutting off irrigation at grain filling stage on grain yield and don’t cutting off irrigation during the growing season on biological yield, grain and residues nitrogen content gain more benefit from other regime.
    Shoot nitrogen content increased with increasing nitrogen supply and at the level of 200 kg per hectare reached to the highest level. Slicing interaction indicated that the regime of irrigation at grain filling stage there is a significant difference between the different levels of nitrogen. In irrigation cut in stage stem elongation and flowering was not difference between different levels of nitrogen in terms of impact on the biological yield. In other words, the performance of these treatments did not react to use of different levels of irrigation and nitrogen. Meanwhile, according to the b factor regression analysis it was found that the increase in biomass per unit increase in the amount of nitrogen in the regime of irrigation during the growing season was more visible than other regime. 200 plants per m2 could more efficient use of environmental conditions such as light, water and food and the lowest density level, the non-application of nitrogen not able to make full use of environmental resources because the plant couldnt cover the ground completely.
    Conclusions
    In general, different irrigation and nitrogen levels have a significant effect on grain yield, biological yield and grain and residues nitrogen percentage. The highest performance of the treatment of don’t cutting off irrigation during the growing season and the application of 200 kg nitrogen per hectare. Levels of irrigation levels have responded differently to nitrogen. The results of regression analysis of the studied traits showed that with increasing nitrogen, the grain yield, biological yield and nitrogen content of the grain and the remnants of all levels of irrigation increased. Interaction cropping also showed that there was a significant difference in grain yield in irrigation cuttings at stem and seed filling stage between different levels of nitrogen, but the yield of full irrigation during plant growth period and cuttings of water in Flowering stage did not react to the application of different levels of irrigation and nitrogen.
    Keywords: Moisture stress, grain nitrogen, residues, yield components
  • Fahimeh Faridi Myvan, Majid Jami Al-Ahmadi *, S. Vahid Eslami, Kourosh Shojaei Noferest Pages 547-560
    Introduction
    Considering the importance of potato in supplying the country's required food and its dependent industries and also the climatic situation of most regions of Iran as arid and semi-arid, studying the effect of water deficit stress on potatoes is very valuable. Since one of the suitable areas for cultivating potatoes in Iran is Khorasan province, comprehensive studies on this plant cultivation including planting arrangement and effects of water deficit on the plant, seems necessary. So, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of different levels of moisture on potatoes in different planting patterns and also the possibility of potassium application for reducing the impacts of water deficit.
    Materials And Methods
    In order to study the effects of different levels of moisture on potato under different cultivation systems, an experiment was conducted in the field on the plain of Rokh in Khorasan Razavi, Iran over 2016 cropping season. This research was set as split- spilt plot in randomized complete block design with three replications. Trial factors consisted of planting pattern at three levels (normal planting, usually dense planting and zigzag planting) in the main plot, irrigation with three levels [control (without stress), irrigation as 80% of required water (as deficit irrigation treatment), and irrigation as 60% of required water (as stress treatment)] in sub plots, and potassium fertilizer in three levels (0 (control), 75 and 150 kg potassium sulfate per hectare) as sub-subplots. Potato crop water requirement based on the amount of water needed which has been specified using OPTIWAT software under Rokh plain conditions, was determined. Drip irrigation methods using tapes was conducted. The data was analyzed using the SAS program, the FLSD method was used to compare the means. All graphs were drawn using Excel software.
    Results And Discussion
    The results of the experiment showed that there was a significant difference between irrigation treatments for plant height, so that reducing water amount significantly reduced the plant height. The shortest and tallest plants were observed with stressed and control treatments, respectively. The number of stems produced in different treatments did not show significant differences.
    In this research, zigzag planting pattern under complete irrigation and consumption of 150 kg of potassium sulfate increased the maximum leaf area compared to common and dense common planting patterns. Moreover, the comparison of the mean for the interaction effect of cultivation pattern and potassium sulfate fertilizer on the dry weight of maximum leaf area showed that zigzag planting pattern and consumption of 150 kg ha-1 of potassium sulfate fertilizer, enhanced the dry weight of maximum leaf area compared to common and dense common planting patterns without potassium sulfate fertilizer.
    In this study, zigzag planting pattern under complete irrigation and consumption of 150 kg of potassium sulfate fertilizer resulted in the greatest relative water content of leaf. The Irrigation rate had a significant effect on the dry matter percentage, so that water stress caused a significant reduction in dry matter percentage. In fact, the dry matter percentage under water stress conditions was reduced by 12% compared to the control treatment.
    In this experiment, the number of tubers in common and dense common planting patterns with complete irrigation and consumption of 150 kg of potassium sulfate was 15% greater than that of zigzag planting pattern and 150 kg potassium sulfate consumption.
    Comparison of the mean for the interaction effect of planting pattern on irrigation rate and potassium sulfate fertilizer showed that the greatest number of non-marketable tubers was observed with the common planting pattern under water stress and no potassium sulfate fertilizer application and the lowest was obtained where the zigzag planting pattern was applied with full irrigation and consumption of potassium sulfate fertilizer.
    Yield measurement in this experiment showed that there was a significant difference between the levels of cropping pattern, irrigation and potassium sulfate rates. The tuber yield was enhanced by changing from usual to zigzag cultivation pattern and was reduced by lowering the irrigation rate, while application of potassium sulfate fertilizer increased this trait and this, reduced the effects of stress in all tested planting patterns.
    Conclusion
    It seems that the pattern of zigzag cultivation in potatoes can increase plant yield and on the other hand, due to the sensitivity of the potato plant to irrigation rate, providing enough water improved its performance. The remarkable thing was that application of potassium sulfate fertilizer increased and improved the quality and yield of the tubers under water stress conditions.
    Keywords: Drought stress, Leaf area index, Relative water content, Tuber yield
  • Babak Peykarestan, Mehrdad Yarnia, Hamid Madani * Pages 561-568
    Introduction
    Corn (Zea mays L.) is the world’s third most important cereal after wheat and rice grown primarily for grain and secondarily for fodder (Nelson, 2005).Sweet corn is used as a fresh or processed vegetable.Sweet corn contains higher kernel protein, oil,starch, sugar contents and many other nutrients than the other maize types(Abolhasani et al., 2004). Sweet corn is favorable for fresh consumption because of its delicious taste,delicate crust and soft and sugary texture compared to other corn varieties. The human body needs nutritious food to stay healthy(Baybordi, 2006 ;Soriano et al., 2004). Drought is one of the factors,which threatens the agricultural products in most parts of the world . Shortage of water, on the other hand, is an important limiting factor in crop production.
    Materials And Methods
    This test was conducted in agricultural year of 2015 in factoriel split plot style in completely randomized block design in three replicates in the Azad University research field of Arak (34°40′ N 58°25′ E and height of 1150 m). The soil of experimental plot was loam, pH 7.70,EC 1.20 dSm-1, organic carbon 1.50%,available nitrogen 0.02%, phosphorus 0.6% and potassium 0.2%.Experiment treatments including irrigiation patterns were carried out at three levels of conventional furrow irrigation (I1), fixed every other furrow irrigation (I2) and alternate every other furrow irrigation (I3). Subplots were considered with three levels of without zinc spray(control)(zn1), drop zinc spray(2/(1000 ) lit/ha )(zn2)and fast zinc spray(2/(1000 ) lit/ha ) (zn3)and Chase(v1) and Challenger (v2) as sweetcorn varieties.
    Results And Discussion
    The ANOVA results showed that the effect of irrigation pattern at 1% level and the effects of foliar application of zinc and the effects of different genotypes and their interactive effects on Chlorophyll a were significant at 1% probability level. The comparison of varieties showed that Challenger had the highest chlorophyll a (0.889 gr.grfw)compared to chase hybrid(0.779 gr.grfw) during full irrigation,alternative and furrow irrigiation condition by 14.37% .In examining the interactive effect of treatments it was observed that the maximum Chlorophyll a belonged to I1ZN3V2 treatment (control irrigation, fast zinc and Challenger hybrid) by 0.995 gr.grfw and the lowest belonged to I2Zn2V1 treatment (furrow irrigation, Drop zinc and Chase hybrid) by 0.598 gr.grfw that were significantly different at 1% level.
