فهرست مطالب

Applied Linguistics and Applied Literature: Dynamics and Advances - Volume:6 Issue: 1, 2018
  • Volume:6 Issue: 1, 2018
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/10/09
  • تعداد عناوین: 10
  • Bahram Behin Pages 1-6
    The editor’s notes in our Journal have been so far a site for the clarification of the Journal’s policy and the task still continues. With an inclination towards solving our real world problems in language teaching (and literary studies, which I will discuss in the next issue of the Journal), we would like to take that the introduction of the concept of “life-world” to Social Sciences can be a ground-breaking movement to open up new horizons for researchers. I will further illustrate JALDA's position and policy here. The current issue of JALDA features an interview, seven research papers of national and international scope and a book review. The interview is with Professor Glenn Fulcher, the distinguished British applied linguist working in the field of language testing and assessment. The first paper by Behrooz Azabdaftari is a tribute to Professor Henry Widdowson on his visit to Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University in 2018. Cosmas Rai Amenorvi draws on the theory of cohesion to show how both linguistic and aesthetic effects are achieved in Malcolm X’s ‘The Ballot or the Bullet’. The paper by Sarvandy and Ekstam focuses on English as Lingua Franca with attention to Iranian context. The paper by Karimnia and Sabbaghi is a study of Ta’ziyeh and its discourse with an emphasis on how language varieties help frame a culturee’s perception of religion. Ameri's contibution is an example of applied literature. She applies New Jungian findings to the reading of Sweetness in the Belly. The paper by Abbasi and Khosrowshahi explores the role of experience in EFL teachers’ satisfaction of the in-service teacher education programs in Iran, and Ashrafi and Ajideh explore culture-related content in the advanced series of Iran Language Institute. And, finally, Jane Ekstam has reviewed Loving Literature: A Cultural History, by Deirde Shauna Lynch for us.

    Keywords: Editorial, JALDA, Applied Linguistics, Applied Literature, Language Assessment
  • Bahram Behin Pages 7-12
    Glenn Fulcher is the Professor of Applied Linguistics and Language Assessment in the English Department at the University of Leicester, UK. He got his PhD in Applied Linguistics and Language Testing from Lancaster University (1993) and his MA in Applied Linguistics from the University of Birmingham (1987). Professor Fulcher has been the editor of Sage's Language Testing (2006-2015) and an influential member of the Executive Board of The International Language Testing Association (ILTA) for many years. He has extensive experience and expertise in the philosophy of assessment, test design, the development of data-based rating scales as well as teaching language assessment. Professor Fulcher's book Language Testing and Assessment co-authored by Davidson (2007) has been the main resource for the ELT masters' courses in language testing in Iran for many years. Among his other publications are Re-examining Language Testing: A Philosophical and Social Inquiry (2015, the winner of the 2016 SAGE/LTA Book Award), The Rutledge Handbook of Language Testing (2012), Practical Language Testing (2010), Testing Second Language Speaking (2003) , and Writing in the English Language Classroom (1997). In an online interview, Professor Glenn Fulcher has joined Dr. Bahram Behin who is a zealous adherent of Fulcher's philosophy of assessment and has presented language testing courses based on his books.

    Keywords: Glenn Fulcher, JALDA Interview, Language Assessment, Test design, Rate-scales
  • Behrooz Azabdaftari Pages 13-26
    There are such great names in language studies as Noam Chomsky, Lev S. Vygotsky, Howard Gardener and Michael Halliday who are widely accredited with having introduced new concepts in linguistics and neighboring disciplines and to whom we remain deeply indebted. In this article which has been written on the occasion of Professor Henry Widdowson's visit in April 2018 to Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University in Tabriz, Iran, professor Widdowson's thoughts and contributions to applied linguistics and language teaching are reviewed in passing. The author make this issue his point of departure and takes up some of the ground breaking ideas of Professor Widdowson and elaborates very briefly on the following notions:1) English in Training and Education.
    2) Applied Linguistics and Linguistics Applied.
    3) Authenticity of Teaching Materials in ESP.
    4) Present Situation versus Target Situation Analysis of Students’ Language Learning needs: The Language Audit
    5) Linguistic principles and intuitive interpretation