    Conclusion
    Foliar application of zing has a significant effect on yield and yield components and physiological parameters of corn, so that we witnessed 11.65% of the increase of grain yield in fast zinc treatment than the control treatment without foliar application of zinc which could result from the stimulation of grain metabolism and consequently the prevention of damage to proteins, chlorophyll, nucleic acids and enzymes which cause the growth of plant chlorophyll and its higher storage in grains. According to the results of the research, in case of water restriction, the alternate irrigation pattern can be applied because the decrease of yield in such conditions was insignificant in comparison to the normal irrigation particularly in Challenger hybrid. Moreover, the foliar application of zinc, particularly zinc sulfate with fast zinc composition leads to the stable yield in stress conditions which can be proposed to the farmers in Markazi Province and Arak.
    Keywords: Chlorophyll, Corn, Harvest index, Irrigation method, Zinc
  • Somayeh Mohammadi Nejad, Amin Baghizadeh, Mehdi Rahimi * Pages 569-577
    Introduction
    Drought stress is a major cause of damage to crops throughout the world by reducing the yield by 50 percent. Drought stress when increases that the high evaporation capacity of leaves be higher than the ability of roots to absorb water from the soil. Considering that Iran is in the arid and semi-arid of world, at this areas there is a lot of rain fluctuations and there may be some important stages of plant growth due to water shortage be confronted by reduce soil water potential. Beans (Phaseolus Vulgaris L.) are an important source of food around the world that has a high nutritional value because of protein, fiber and vitamins in grains. This plant is considered a major source of vegetable protein in many developing countries. Reduce the effect of environmental stresses using methods such as irrigation, fertilizer and appropriate methods of planting in these areas is limited. Therefore, genetically breeding plants to minimize environmental stress is worth the effort. Considering the importance of legumes and drought stress, the aim of this study was to identify the tolerant and susceptible bean cultivars using morphological and agronomic traits under drought stress condition and also identify desirable traits be to select tolerance cultivars.
    Materials And Methods
    For evaluation the reaction of twenty Red beans ecotypes to drought stress an experiment was conducted in split plot of Randomized Complete Block Design with 3 replications cropping years (2016-2017) at research field of Graduate University of Advanced Technology, Kerman, Iran. In this study, the main plots were three irrigation levels and sub-plot were twenty Red beans ecotypes. After applying the treatments and harvesting time morphological and agronomic traits such as stem height, number of lateral branches, number of pods per plant, seeds per pod, pod infertile, pod length were measured and economic performance. In addition, the weight of the bushes after harvesting and drying, the scales were identified. Analysis of variance and mean comparison of traits was done by SAS software.
    Results And Discussion
    The results of variance analysis of traits were showed significant difference between stress levels and between cultivars for all studied traits. In studied red beans ecotypes, the Dhzarchy and Hassan Abad ecotypes had the largest stem height, while Baft ecotype was lower stem height. Most and lowest plant dry weight Obtained from ecotype Mahan (28.27 g) and DashtAb ecotype (15.51 g), respectively. Also, the maximum length pods related to DashtAb ecotype and the lowest be related to the ecotype Bardsir. Economic yeild is affected by water stress applied in the experiment were significantly lower. Studied ecotypes showed significant differences in terms of yield, this may be the result of the effects of water shortages on their yield components.
    Conclusions ;According to archived results of mean comparisons, Ghazvin, Mahan, Hasan Abad and Dehzarchi were the most tolerant cultivars and Baft was the most sensitive cultivar. So, it seems that these tolerant cultivars are suitable for direct culture in farm that has limitation for irrigation. Also ecotype Baft in most traits had lower values than other ecotypes which can be considered this ecotype as the most sensitive ecotypes. Totally recommended tolerant ecotypes directly planted or that these ecotypes were crossed to susceptible ecotypes to create a new variety.
    Keywords: Grain yield, Irrigation interval, Plant dry weight
  • Mojtaba Norouzi, Nour Ali Sajedi *, Masoud Gomarian Gomarian Pages 579-589
    Introduction
    Selenium is an essential nutrient for organisms. Antioxidant characteristics of selenium have confirmed for human, animal and plants. Treatment of plant with selenium increased the amount of scavenging enzymes of hydrogen peroxide such as ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione peroxidase and antioxidant compounds of ascorbate, proline and glutathione. Selenium decreased the amount of hydrogen peroxide in plants.
    Salicylic acid has important role in moderate of type's effect of biotic and abiotic stresses. The reported that salicylic acid as a naturally compound increased the vegetative growth rate, chlorophyll a, b and total content, relative water content and tolerant to water deficit in lawn. The reported that pre- treatment with 1.5 mM salicylic acid improved the yield and yield components in chickpea cultivars. The current paper reports on an investigation in to the influence of foliar application of salicylic acid and selenium at growth different stages on yield and yield components chick pea in rain fed condition.
    Material and
    Methods
    To evaluate the effect of foliar application of salicylic acid and selenium at growth different stages on yield and yield components chick pea in rain fed condition, an experiment was conducted as split plat based on randomized complete blocks design in four replications, in during 2013-2014. Experiment factors were included salicylic acid in four levels of 0,100 and 200 mg/lit and foliar selenium in two levels of 0 and 18 g.ha-1 at different stages of vegetative, reproductive growth and vegetative growth along with reproductive growth. According to soil testing the amounts of fertilization were applied including 50 kgha-1 urea, 40 kgha-1 triple super phosphates fertilizers and all of nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) fertilizers were applied at planting time. Each experimental plot included r 30 cm distanced rows with 10 cm spacing between plants in rows. Land preparation, including plough, was conducted in fall and perpendicular disking in May The length of each row was 6 m and two rows were left uncultivated between the adjacent plots. The cultivar chick pea was ‘Azad’. The grains were sown at 6 cm depth on final February 2013.
    The assay for yield compunents was determined from 15 plants. At the final harvest, 2 m2 was harvested from the middle of each plot, and pod yield, grain yield and biological yield was evaluated. Data were subjected to analysis of variance using SAS (Version 9.1, SAS Institute Inc). Means were compared using the Duncan's multiple range test at 5% the confidence level.
    Results And Discussion
    According to the mean comparison results, foliar application of selenium and salicylic acid was increased the number of grain per pod. The highest number of pod per plant was observed from foliar application of treatments at vegetative along with reproductive stages. Salicylic acid appli-cation at the rate of 100 and 200 mg/L and selenium at the rate of 18 g/ha was increased the number of pod per plant by 15.5, 27.3 and 17.6% as compared with control. The reported that, application of selenium at the rate of 10 and 20µg was decreased the number of pod per plant in canola. The highest grain yield equal to 940.5 kg ha-1 was record from foliar application of 200 mg/lit salicylic acid along with 18 g ha-1 selenium. The reported that foliar application of salicylic acid at the rate of 0.1 mM at 20, 30, 40 and 50 day after sowing was increased the grain yield (64%), number of grain per plant (14%) and grain weight (40%), in chick pea under dry land condition. The reported that , the maximum grain yield was recorded from foliar application with 1 mM salicylic acid under drought stress and irrigation optimum condition in soybean. In general, foliar application of salicylic acid along with selenium at stages two of vegetative growth along with reproductive growth could obtain optimum yield.
    Keywords: Agronomic traits, Azad cultivar, Grain yield, Sodium selenite
  • Abdolhamid Aghjeli *, Ali Nakhzari Moghaddam, Ali Rahemi Karizaki, Ebrahim Gholamalipour Alamdari Pages 591-602
    Introduction
    Pulses in farming systems have a special role in the world. They use in some developing countries as a source of protein. Mung bean as a pulse crop has more protein than cereals and have important role in nutrition of low-income people in developing countries. Drought stress can reduce photosynthesis and production of mung bean. Nitrogen is an important factor for regulating of plant growth and suitable production. Therefore, it is necessary to use 15 to 30 kg ha-1 nitrogen in planting time. This study was conducted to determine the effect of supplemental irrigation and split nitrogen on yield, yield components and protein yield and suitable treatment.
    Materials And Methods
    In order to study effect of supplemental irrigation and split nitrogen on quantity and quality of mung bean (Vigna radiata L.), a split plot experiment based on Randomized Complete Block Design was conducted with three replications at research farm of Gonbad Kavous University during 2016. In this study the line of VC-1973 a mung bean was used. The main factor was supplemental irrigation at four levels of once irrigation (before flowering= I1), Twice irrigation (before flowering flowering= I2), three irrigation (before flowering flowering filling the first pod= I3), four irrigation (before flowering flowering filling the first pod yellowing of the first pod= I4) and the sub factor was split nitrogen in four levels including non application of nitrogen (N0), use of 25% nitrogen in planting time and 75% before flowering (N1), 50% in planting time and 50% before flowering (N2) 75% in planting time and 25% before flowering (N3). To measuring of parameters, 10 plants randomly were selected and number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, number of seeds per plant, 1000- seed weight, seed yield, harvest index, protein percent, protein yield and potassium percent were determined.
    Results And Discussion
    Results showed that effect of supplemental irrigation on number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, number of seeds per plant, seed yield, protein yield and potassium percent at p≤0.01 and on harvest index, protein percent and 1000- seed weight at p≤0.05 were significant. Effect of nitrogen on number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, number of seeds per plant, harvest index, seed yield, protein yield and potassium percent at p≤0.01 and 1000- seed weight at p≤0.05 were significant. Interaction of nitrogen × supplemental irrigation was not significant about any traits. One time irrigation produced 568.6 kg ha-1. Seed yield in two, three and four irrigation was 836.2, 1028 and 1169 kg ha-1, respectively. By increasing of irrigation, protein content was decreased while protein yield was increased. The highest yield was obtained from consumption of 25% N in sowing date and 75% before flowering with 1175 kg ha-1 and the lowest belonged to none application of nitrogen with 647.3 kg ha-1.
    Conclusion
    The study showed that four times irrigation (before flowering flowering filling the first pod yellowing of the first pod) produced the maximum seed and protein yield with 1169 and 275.1 kg ha-1, respectively and the minimum of them belonged to one time irrigation with 568.6 and 140.6 kg ha-1. Traits of harvest index and protein percent in once irrigation (before flowering) was greater than other treatments. The highest seed and protein yield with 1175 and 279.6 kg ha-1, respectively was obtained by application of 25% nitrogen at planting time and 75% before flowering stage while the minimum of them belonged to treatment of none application of nitrogen with 647.3 and 153.8 kg ha-1, respectively. Increasing of seeds per plant and seed weight with increasing of irrigation times and nitrogen consumption, seed yield and protein yield was increased.
    Keywords: Potassium, Protein, Seed yield, Yield components
  • Bibi Elahe Moosavifar, Hamid Reza Khazaei *, Mohammad Kafi Pages 603-614
    Introduction
    Drought is undoubtedly one of the most important environmental stresses limiting the productivity of crop plants around the world. It has substantial influence on the growth condition, morphological structure and physiology and biochemistry of plants. Deficit irrigation strategy and planting crops with low water requirements and low expectations, for example, Kochia is very important under drought stress. Kochia is a salt- and drought-tolerant species that can be grown on drought soils, yielding fodder in quantities approaching that produced by alfalfa. Farmers in some arid areas of the world have already begun to cultivate Kochia as a salt-tolerant forage crop on lands where other crops are difficult to grow; accordingly, Kochia has been called ‘‘the poor man’s alfalfa’’.
    Drought stress decreases the rate of photosynthesis. Limiting factors in photosynthesis under environmental stresses is the two groups, stomatal limiting factors (Transpiration, stomatal conductance and co2 sub-stomatal) and non- stomatal limiting factors (chlorophyll content, chlorophyll fluorescence and etc.). Plants grown under drought condition have a lower stomatal conductance in order to conserve water. Consequently, CO2 fixation is reduced and photosynthetic rate decreases, resulting in less assimilate production for growth and yield of plants. Diffusive resistance of the stomata to CO2 entry probably is the main factor limiting photosynthesis under drought. Furthermore, drought stress lead to oxidative stress in the plant cell. Drought stress caused a large decline in the chlorophyll a content, the chlorophyll b content, and the total chlorophyll content in most plants. The decrease in chlorophyll under drought stress is mainly the result of damage to chloroplasts caused by active oxygen species. One of the most often employed parameters is maximum quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm), which gives the information about the proportion of the light absorbed by chlorophyll in PSII that is used in photochemical processes that it decreased under stress conditions. The aim of this greenhouse study was investigating some stomatal and non- stomatal limiting factors in photosynthesis rate and biomass of Kochia under drought stress conditions.
    Materials And Methods
    To comparison the photosynthetic parameters of kochia under drought stress, a pot experiment was carried out in completely randomized design with three replications in University of Ferdowsi in 2013. There were 9 treatments included control (no drought), light drought stress during the vegetative phase, heavy drought stress during the vegetative phase, light drought stress during the reproductive phase, heavy drought stress during the reproductive phase, light drought stress during the vegetative phase and heavy drought stress during the reproductive phase, heavy drought stress during the vegetative phase and light drought stress during the reproductive phase, light drought stress during total growth period and heavy drought stress during total growth period. Photosynthetic parameters including photosynthesis rate, transpiration, stomatal conductance, Co2 sub stomatal (by IRGA, Model LCA4), PWUE, SPAD (by SPAD, 502, Japan), chlorophyll content (with spectrophotometer model 6305 by Arnon's method), chlorophyll fluorescence components (chlorophyll fluorescence meter model OSL-FL) and biomass were measured. For statistical analysis, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and FLSD test were performed using SAS ver. 9.1 software.
    Results And Discussion
    Results showed that chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll content and SPAD under drought stress conditions were lower than the control treatment. Effect of drought stress was significant on chlorophyll fluorescence indices so that maximum quantum yield of photosystem II declined significantly due to increasing of initial fluorescence (Fo) and decreasing of maximum fluorescence (Fm). Transpiration, stomatal conductance and co2 sub-stomatal did not differ significantly from control. Photosynthetic rate also decreased in drought stress at different growth stages. The most and lowest of biomass observed in control and heavy drought stress during growth period, respectively.
    Conclusions :Finally, this study showed that stomatal parameters (Transpiration, stomatal conductance and CO2 sub-stomatal) shown the same reaction under stress and non- stress conditions. Even under heavy drought stress, this plant is able to hold open stomata and maintain the continuity of CO2 absorption that it refers to the high resistance of Kochia. Therefore stomatal limiting factors didn’t have role in limit photosynthesis. Unlike stomatal limiting factors, non- stomatal factors had a significant positive correlation with photosynthesis rate and a decrease in each of them reduces photosynthesis rate.
    Keywords: Chlorophyll fluorescence, Gas exchanges, Photosynthesis pigments, PWUE
  • Zahra Sharifi, S. Vahid Eslami *, Majid Jami Al-Ahmadi, Sohrab Mahmoodi Pages 615-626
    Introduction
    Drought and water shortage are the most important limiting factors in agricultural production, and environmental stresses are considered as the most serious threats for seed germination and crop growth. Researchers have mentioned crop residue management as one of the methods to improve soil physical properties, reduce evaporation intensity and protect the environment against global warming. Crop residue also contains a lot of organic matter which has a high water holding capacity, thus the addition of plant residue to soil could result in an effective increase in soil water holding capacity. With regard to importance of soil and water conservation, proper crop residue management plays important role in crop production in arid and semi-arid regions. According to a special role of crop residue in maintaining soil moisture and increasingly spreading of drought stress in the country, this research examines the impact of crops residues and on the emergence and early growth of safflower and wheat crops under different moisture levels.
    Materials And Methods
    To study the effect of different levels of moisture and the type of crop residues on germination and early growth of safflower and wheat crops, separate experiments for each plant were conducted in the greenhouse of Faculty of Agriculture, University of Birjand. For this purpose, a factorial experiment for each crop was conducted in a CRD with three replications that contained three levels of moisture (25, 50 and 80% of water holding capacity of the pot) and 5 types of crop residues (chickling pea, rocket salad, triticale, barley and control (no residue on the surface of the pot)). During the trial, number of emerged seedlings was recorded and cumulative rate of seedling emergence was calculated. At the end of the study, the seedlings height was measured and plant from surface of the soil were harvested. After measuring the leaf area of plants, their dry weight were measured.