    Keywords: Widdowson, Tribute, Applied Linguistics, Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, ELT
  • Cosmas Rai Amenorvi Pages 27-37
    This paper unearths the contribution of lexical cohesion to the textuality and overall meaning of Malcolm X’s speech 'The Ballot or the Bullet'. Drawing on Halliday and Hasan’s (1976) and Hoey’s (1991) theory of cohesion, specifically lexical   cohesion, whose main thrust is the role of lexical items in not only contributing to meaning but also serving as cohesive ties, the paper discusses how Malcolm employs words in serving a dual role of contributing to meaning by serving as cohesive ties and their literary use for an aesthetic touch to his The Ballot or the Bullet. Discussions show that Malcolm X employs both simple and complex lexical structures to achieve cohesion in 'The Ballot or the Bullet'. The same lexical structures espouse the literary device of repetition, for emphasis and rhythm. Malcolm, therefore, combines linguistic and literary phenomena by his employment of lexical items in not only conveying meaning or passing information to his audience but also doing that with artistic beauty.

    Keywords: Lexical cohesion, Textuality, Repetition, Literariness, Malcolm X, The Ballot or the Bullet
  • Elham Sarvandy, Jane Ekstam Pages 39-52
    The last thirty five years have created a challenging situation for Iran and its people: on the one hand, the discriminatory British and American policies towards the country have given rise to considerable bitterness; on the other, we continue to teach both British and American English. If Iranian people wish to play a more active role internationally, it is time to review our English language teaching policy, practices and pedagogy. This paper focuses on one particularly effective approach, namely English as a Lingua Franca (ELF). It addresses six important principles of ELF and their potential in relation to the present cultural and teaching situation in Iran, focusing on the position of the native speaker and the importance of mutual intelligibility, intercultural competence, the importance of training local multilinguals, the value of lingua franca contexts as learning environments, the difference between spoken and written English, and the adaptation to the Iranian context of assessment procedures. Our paper ends with a brief discussion of the implications for pedagogical practice of the use of the Internet, including the use of blogs in the ELF classroom.  
    Keywords: ELF, ELF principles, Elf in Iranian context, the Internet
  • Amin Karimnia, Maryam Sabbaghi Pages 53-66
    The central theme of Ta'ziyeh, as one of the Islamic tragic drama and folk theater, in one of the major denominations of Islam (the Shia) is a representation of the siege and massacres of Karbala. This study investigated Ta'ziyeh (alternatively Ta'zïye, Tazīa, Ta'zīya) and its discourse, a form of declamation. The data for analysis were collected from library resources (e.g. books, electronic resources) and observation. The data were analyzed based on Gee's discourse and society model. The study confirmed that Ta'zieh was the most important tragedy in Shiism. The discourse used in Ta’ziyeh, contrary to the Western variations, appeared to be a more spiritual practice than a dramatic genre. Furthermore, the role of Ta'ziyeh writers and performers was explored as agents who have distributed the accounts of the Karbala battle for generations in Iran. The findings, from a global perspective, might emphasize how diverse a culture’s perceptions of religion and its related rituals could be and how a language variety (e.g. declamation) could help frame such perceptions in dramatic genre. The findings could also guide the categories that multi-cultural studies of tragedies may take into account.

    Keywords: Ta'ziyeh, declamation, Shia, drama, Karbala, tragedy
  • Firouzeh Ameri Pages 67-76
    The field of Applied Literature is concerned with the practical usages of literature, including the potentials of literature to empower and transform individuals. Jungian criticism, with its suggestions of the possibility of individuation and self-actualization in individuals, has been an important source for scholars in the field of Applied Literature for healing. Still, the traditional Jungian approach to literature has been criticized in recent years, especially due to its apparent universalist assumptions and its insensitivity to context-specific issues in texts. For the same reason, New Jungian critics have been recently exploring the possibilities of reconciling Jungian concepts with more context-oriented literary theories. This paper, then, in accordance with this new trend, attempts to do a New Jungian reading of a contemporary postcolonial novel, Sweetness in the Belly, by Camilla Gibb , as a case study, to investigate the potentials within this approach of extension of Jungian ideas and dialogue with other more modern literary theories after poststructuralism. The research benefits from the views of New Jungian critics as well as the theories in relation to the identity issues of migrants. The paper is concluded with the proposition that, as the exploration of this novel testifies, the New Jungian approach as well as the contemporary fiction of identity construction can prove as valid resources for Applied Literature for healing.