    Result and
    Discussion
    Results showed that the final percentage of seedling emergence and height of wheat at moisture levels of 50 and 80% of field capacity were not significantly different while these traits significantly decreased in moisture level of 25% field capacity. Wheat plant height was significantly increased just with residues of chickling pea compared to control. Results of interaction effect showed that in general, in moisture levels of 50 and 80% of field capacity, the cumulative rate of seedling emergence of wheat in different treatments of crops residues had no significant difference with the control. However, at 25% of field capacity, cumulative rate of seedling emergence of wheat was greater than the control at all levels of cover crops residues. This result suggests that under low moisture levels, the presence of residue of cover crops on the soil surface can improve emergence rate, probably due to more moisture maintenance in the soil surface by residue of cover crops.
    Results for safflower showed that cumulative rate and final percentage of emergence of safflower in all types of crops residues decreased compared to the control. It seems that plant residues have inhibitory effect on safflower emergence. Previous reports have also confirmed that when the crop residue are on the soil surface, emergence of some plants, especially broad-leaved species like safflower, delay, because of the physical barrier that prevents the growth of seedling plumule to the soil surface, while narrow-leaved plants easily pass through plant residues and plant residues do not prevent their emergence.
    Moreover, in the treatment of 80% of field capacity, the dry weight of safflower in crop residue treatments of chickling pea, rocket sativa, and triticale increased compared to the control and the greatest dry weight of safflower was observed with the chickling pea residues. In the treatment of 50% of field capacity, dry weight of safflower in all treatments of crops residues were greater than the control and in the treatment of 25% of field capacity, dry weight of safflower were greater in chickling pea and rocket sativa residues compared to the control. Crop residues increase soil moisture content through enhancing the soil organic carbon, as well as reducing run off and evaporation in surface soil. More water content and reduced evaporation caused by the residue mulch are the main reasons for the increase of germination, emergence and seedling growth. (Malhi et al., 2006).
    Conclusion
    The results showed that the crop residue had a positive impact on the growth of the safflower and wheat under drought stress. Crop residue of chickling pea, especially under stress conditions had a positive impact on growth characteristics of safflower and wheat. Therefore, the use of crop residue can be a useful way to increase the usable moisture in arid and semi-arid regions.
    Keywords: Crop residue, Drought stress, Germination, Seedling growth
  • Batool Sabertanha *, Baratali Fakheri, Nafiseh Mehdinezhad, Zohreh Alizade Pages 627-643
    Introduction
    The scientific name of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) has 85 species of crocus, lily family and has been of the order of asparagus. Drought stress occurs when the transpiration rate of water absorption rate. Drought stress causes reduced photosynthesis, impaired physiological and finally drying and death of the plant. Peroxide belongs to a large family of enzymes that are present at high levels in plants and hydrogen peroxide are involved in the sweep. Silver nanoparticles to other nanoparticles more effective against bacteria and viruses from the show. The nano particles are hydrophilic with special properties and application of the technology. It seems these particles to completely eliminate fungi and bacteria, unlike other antibiotics do not create any resistance in microbes. Silver nano-particles have a diameter of about 100 nm which is surrounding its core silver and silver oxide is derived. This study was to investigate the effect of water stress and silver nanoparticles on physiological characteristics of saffron was done.
    Materials And Methods
    Experiments in both water and normal on 10 ecotypes of saffron in three levels of control (distilled water), 55 and 110 ppm silver nanoparticles were implemented. The reviews are split plot factorial design randomized complete block with three replications in research farm of Birjand University and the Institute of Biotechnology, University of Zabol was done. Before planting, corms for 90 minutes in distilled water (control), distilled water containing silver nanoparticles at concentrations of 55 and 110 ppm was treated were planted. For germination of corms, irrigation as coats and heavy (saturated) was performed. After taking leaf samples from all treatments, extract the enzyme to measure enzymes, chlorophyll a and b, carotenoids and proteins were prepared. Data with Version 9.2 software SAS were analyzed.
    Results And Discussion
    The main effects of treatments ecotype, silver nanoparticles, drought and their interactions for catalase, polyphenol oxidase, phenylalanine ammonia lyase, chlorophyll b and carotenoid were significant at the 1% level. Comparison of interaction effects of ecotype×drought showed that chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b Vkartnvyyd ecotype of Cain, the enzyme phenylalanine enzyme catalase ecotype Arian, guaiacol Drakvtyp orchards and polyphenol oxidase in Birjand ecotype under drought highest average respectively. Protein and enzyme ascorbate ecotype showed the highest average Cain on full irrigation. Compare average of ecotype × silver nanoparticles showed that the highest amount of chlorophyll a in ecotype ecotype of orchards and Cain Cain and enzymes guaiacol treated with distilled water (control), respectively. The highest amount of chlorophyll b and carotenoid in ecotype Cain, protein and polyphenol oxidase ecotype screen, PAL and ascorbate peroxidase and catalase ecotype ecotype screen Arian Silver nanoparticle treatment was 55 ppm. Compare the average effects of combination of drought stress × silver nanoparticles showed the highest amount of chlorophyll b, carotenoid, phenylalanine ammonia lyase and catalase in drought stress treatment was 55 ppm silver nanoparticles. Chlorophyll a and PPO under drought stress had witnessed the highest production Most of guaiacol and ascorbate peroxidase under the control of drought. The greatest amount of protein at a concentration of 55 ppm silver nanoparticles were observed under non-drought. Compare the average interaction of the three ecotypes × Stress × silver nanoparticles showed the greatest Mqdarklrvfyl a ecotype Cain, catalase ecotype Arian, polyphenol oxidase in Birjand ecotype, guaiacol ecotype Nasrabad under drought stress in distilled water (control) was observed. The highest amount of chlorophyll b and carotenoid ecotype ecotype Arian Cain and phenylalanine ammonia at a concentration of 55 ppm silver nanoparticles under drought stress was observed. The highest amount of protein in the full irrigation at a concentration of 110 ppm silver nanoparticles ecotype Cain was observed. The greatest amount of ascorbate peroxidase under drought stress at a concentration of 55 ppm in Gazar and ecotype ecotypes screen under the control of drought.
    Conclusions
    Chlorophyll b, carotenoids and phenylalanine ammonialis under the conditions of drought stress under silver nanoparticles with a concentration of 55 ppm showed the highest production in the ecotype of Cape and Aryan Shahr, which indicates high performance of the traits in these conditions compared to the control. Due to the hydrophilic properties of nanoparticles, the particles slowly release water to the pot will help to act well in drought. Wet soils and marshes are not suitable for the growth of saffron, because in such soils saffron boils rapidly rotting, So the excess water leads to rot the onion the nanoparticles with antimicrobial and antifungal properties and their hydrophilic from rot prevents.
    Keywords: Catalase, Carotenoid, Chlorophyll, Elicitor
  • Ali Jalalvand *, Babak Andalibi, Afshen Tavakoli, Parviz Moradi Pages 645-659
    Introduction
    The dragonhead plant is herbaceous that originated in middle Asia and about 66 compound are identified in this plant which the most important compounds are Geranyl acetate, Geranial, Geraniol and Nearl. Application of growth regulator lead to increases of plant resistance against biotic and abiotic stress and is involved as a strategy to prevents adverse effects of environmental stress. According to semi-sensitivity of dragonhead plant to drought condition, its medicinal importance as well as, its industrial widespread use, this study was conducted to evaluate dragonhead essential oil yield and its compound under drought condition and also, to evaluate physiological aspect of drought resistance.
    Material and
    Method
    A split plot experiment with two factors moisture levels (normal and stress) and hormone treatment (control, 600 and 1200 µm cycocel and 800 and 1600 µm salicylic acid) was conducted in based of completely randomized block design with four repeats. Two moisture regimes (normal and drought stress) were main factors. In drought stress, plants were irrigated before flowering stage and after that irrigation was stopped in drought stress treatment until end of experiment. Different levels of salicylic acid (800 and 1600 µm) and cycocel (600 and 1200 µm) and control were sub factors which was applied once, two days before drought treatment.
    Findings :Membrane stability was negatively correlated to essential oil yield and chlorophyll content index and positively correlated to proline content. In normal condition, there were differences between hormone levels and essential oil yield, so that treatment with salicylic acid 1600 µM lead to highest amount of essential oil yield and treatment with cycocel 1200 µM had no effects on essential oil yield in comparison with untreated plants, moreover treatment with salicylic acid 800 µM and cycocel 600 µM adversely affect essential oil yield than untreated plants. The analysis of essential oil under stress conditions showed that most of the decomposed compounds under these conditions were less than that control and none of the growth regulators have not been able to increase the amount of compounds that have been reduced in stress conditions. Unlike other compounds Geraniol Influenced by growth regulators in stress conditions there was a significant increase compared to the control and Geranyl acetate Was increased influenced by Cycocele 1200 µm and Salicylic acid 1600 µm. And for compounds Neral and Geranial in stress conditions for all levels of growth regulators observation was not found.Under drought condition, Geraniol was significantly increased by application of all hormones treatment than untreated plants while Geranyl acetate was significantly increased only by application of salicylic acid 1600 µM and cycocel 1200 µM.
    Conclusion
    The results of this research showed that by increasing the amount of proline, which is a positive reaction to drought stress the percentage of essential oil also increases. Correlation results revealed that Essential oil yield has a positive and significant relationship with chlorophyll content index and with membrane stability has a negative and significant relationship. This indicates that Essential oil yield has a positive relationship with the plant's greenness. That is, the plant has the more leaves and limiting conditions affect the plant less the plant will have a higher essential oil yield. Under stress conditions, there is no difference between levels of growth regulators but there are differences between levels of growth regulators in normal conditions for essential oil yield. So that salicylic acid 1600 had the highest essential oil yield. Analysis of essential oil under drought condition indicated that, the most of compounds had higher content under normal condition and any hormonal treatment compensated this decrease. In contrast, Geraniol significantly increased by hormonal treatments under drought than normal condition; thus it could by concluded that in drought condition, application of higher dose of hormones will increase essential oil compounds.
    Keywords: Chlorophyll, Dragonhead, Membrane stability, Proline
  • Amin Fathi, Sadegh Bahamin * Pages 661-674
    Introduction
    Hibiscus tea (Hibiscus sabdariffa) with the scientific name of the Mallow family (Malvaceae) is native to Africa, and in all tropical and warm cultivation. Roselle annual plants, short days and is self-pollinated. This plant is very sensitive to cold and frost, plant, and two different components to be used. Prohibiting the environmental factors on the growth and yield of crops and machinery, land the most important factor, especially in arid and semi-arid reduce the production goes. Salicylic acid can increase plant tolerance to drought stress and moderate water deficiency, as well as some of the growth has increased. Humic acid by increasing the activity of the enzyme Rubisco, increasing the photosynthetic activity of the plant. On the micronutrients that are essential for normal growth and reproduction of plants. Since the sprayed material to the plant in drought conditions helps to maintain or enhance performance, the purpose of this test is to determine the effects of irrigation levels and is sprayed on the plant Hibiscus tea.
    Material and
    Method
    In order to investigate the effects of irrigation and foliar application levels (zinc sulfate, humic acid and salicylic acid) on Roselle in 2013, at Sarableh Research Station of Sirvan city in Ilam province, in a randomized complete block design with Split plot with three replications. The experimental factors were included three levels of irrigation with 100, 130 and 160 mm evaporation from class A pan and four substrate contamination factors including humic acid, zinc sulfate, salicylic acid and control. Land preparation operations (plow, disc, Leveler) was conducted in late April and then ground using a tractor to bed with a width of 60 cm and map implementation plan was prepared. Fertilizers triple superphosphate (100 kg/h), potassium sulfate (150 kg/h) for pre-planting and urea (200 kg/h) at 2 times the first week of August and first week of October as top dressing in conjunction with irrigation farms were added. To determine the percent oil by weight was used.
    Result and
    Discussion
    Analysis of variance showed that the main effect of irrigation and spraying on all traits Except shoot fresh weight, dry weight and fresh weight sepals that had no significant effect. The results showed interaction of irrigation and spraying the length and diameter of fruits and vegetables had a significant effect there was no significant difference on other traits. The results of irrigation levels showed that the highest number of fruits per plant in 100 mm evaporation treatment was 56.34 and the lowest number of fruits per plant in 160 mm evaporation treatment was 45.27. The highest amount of anthocyanin with 0.26 (μg / ml) was obtained with salicylic acid foliar application while the lowest ones was recorded in the non-soluble state (control) with 0.2 (μg / ml). The result of irrigation showed that the highest (% 2.21) and loweast (% 1.98) essential oil were recorded in the treatment of 160 and 100 mm evaporation treatment, respectively.
    Conclusion
    In general, the results of this study showed that drought stress reduced the yield of Rosell in quantitative and qualitative terms. Also, the foliar application (salicylic acid, zinc sulfate and humic iodine) had a significant role in improving the quality and quantity performance of medicinal herbs. Foliar application of zinc sulfate was identified as the best treatment for increasing the essential oil. However, salicylic acid had the greatest effect on fruit weight gain, but its effect was not significant compare to zinc sulfate. Therefore zinc sulfate foliar application was identified as the best treatment.
    Keywords: Anthocyanin, CGR, Inflorescence length, Sepals dry weight, Water Deficit
  • Mohammad Alivand, Elnaz Farajzadeh Memari Tabrizi * Pages 675-690
    Introduction
    Change any of the environmental factors can basically have effect on processes on plant growth and ultimately on production and operation on crops. Scarcity of water is a severe environmental constraint to plant productivity. Drought-induced loss in crop yield probably exceeds losses from all other causes, since both the severity and duration of the stress are critical. Seed priming is a presowing treatment that exposes seeds to a certain solution that allows partial hydration but not germination, and redried to original moisture content. Although the germination is not completed, metabolic activities that prepare seeds for radicle protrusion may be initiated during priming. Many evidences have shown seed priming could improve germination and early seedling growth under stress conditions compared to plants grown from untreated seed. Allelochemicals can stimulate the growth at very low concentrations but could inhibit the same at higher concentrations. The stimulatory activity of any compound at lower concentrations is called hormesis. The availability of some chemicals at lower doses could affect the plant hormones and are responsible for growth stimulation, while they might have growth retarding activity at higher doses due to the same or another mechanism of actions. In most of researches negative allelopathic effects surveyed, but little researches had done on posetive allelopathic effects.
    Materials And Methods
    This investigation had doen in order to survey effect of safflower seeds priming with fennel, cumin and mint water extract (without priming, hydropriming, priming with 1 and 2% concentration) in different irrigation regimes. Investigation had done in laborator as factorial based of completly accidental design and in field as split plot based on complete block design.
    Results And Discussion
    Based on results of this investigation in greenhouse condition safflower seed priming by medicinal plant extract improved germination and seedling growth and physiologic properties improvement. It seems improvement in safflower seedling growth caused by improvements in safflower seedling physiologic properties. It seems improvements in safflower seedling growth and germination in drought and full irrigation is due to an increase in proteins, gibberellin and carbohydrate content. In field drought decreased safflower seed yield. There were not significant differences between irrigation after 70 mm evaporation from evaporate basin and irrigation after 100 mm evaporation from evaporate basin, but harsher drought decreased safflower yield. Decreasing water from irrigation after 70 mm evaporation from evaporate basin to irrigation after 130 mm evaporation from evaporate basin, decreased grain yield by 38.2 %. But priming with medicinal plant extract caused significant increase in this trait. In this investigation safflower seed priming by all three concentrations of extracts decreased safflower grain yield. But highest increase observed in 1 and 2 percent concentration. This two concentration of medicinal plant extract increased safflower grain yield by 50.9 and 47.6 %. In both mint and cumin higher grain yield observed than fennel, but there were not significant difference between mint and cumin water extract in safflower grain yield.
    Conclusion
    Based on results of this investigation safflower seed priming with medicinal plants water extracts not only increases safflower grain yield in full irrigation, it also increases safflower grain yielg in drought condition.