    Keywords: Applied Literature, New Jungian Criticism, Individuation, Identity, Sweetness in the Belly
  • Naser Abbasi, Simin Navahi Khosrowshahi Pages 77-89
    The short-term in-service EFL teacher education programs are assumed to be of crucial importance in upgrading teachers' methodologies and gearing their teaching more closely to the students' needs. Therefore, a dynamic in-service program for EFL teachers is needed to keep abreast of the time.The present study aims to investigate the role of experience in EFL teachers' satisfaction of the in-service teacher education programs in Zanjan city. 200 EFL teachers from Zanjan province (1 &2 districts) were participated in this study.The data collected through the Course-evaluation questionnaire with “five-level Likert scale”. The results were analyzed through both descriptive and inferential statistics.The findings showed that There is a significant difference between teachers’ experience and their satisfaction of in-service programs.Thus novice teachers and experienced teachers have different expectation of the in-service teacher education programs.This production of significant difference about the relationship between the EFL teachers' experience and their satisfaction of the in-service teacher education programs can be contributed to different perceptions of the teachers on the relationship between the EFL teachers' experience and their satisfaction of the in-service teacher education programs

    Keywords: In-service Teacher Training, Pre-service Teacher Training, Teacher Education, Teacher Training, Experience
  • Somaye Ashrafi, Parviz Ajideh Pages 91-109
    The aim of this article was to examine three advanced textbooks in Iran Language Institute (ILI) in an attempt to establish if they differ in the extent to which they represent dimension of big ‘C’ culture and little ‘c’ culture, their stance in distribution of references of cultural category, and also what themes predominate. The analysis identifies just the cultural elements, and culture–free linguistic items were not counted. The statistical analysis suggests that the dominant culture category was the target culture with the least attention given to source culture. It was also found out that although the occurrences of themes of little “c” culture dimension in advanced textbooks 2 &3 were slightly higher than those of big “c”, there was a wide gap between two dimensions in advanced textbook 1 which tends highly towards big “C” culture. There is lack of consistency in the occurrences of themes throughout the textbooks. The main absent themes were common little “c” themes (i.e. “Living Condition,” “Social Convention”, and “body language”). Such considerable lack of source information and imbalanced representation of cultural themes might not be sufficient to flourish Iranian learners’ intercultural communication competence (ICC) and thus might make intercultural communication difficult for them.

    Keywords: Intercultural competence, Source culture, Target culture, International culture, big “C” culture, little “c” culture
  • Jane Ekstam Pages 111-113
    It is widely acknowledged that emotion is deeply embedded in literary criticism. Even when we aspire to scientific analysis and objectivity, we assume that we share a love of literature. Loving Literature is a deep and fascinating exploration of this important assumption. Literary critics and professors of literature are expected not only to know but also to love their work. In the case of professors, they are also required to transmit this love to their students. Lynch’s study investigates the historical origins of such expectations, and discusses their implications for readers, students and professors. Lynch does not assume that love is necessarily a healthy emotion: it can also be painful. Readers and literary critics forget this at their peril.
    To understand the role of love in literature, Lynch argues that it is necessary to study the eighteenth century and its ongoing discussions of literary history and the canon. The eighteenth century marked the beginning of English as an academic discipline. Lynch examines not only what early critics knew about literature but also how they felt about it. Only when we know this can we understand how literary studies evolved to its present form.

    Keywords: Book Review, Deirdre Shauna Lynch, Loving Literature, The University of Chicago press, Jane Ekstam