    Keywords: Concentration, Physiology, Seed Priming, Stress
  • Hamideh Ghafari, Mahmood Reza Tadayon *, Jamshid Razmjoo Pages 691-705
    Introduction
    Salinity is of vital importance to present day agriculture, as rapid population growth especially in the developing world and consequently increased demand for agricultural products have made salinity oriented problems urgent. Salt stress reduces crop growth and yield in different ways. These primary effects of salinity stress causes secondary effects like reduced cell expansion, assimilate production and membrane function, as well as decreased cytosolic metabolism and production of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROS). Soybean is an important grain legume. The unique chemical composition of soybean has made it one of the most valuable agronomic crops worldwide. Its protein has great potential as a major source of dietary protein. In soybean, salinity stress inhibits seed germination and seedling growth, reduces nodulation, and decreases biomass accumulation and yield. Hormones are the biochemical language of living systems. Plant hormones have been defined as low molecular weight organic compounds governing physiological responses within plants, but distant from the sites of their synthesis. Exogenously applied, salicylic acid elicits several different physiological responses to stress and therefore increase plant resistance. For instance, SA was reported to improve resistance against salt strss in plant. Salinity stress reduced growth and protein content in Oryza sativa. This effect was, however, significantly reversed when proline was exogenously supplied. Proline (Pro) functions as compatible solutes are up-regulated in plants under abiotic stress. They play an osmoprotective role in physiological responses. Furthermore, the salinity-induced inhibition of the antioxidative enzymes catalase and peroxidase was significantly overcome in Oryza sativa when proline was supplied exogenously. Exogenous proline application, besides enhancing the activity of antioxidative enzymes (CAT, POX and SOD), is also known to enhance the activity of other enzymes.
    Materials And Methods
    The present experiment was aimed to investigate the improvement of salt tolerance in soybean by exogenous application of proline and salicylic acid as split plot arrangement in a randomized completely design in box with four replication in College of Agriculture, Shahrekord University in 2016. Main plot included three levels irrigation by saline water; 0 (control), 50 and 100 mM NaCl) and sub plot in four level of foliar applied (10 mM proline, in combination with 10 mM proline 3 mM salicylic acid, 3 mM salicylic acid and sprayed with water (control)). Data were analyzed using SAS program and treatment means were compared by using L. S. D at 5% level.
    Results And Discussion
    The results revealed that proline content, leaf POX, CAT and APX activities, H2O2, MDA contents, height and dry matter were significantly affected by salt level, proline and salicylic acid applications and their interactions. The results revealed that effects exogenous application of proline and salicylic acid were significant increase in activities of antioxidant enzymes, height and dry matter of soybean under salt stress. Furthermore, 100 mM NaCl with proline and salicylic acid application decreased malondialdehyde and peroxide hydrogen 23 and 25% compared to water, respectively. So, interaction effects showed height and dry matter increased by proline and salicylic acid application 32 and 38% under 100 mM NaCl compared to water, respectively. Also, the activities of CAT, POX, and APX in most cases increased under salt stress and proline with salicylic acid application as compared to the 0 mM NaCl and without proline and salicylic acid. Therefore, these findings showed that the exogenous application of proline and salicylic acid has a vital role in the increase activation of antioxidant enzymes and resistance of soybean to salt stress. So in some works, here have been positive correlations between content of proline and salicylic acid application and increasing activity of CAT, APX and POX enzymes to tolerance of plant to salt stress. The present study, therefore, suggests that exogenous proline and salicylic acid improved tolerance to salt stress in soybean by increasing antioxidant defense system and decreasing membrane lipid peroxide.
    Keywords: Activities of antioxidant enzymes, Dry matter, Malondialdehyde, Soybean
  • Ghader Rostami, Mohammad Moghaddam *, Abdollah Ghasemi Pirbalouti, Ali Tehranifar Pages 707-720
    Introduction
    Salinity after drought stress is one of the important stress around world including Iran. Salinity causes interrupt in cell division and growth and affect all metabolic reactions in plant. Consuming micronutrient could increase the resistance of the plant against negative effects of salinity. The medicinal plant needs micronutrient enough for producing essential oil and among micronutrients, iron is more needed. Iron is one of essential nutrients, micro, and immobile. This nutrient is required a cofactor for many oxidant and reduction enzymes and the synthesis of chlorophylls. Zinc is also one of micronutrients that involves in tryptophan synthesis, auxin precursor, obsceneness of leaves, carbohydrate metabolism and protein synthesis.
    One of the important applications of the non-technology is nano-fertilizers in agriculture. Nanoparticle inters into the plant through stomata. Peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) from family Lamiaceae grows in the sandy-acidic soil and medium light and high humidity conditions. Peppermint is a rich source of polyphenol that has the antioxidant effect. Regarding importance of peppermint, this research was aimed to investigate effects of nano-Fe and nano-Zn on some biochemical characteristics of peppermint.
    Material and
    Methods
    This work conducted for evaluating the effects of iron and zinc application in two forms, nano and sulfate, on some morphological and biochemical characteristics of peppermint under salt stress, at research greenhouse of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran. The experiment arranged as factorial based on completely randomized design with three replications. The first factor was salinity in four levels (0, 40, 80, and 120 mM NaCl) and the second factor was foliar application Fe and Zn fertilizers in five levels (0, Fe-sulfate and Zn-sulfate at 1500 mg.l-1 and nano-particles of Fe and Zn at 300 mg.l-1). Rhizomes with 10 cm length were cultured within 5 cm depth in pots with 40 cm height and 30 cm diameter. The pots filled with an equal amount of soil, sand, and peat (1:1:1) in each pot. The physio-chemical characteristic of soil was as follows: 1.2 dS/m EC, 7.9 pH, 29% sand, 41% clay, 30% silt, and loam-clay tissue. The first spraying was applied one week before exerting salt stress and two spraying after three weeks exerting salt stress in two intervals. Traits measured were chlorophyll, SPAD, soluble carbohydrate, and some morphological traits.
    Results
    The results indicated that salt stress had significant effect on the growth and biochemical characteristics of peppermint including shoot length, number of branches, number of tiller, length and width of leaves, fresh and dry weight of aerial part, chlorophyll a and b, total chlorophyll, carotenoid, and SPAD. It decreased all of these traits. analysis of interaction effects of treatments indicated that the highest levels of growth and chlorophyll content were obtained in control treatment (without of salt stress) and plants grown under mild stress (40 mM NaCl) treated with nano-Fe and Zn. As the highest plant high (78 cm), number of branches (36 branches per plant), and leaf length (6 cm) were related to control treatment (without of salt stress) and foliar application with nano-Fe. While the highest width of leaf (2.16 cm) was obtained in plants treated with nano-Fe and grown under 40 mM NaCl which there was no significant difference with application of nano fertilizers in control treatment. The highest amount of soluble carbohydrates with the amount of 1.28 and 1.212 mg/g dry weight were obtained under 40 and 80 mM salinity conditions with the application of nano-Fe fertilizer, respectively.
    Conclusion
    The results of this study imply that application iron and zinc nanoparticles in comparison to its sulfate forms improves the growth characteristics, chlorophyll contents, and carbohydrate under control and mild salinity stress conditions (40 mM). Considering pivotal role of iron and zinc in the growth of the plant and expanding of nano-Fe and nano-Zn could have important role in supporting micronutrient for plants.
    Keywords: Peppermint, Growth indices, Photosynthetic pigments, Spraying
  • Ahmad Reza Dehghani Tafti *, Sohrab Mahmodi, Hossein Ali Alikhani, Masoumeh Salehi Pages 721-736
    Introduction
    Isabgol (Plantago ovata Forsk.) is a plant from (Plantaginaceae) family. Isabgol mucilage is valuable compounds that have valuable properties such as stability, suspension and emulsion and has been widely used in pharmaceutical and industrial. In arid and semi-arid area, soil salinity and water shortage is the most important factors in crop growth limitation. In water shortage usage of salinity water is unavoidable Most of the scientists believe that biofertilizers and microorganisms application can improve plant nutrition’s availability in stress condition. To find out the effect of salinity stress, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, Mineral phosphate-solubilizing bacteria on morphophysiological characteristics of Isabgol (Plantago ovata Forsk.), this experiment designed and implemented.
    Materials And Methods
    The field experiment was conducted at the research farm national salinity research center in 2015. A split-factorial experiment based on randomized complete block with three replications. Three levels of salinity 2.5 (control), 5 and 10 dS.m-1 were as the main plot and mycorrhizal fungi and PSB were as sub plots. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi include two levels (Glomus intraradices and control) and PSB also includes two levels (Pseudomonas fluorescens bacteria control). To determine the morphological traits, five plants of each plot were selected randomize. And plots harvested at end to extract seed mucilage and determine yield traits and quality. Chlorophyll index measured every 20 days by SPAD. Statistical analysis was performed with SAS software. Comparison of mean also was conducted by protected LSD test at five percent probability level.
    Results And Discussion
    Analysis of variance showed salinity, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and Mineral phosphate-solubilizing bacteria had a significant effect at 1% level on plant height, mucilage percentage, mucilage yield, inflation factor, inflation rate per gram mucilage. Interaction between salinity and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi had a significant effect at 1% level on mucilage yield and inflation factor and had significant effect at 5% level on inflation rate per gram mucilage. Comparison of means showed that the maximum spike height and mucilage yield was 2.21 cm and 176.7 kg.h-1 respectively at 2.5 dS.m-1 salinity and minimum spike height and mucilage yield was 1.99 cm and 91.6 kg.h-1 respectively at 10 dS.m-1 .The maximum mucilage percentage, inflation factor and inflation rate per gram mucilage was 28.8%, 16.2 and 119.3 ml respectively at 10 dS.m-1 salinity. The minimum mucilage percentage, inflation factor and inflation rate per gram mucilage was 24.1%, 12.4 and 49.4 ml respectively at 2.5 dS.m-1 salinity. Comparison of means among Mineral phosphate-solubilizing bacteria levels showed that the maximum spike height, mucilage percentage, mucilage yield and inflation factor was respectively 2.2 cm, 26.8%, 146.7 kg.h-1 and 14.2 ml at Pseudomonas fluorescens usage. The interaction effect of salinity and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi showed, the maximum mucilage yield was 215 kg.h-1 at 2.5 dS.m-1 salinity and Glomus intraradices application. Research showed that biofertilizer can increase mucilage yield of Isabgol. The maximum inflation factor was 17 ml at 10 dS.m-1 salinity and Glomus intraradices application. The minimum inflation factor was 12.2 at 2.5 dS.m-1 salinity and no mychorrhiza usage. The interaction effect salinity, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and Mineral phosphate-solubilizing bacteria showed, the maximum plant height was 28.9 cm at 2.5 dS.m-1 salinity, Glomus intraradices and Pseudomonas fluorescens. The minimum plant height was 17 cm at 10 dS.m-1 salinity and no mychorrhiza and bacteria usage. Variation of SPAD showed that salinity decreased chlorophyll index but mycorrhizal fungi and Mineral phosphate-solubilizing bacteria increased chlorophyll index. The maximum chlorophyll index was 45.6 at 2.5 dS.m-1 salinity 65 days after planting and minimum chlorophyll index was 17.1 at 10 dS.m-1 salinity 105 days after planting.
    Conclusions
    Totally the results of this study showed that water salinity can have negative effect on morphological characteristic and mucilage yield of Isabgol, but utilizing of some soil microorganisms can compensate these negative effects. In other hand, in high degree of water salinity and no utilizing of bio-fertilizers condition, mucilage quality improved. But according to the international pharmacopeias standard mucilage quality was acceptable at all treatments. therefore biofertilizer application can improve mucilage yield in salinity stress.
    Keywords: Glomus intraradices, Inflation factor, Mucilage, Pseudomonas fluorescens
  • Elham Nourali *, Habibollah Nadian, Sirous Jafari, Mokhtar Heidari Pages 737-748
    Introduction
    Growth and yield of plants in many parts of the world are completely limited due to the influence of various environmental stresses. The presence of heavy metals is one of the most important environmental stresses that can result in lowering the level of growth and crop production. The Pollution of crop productions with heavy metal not only leads to decrease in the quality of products, but also threatens the human heath through entering the food chain. Therefore, they are very important from the environmental point of view. Salinity, considered as one of the most important factors limiting the growth and crop production, is an important factor in transferring heavy metals from roots to limb plant. This is why it affects the flow of metals in the soil. Since the salinity of soil along with heavy metal pollution is considered dangerous to food security, this research was conducted to investigate the interaction of salinity stress and Cadmium on some growth factors and nutrients uptake in Coriander.
    Materials And Methods
    This experiment was conducted in the crop year 2014-2015 in greenhouse of Ramin Khuzestan Agricultural and Natural Resources University in factorial arrangement in a completely randomized block design with three replications. Treatments consisted of three levels of salinity of sodium chloride 2, 5 and 8 dS m-1 and Cadmium and Cadmium chloride source in 3 levels of 0, 50 and 100 mg kg-1. The seeds of coriander were transferred to the pot after germination. Before settling the coriander seeds, the specified levels of cadmium in solid form were uniformly mixed up with the soil in pots other than the control pots. Salinity treatment was applied from the beginning of the third week of planting with irrigation water. At the end of the eighth week, limb plants and plant roots were harvested. The height of each plant was measured using a ruler. In order to determine the dry weight, the envelopes containing the plant were placed in an oven for 48 hours at 75 ° C. After drying, their dry weight was measured. Elements of copper, zinc, iron and cadmium were measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy using flame atomic absorption method. The results were analyzed using SAS statistical software and Excel charts were used for plotting.
    Results And Discussion
    The results of statistical analysis of the data showed that there was a significant difference between the different levels of cadmium and salinity treatments and their interaction effect on the traits. The results indicated the reduction of the height, dry weight and root dry weight with the increasing concentrations of cadmium and salinity. Decreasing plant growth factors can be due to the loss of the osmotic potential of the surrounding environment in the root of the plant's root cells. This is because of the accumulation of high amounts of salt in the soil solution. Ultimately, this reduces cell division, prolongation, and differentiation. Another factor was the decrease in plant growth under less stressed conditions of CO2 stabilization. Also, under the terms of salinity and the presence of cadmium in the soil concentrations of copper, zinc and iron shoot decreased, and the concentration of cadmium increased. The occurrence of nutritional disorders due to salinity may be attributed to the changes in the absorption capacity of nutrients in the soil, competition over the absorption of nutrients, and the disruption of the transmission and distribution of elements among different organs. According to the results most of the reduction in growth factors and concentrations of Zn, Cu and Fe at the highest level of salinity (8) and the highest level of Cadmium )100 mg kg-1) was observed.
    Conclusions
    Based on the results, the presence of heavy metal cadmium in soil resulted in a further reduction of indices at all levels of salinity stress. Generally speaking, the salinity of irrigation water caused by different amounts of sodium chloride increases the bioavailability of cadmium by the plant. This is because of the formation of a complex between chlorine and cadmium ions, The simultaneous presence of two salinity stresses and cadmium in soil is not only harmful to the plant itself due to the reduction of its growth parameters, but also endangers the health of its use because of the high metal intake in these conditions.
    Keywords: Absorptivity, Growth factors, Heavy metals, Plant Stress, Sodium chloride
  • Sajjad Rahimi-Moghaddam, Jafar Kambouzia, Reza Deihimfard * Pages 749-764
    Introduction
    Heat stress caused by climate change will become a restriction for maize production in the future (Cairns et al., 2013). Damage of heat stress is very strong when is occurred in a critical stages of plant growth (particularly in the flowering phase) (Teixeira et al., 2013). Non-coincidentally of flowering stage with high temperature can be reduced the negative effects of heat stress, especially in climate change conditions (Zheng et al., 2012). In this theme, a useful change in the management practices such as early planting dates (Zheng et al., 2012; Liu et al., 2013) could be considered to avoid heat stress and reduce production risk, especially climate change situations. Khuzestan province in terms of grain maize has the highest cultivated area in Iran (Anonymous, 2013). Based on this and according to the impact of climate change on reducing maize yield in the Khuzestan province (Abbas Torki et al., 2011), this study tries to assess the risk of heat stress in grain maize at the Khuzestan province under rising temperature conditions caused by climate change.
    Materials And Methods
    This research was conducted in six locations of Khuzestan Province to investigate the risk assessment due to heat stress in maize in the future climate change. Accordingly, the future climate in the study areas was generated using long-term (1980-2009) climate data of the baseline (included minimum and maximum temperatures, rainfall and global radiation) and AgMIP technique under two climate scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) for the future period of 2040 -2069. Long-term simulation experiments consisted of three sowing dates (3st February, 19st February and 5th March), six locations (Ahwaz, Behbahan, Dezful, Izeh, Ramhormoz and Shushtar), two future climate scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) in 30 years. In total, around 1620 simulation experiments were carried out. To assess the risk of heat stress on maize, it was considered the time (phase), frequency and intensity of maize threshold temperatures in its sensitive phenological phases. To this end, flowering and grain formation phases of maize were noted as the most sensitive to high temperature stress. In this study, APSIM crop model was used for simulation of maize growth and yield. The OriginPro 9.1 and R software were used to draw figures and perform statistical analyses.
    Results And Discussion
    Results indicated that the average temperature during the growing season in the Khuzestan province was increased under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 (8.5 and 34.57 percent, respectively) in comparison to the baseline (27.2 °C). The highest temperature rise was obtained in the Ramhormoz (27.2 °C) on 5th March under RCP8.5. Also, the highest temperature rise during the growing season under RCP4.5 obtained in Shushtar (27.2 °C) on 19st February. In the baseline, on average, grain yield and the number of grains/m-2 in the Khuzestan province were obtained 8.8 t ha-1 and 2305.7. These values in 2050 were 8.5 and 8.7 t ha-1 and 2227.3 and 2254.3 grains/m-2 for RCP4.5 and RCP8.5, respectively. When average across sowing dates, locations and periods, the cumulative probability function for economic yield, non-economic yield and zero yield were 45.4, 13.5 and 41.2 %, respectively for common sowing dates. Under, earlier sowing date (3 February) the cumulative probability for economic yield was higher than the other sowing dates both in future and the baseline periods (65.2 percent).
    Conclusions
    Overall, the results of this study showed that common sowing date which is used by most farmers (19st February) in Khuzestan province was not optimal for both current and future periods while the early sowing date (3st February) in most locations could be considered as an effective adaptation strategy to reduce the amount of extreme temperatures risk in future and to increase grain yield under the current conditions.
    Keywords: AgMIP, Climate change, Grain number, Grain yield, Sowing date
  • Sharifeh Mohammad Alegh, Hossein Sabouri *, Ali Sattarian, Abbas Biabani, Abdoltif Gholizadeh Pages 765-775
    Introduction
    Rice has a great role in the world nutation cycle, so that its secure 50% of word food. The aliveness of approximately three quarter of the poor people of the word depending on rice product. Phosphorus is an effective element in plant growth after nitrogen. Present of phosphorus is necessary for other element absorption. Vital activity continuous depending on phosphorus in plant and deficiency of it created a critical position.delay in rice panicle exertion happens in the lack of phosphorus and delay maturity occurs.
    Material and
    Methods
    In order to detect the QTL associated with phosphorus-deficiency tolerance at seedling stage, a population of 96 lines derived from Ahlami Tarom × Neda cross were studied in genetic and botany laboratory in the Gonbad Kavous University at 2014 under normal and phosphorus deficiency conditions. Chlorophyll content, number of roots, length of root and shoot, length of leaf, volume of root, dry weight of root and shoot, phosphorus content, root diameter and surface density were recorded. For genetic linkage map construction, 30 SSR and 15 ISSR makers were used. DNA extracted using the CTAB method. Gentyping studies of population was conducted for genotyping of individuals for linkage map construction of 96 lines caused Ahlami Tarom× Neda and its parents using SSR and ISSR markers. The Polemrase Chain Reaction product was separated using poly acrylamid denaturing gel 6%. Map manager QTX 17 used for providing of linkage map. QTL analysis and determination of phynotype and genotype done using QTL chartoghrapher 2.5. 30 SSR marker and 60 alleles (caused 15 ISSR markers) were used for providing of linkage map.
    Result
    Linkage map based on 30 SSR markers and 60 alleles (caused 15 ISSR markers) and 96 individual F8 population covered 1411.3 cM of rice genome with an average of 15.34 cM distance between two markers in 15 linkage groups. All of merkers have a menedian segregation ration 1:1. 43 QTLs were identified for the traits under normal condition. 2 QTLs for length of leaf, 2 QTLs for weight of shoot, 1 QTL for root leangh, 14 QTLs for number of root, 2 QTL for surface density, 10 QTL for weight of root, 1 QTL for root diameret and 10 QTLs for phosphourous content detected in normal conditions. qRN-6b, qRW-5b, qRW-5c, qLA-7 and qNP-6b to addition of root number, root weight, leaf area and phosphorus content in normal condition, respictivley. 13 QTLs were identified for the traits under phosphorous defeicincy condition. 2 QTLs for Chlorophyll content, 1 QTLs for fresh weight of root, 2 QTL for dry weight of root, 1 QTLs for dru weight of shoot, 2 QTL for rooy volume, 1 QTL for surface of root, 2 QTL for widht of leaf and 2 QTLs for phosphourous content detected in phosphorous defeicincy conditions. qCHL-2a and qCHL-2b to addition of chlorophyl content in phosphorous defeicint condition identified as major QTLs.
    Discussion
    With attention to QTLs detected to this study as major effect, markers linked to the QTL as markers linked to traits after validation are likely to be used for marker-assisted selection in breeding programs.
    Keywords: Mapping, Quantitative Trait Loci, Root, Stress
  • Najmeh Eftekhar, Seyfollah Fallah * Pages 779-790
    Introduction
    Lead is an unnecessary elements that have highly toxic effects on plants and humans. Severe effects of this heavy element on physiological and morphological aspects of seedling have been reported. Lead prevents the seed germination, root elongation and seedling development, so creates disruption in essential elements uptake such as magnesium and iron, and reduces the amount of carbon dioxide capture. In contaminated soils poor establishment and thus reduce plant biomass, reduces the efficiency of phytoremediation. The seed priming is one of the important ways of seed enhancement before planting. Which that seeds are emerged into the water or osmotic solution and then soaked seeds remains in lag phase and don’t sprout.
    Materials And Methods
    This research was conducted in research greenhouse, college of agriculture, University of Shahrekord in 2016. Sunflower seeds was purchased from Seed and Plant Improvement Institute, Karaj, Iran. To study the effect of potassium humate and compost tea on sunflower seedling tolerance to toxic concentrations of lead factorial experiment in a completely randomized design with three replications done. Treatments were control, potassium humate and compost tea and four levels of lead concentrations (0, 200, 400 and 600 mg of lead/kg of soil). The concentration of compost tea (1: 5) and potassium humate was 300 mmol/L.
    Results And Discussion
    Results showed that increasing of lead concentration significantly reduced the root dry weight, stem dry weight and leaf dry weight, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and increased carotenoids, proline content and electrolyte leakage. Seed priming with potassium humate and compost tea alleviated the damage effect of contaminated soil with lead on mentioned parameters. In lead stress, potassium humate increased root dry weight (733 mg), leaf dry weight (73 mg), chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and lead concentration of root and aboveground of sunflower. However, compost tea increased proline (27 µm/l) and carotenoids (0.7 mm/g fw) and decreased electrolyte leakage (5.54 %) compared with control.
    Generally in past researches indicated that reducing of seedling weight can be due to decline of essential nutrients uptake such as K, Ca, Mg and Fe (Gogorcena et al, 2002) and decline of biomass production due to disruptions in the photosynthesis, respiration and nitrogen metabolism (Balestrasse et al, 2001) induced by toxic concentrations of lead.
    Potassium humate in the most toxic lead concentration prevented the loss of dry weight of roots and leaves by 51% and 28% in compared to control, respectively. Because the potassium increases permeability of cell walls, which makes it facilities the translocation of seed reserves from the endosperm to the embryo axis. Additionally it causes the synthesis of proteins, nucleotides, and more growth of embryo (Umair et al, 2010) and resulted increasing of seedling weight. In general, the replacement of lead instead of magnesium in the chlorophyll causes chlorophyll degradation. Iincrease of concentrations of chlorophyll a (171%) in the most toxic lead and chlorophyll b (381%) at 400 mg/kg of lead by ppotassium humate can be related to the role of potassium. Potassium increases chlorophyll concentration and enhances the CO2 fixation.
    Conclusions
    In general, it can be concluded that with potassium humate and compost tea with increasing photosynthesis pigments and proline content and reducing electrolyte leakage increased of sunflower tolerance in contaminated soils with lead.
    Keywords: Carotenoids, electrolyte leakage, Heavy metal stress, Proline